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Of the YEAR 176a. 



Printed for J. DodsleYj in Pall-Mall, 1787. 


THE reader will obferve, that, though 
the negotiations by which the war 
has been fo happily terminated, were not 
entirely clofed until the beginning of the 
prefent year, we have neverthelefs brought 
all thefe tranfadlions into the Regifter for 
1762. We thought it more advifable to 
delay our publication for fo-ne days, than 
leave incomplete an object, which appeared 
to us fo extremely interefting. According- 
ly, the reader has before him, in this vo- 
lume, every thing of moment relative to 
the laft year's part of the war, except the 
takinor of the Manilas, the account of 
which came very late. 

We return our thanks to thofe gentle- 
men, who have been fo obliging!; as to favour 
US with hints, towards rendering our work, 
more complete. Of fome we have been al- 
ready in a condition to profit ; of others we 
fliall take advantage hereafter j fome few^ 



though very jurlicious in themfelves, could 
not be ferviceable in the plan we had adopt- 

The peace, which has contributed fo 

much to the happinefs of Europe in general, 

has taken fornething from the entertainment 

of the curious and idle part of it. We are 

now deprived of. thofe mighty events, of 

thofe aftonifhing revolutions of fortune, of 

thofe matters of anxious hope and fear, 

which diftinguifhed the late troubled and 

glorious period. We do riot, however, de- 

fpair, by the continuance of our former in- 

duflry, and the continuance of the public 

indulgence to it, of furnifhing, from the 

occafional political tranfadlions of each fuc- 

ceeding year both foreign and domeftic, 

fomething, which may not prove altogether 

unworthy of the reader's attention; and 

which may fupply the lofs of the military 



yf -^ 

/ / THE 


For the YEA R 1762. 


»»■ ^ »^^'t^' ^ »i^^t^^^^^^»4►»»♦^^4■H•»'H'»4^ < ^^l^^^'^^4^4^»4^^4^»■H'^H>^»»1^ 





C H A p. I. 

State ofEur$pe in the beginning of this year. Ill fiat e cf the Briti/h alliance. 
Condition of the northern powers. IVar reaches to the fcutbern. Family 
comfaa. Some articles from it. Obfervations upon them. Confifuencts 
tf this treaty to Europe, liar dedared againjl Spain. State of Spam 
and Great Britain at the beginning of the luar beivjeen them. Ad-van- 
tages and difadvantages on each Jtde. 

THE clofe of the year 1761 
left the affairs of rjl t,u- 
rope, both military and po- 
litical, in the moft interefting ficu- 
ation, in which they have ftood, 
ac perhaps any period of our mo- 
dern hiftory. The endeavours which 
had been made to bring about peace 
amongft the belligerent powers, 
ferved only to encreafe their ani- 
mofity. And at the fame lime they 
brought into light and exertion, 
thole latent moiivei and difpofitions 
Vol. V. 

to war, which had long lurked in 
other powers undir the \eil of a 
neutrality ; and have only been kept 
down fometimes by irrefolutioD of 
temper in perfons, and fcmetimes 
by want of I'yrtem in politics. Taefe 
inefFedlual endeavours for peace 
produced alfo irany occafions cf 
quarrel and debate, that were abfo- 
luteiy new. 

To the north there was no ap- 
peararcj of relen'.ing in any one 
of the powers engaged. It was 

\B\ Bot 

2] ANiSrUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

not to be expefted, that the confe- 
deracy, which had held together fo 
long, and under fuch difficulties and 
difappoincments, iTiould now break 
to pieces, juft at the moment when 
the ftatei v/hich compofed it feemed 
in a condition to reap the mature 
fruits of their unanimity and perfe- 
verance. The king of Pruffia was 
not in a ftate either to allure or to 
intimidate. Great Britain could not 
increafe his fubfidy, nor reinforce his 
armies. The allied army in Weft- 
phalia played a defenfive, and, on 
the whole of the campaign, a loiing 
game ; and there was nobody fo fan- 
guine as to think that Great Britain 
could increafe her llrengrh in Ger- 
many, where (he paid already one 
hundred thoufand nun, and expend- 
ed five millions annually. 

Although nothing feems more 
certain in a general view of the po- 
litical fyftem, than that the king of 
Pruffia ii> not the natural and ne- 
ceflary ally of this r.a-ion ; yet his 
fortune neither was, iince the be- 
ginning of the war, nor is it now a 
matter of indifference to us. 

The late Mr. Shippen was of opi- 
nion, that the power cf France was 
become an obje£l of much lefs terror 
fince the growth of the power of 
Ruffia. But he never imagined it 
poffibl:, that all the great conti- 
nental powers of Europe fhould 
ever be united with France ; and 
that they fhould conipire to load 
her fcale, inflead of balircing it. 
He never couid fcrefee, what has 
aftually happened in this war, that 
this veiy po'.ver of Ruflia could 
co-operate v.ith France, and even 
with Svveden ; and wiiat is full as 
extraordinary, that both tlrfefe lat- 
ter could co-operate with Auftrla to 
dellroy in efteft the fyllem, which 
had been ellablifhcd by the treaty 

of Wedphalia ; that fyftem, which 
it hath been the great drift of po- 
licy, and the great objeft of war 
to both France and Sweden in the 
lall century to eftablifli and to con- 
firm, and to the houfe of Aullria con- 
ftantly to oppofe. The dcftrudlion 
of the king of Pruffia feemed to in- 
clude the dcftrudtion of the treaty of 
Weftphalia; becaufe he is the only 
power in the empire capable of af- 
ferting the independency of its mem- 
bers, and fupporting the dechning 
credit of the Proteftant caufe. 

The total ruin of Saxony, with 
fuch circumftances of unpardonable 
cruelty by that prince himfelf, and 
the exhaufted ftate of all the other 
Proteftant members of the empire, 
have narrowed that intereft more 
and more to the fingle oiyeA of 
Pruffia. As this intereft was firft 
formed in the empire, fo its condi- 
tion there cannot fail of having the 
moft fenfible influence on all the 
potentates of the fame communion. 
Even in this light, England had an 
intereft that the king of Pruffia 
fnould not be entirely crufhed by 
the prevalence of a combination 
compofed in fo extraordinary a man- 
ner, that its fuccefs mult necefTarily 
produce a total revolution in the fyf- 
tem of Europe, and draw on a feries 
of confequences, which, though it 
is impoffible to particularize, muft 
have undoubtedly been of the moft 
important and alarming nature. 

But there was an intereft yet 
nearer to us, the fate of our own 
army in Germany, which could' not 
furvive tJie deftrudlion of the king 
of Pruffia for an hour. Thefe cir- 
cumftanccs rendered the profpedl of 
the campaign in Germany very 
gloomy; as there was no fort of 
ground to iuppofe that this prince, 
upoa whofe fate fo many important 


interefts immediately depended, 
could hold out till the middle of 
fummer. Befides, Denmark (hew- 
ed no favourable difpofuions to- 
wards us : and Holland difcovered 
evident marks of coldnefs, if not of 
abfolute alienation. Such was the 
difpofition of the powers in the 

The fouthern powers of Europe, 
whofe total unconnedion with the 
caufes, and whofe great remotenefs 
from the feat of war might appear 
fuSicient to eofure their tranquil- 
lity, began to enter into adion with 
a fpirit equal to that of any of the 
parlies who had from the beginning 
aifted as principals ; new fuel was 
heaped upon the fire of contention, 
which had walled fo many nations, 
juft as it feemed to be on the point 
of expiring. 

That alliance betweea the branch- 
es of the houfe of Bourbon, of 
which we have fpoken lail year, 
and which is fo well known by the 
name of the Family Compact, is 
one of the moll extraordinary tranf- 
afticns of this, or perhaps of any 
time. It has already produced fome 
effe£ls anfwerable to its defign ; it 
may produce others flill more im- 
portant; and on the whole muft be 
confidered as an event of the moil 
extenfive, lalling, and alarming in- 

The treaty of Vienna in 1756, 
between France and Auftria, has 
certainly contributed not a little to 
give -that new turn to affairs, by 
which almoft all the difcourfes, 
that have hitherto been written on 
the interefts of princes, are ren- 
dered erroneous, and of little ufe 
in future fpeculations. That trea- 
ty, however, though it feeras en- 
tirely to have disjointed the ancient 
fyftem of alliance by which France 

was formerly counterpoifed, may, 
poiTibly, not be fo much a lalling 
change, as a temporary and excen- 
trie deviation from the fphere in 
which the houfe of Auftria had for- 
merly moved, and into which it 
feems fo fuitable to her natural and 
permanent intereft to return. The 
Bourbon Compad is of a different 
nature ; and it feems to have at 
length produced that entire union 
between the French and Spanith 
monarchies, which was fo much 
dreaded oa the death of Charles II. 
and which it was the great purpofe 
of the treaty of partiiion, and the 
war of the grand alliance, to pre- 
vent. We have feen it lake place 
in our days, comparatively with 
very little notice ; h much greater 
is our prefent ftrength ; or fo much 
greater was the apprehenfion in 
tflofe days, than the danger of the 
aftual event in the prefent. 

It was a bold pufti ia France to 
attempt, and an uncommon fuccefs 
to procure, towards the clofe of an 
unfortunate ar.d difgraceful war, an 
alliance of this kind. France could 
not have expected from the molt 
fortunate iffue of her affairs, an ad- 
vantage fo great as that which fhe 
derived from her uncommon dit- 
tr-ffes. It is fome time lince the 
jealoufy of her power has began to 
abate. But in fad her fecaricy, and 
probably too her power, will be 
greatly increafed by this very cir- 
cumrtance. Inftead of forming fuch 
an objedl as alarmed mankind, and 
againft which all Europe ufed to 
unite, (he is hcrfelf become ihe cen- 
ter of an alliance, which extends 
from the northern to ::.e fcuthern 
extremity of Europe ; and (he was, 
in this war, adually united with 
Ruffia, S.veden, Auftria, the em- 
pire, Spain, and Naples ; to fay 

[B] 2 nothing 


nothing of Denmark, with which mally engage not to make, or even 

{he had alfo fome connexions. to lilten, to any propoi'al of peace 

With other nations, however, her from their common enemies, but 

ties are comparatively flight: but by mutual conient ; being refolved, 

the engagements of the Bourbon in time of peace as well as in time 

CompaCl form rather an adl of in- of war, each mutually to confider 

corporation than an alliance. It the intcrejls of the allied croivn as 

contains llipulations hitherto un- its own ; to compenfate their fe^ve- 

heard of in any treaty. By the ral lojfes and advantages, and to acl 

23d and 24th articles, the fubjefts of as if the t-ujo monarchies formed only 

the feveral branches of the houfe one and the feme power. The king 

of Bouibon are admitted to a mu- of the Sicilies, and the infant duke 

tnal nituralization. and :o a parti- of Parma are comprehended in this 

cipation of fuch privileges and im- treaty. 

maniues, as if they W£re natural Here is the model of the moft 
born fubj.'fls of the countries of perfedl confederacy. There is but 
their reipeclive fovereigns. The one reftri<5Vion to the extent of this 
<lired trade to America forms the fchc me ; but this particular reHric- 
only exception to this comprehen- tion is a key to the whole treaty ; 
five community of interells. The as it fliews, in the moft fatisiadory 
tenor of this ar;icle is of infinite manner, againft what objed it was 
confequence to the general trading principally diredled. For by the 
jnterefts of Europe ; all the ftates 8th article it is provided, that Spain 
of which, by tiie Z5th article of the Ihall not be bound to fuccour 
fame alliance, aie excluded from France, when Ihe is engaged in a 
any profpeft of obtaining fimilar war in confequence of her engage- 
advantages, ments by the treaty of Wellphalia, 
This torms a civil union in al- or other alliances with the princes 
moft the flridteft fenfe ; the politi- and ftates of Germany and the 
cal union is even more perfe6t. By north, unlefs fume maritime foiuer 
the ift and i6:h articles, the two taie part in thofe wars, oi t'tanzebe 
monarchs of France and Spain agree attacked by land in her own coun- 
to look upon every power as their try. This exception of the mari- 
encmy, which becomes an enemy time povers indicates fufiicicntly 
of the other; that a war declired that the tendency of this article is to 
againft ei:her, ftiall be regarded as alfcfl England, and ferves to point 
perfonal by the oilier ; and that, out clearly, though obliquely, to 
when they happen to be both en- the other powers of Europe, that 
gaged in a war againft the iame their connection with England is 
enemy or enemies, they wiil wage the great circumftance which is to 
it jointly with their whole forces ; provoke the enmity of Spain, 
and that their military operations It (hnuld leem that this treaty 
fliall proceed by common confcnt, alone, when once its true nature 
and with a perfe6i agreement. came to be difcovered, if no other 
By the 26th article, they agree caufe exifted, would have been fuf- 
reciprocally to difclofe to each other ficient to juftify Great Britain in a 
their alliances and negociations. declaration of war againft a monar- 
By the 17th and iSth, they for- chy, which had united itfelf in fo 




intimate a manner with her enemy, 
that it was rendered impoiSble to 
dlllinguifh the one from the other. 
In this point, however, prudence 
was to interpofe, and circumllances 
to dired. It was not therefore, 
until every attempt to bring Spain 
to a clear declaration of pacific in- 
tentions had been tried without fuc- 
cefs, in the manner we have al- 
ready feen, the war was actually 
declared againfi: her. This decla • 
ration was made, on our part, in 
London, the ad of January of the 
prcfent year. 

Since Great Britain was a king- 
dom, (he never was in fuch a doubt- 
ful and dangerous fituation ; for at 
this time {he was engaged, diredtly 
or indiredly, in a war, not only 
with all the great continental pow- 
ers, but what is more matt-rial, 
with the moll cor.aderable part of 
the mariiime flrengih of Europe. 
According to the ordinary compu- 
tations, Che navy of Spain confined 
of more than an hundred men of 
war; and tlicugh the French navy 
was greatly reduced, it became of 
confideration when added to the 
Spani{h. Great eitoris were made 
to render it refpedable. Several 
communities in France engaged to 
fit cut men of v/ar at their own ex- 
pence; and in general that whole 
people felt, after having been funk 
under a long defpondency, a mo- 
mentary glow of hope and anima- 
tion from this alliarce, fo power- 
ful in its real ftrength, and in its 
principles {o flattering to the na. 
tion^l vanity. The glory of their 
royal houfe was, on this occafion, 
united with the iaiety of their coun- 
try. They were reinforc. d by the 
moft cordial amity of a power un- 
touched in its refources of men, 
money, and llores ; whilll Great 

Britain was exhaufted ofynen by her 
many vidories, and hCT refources 
were fink'ng under a debt of more 
than one hundred millions. 

Befides, a rude fhock had been 
lately given to the fy!?em of the 
Englifti miniftry, which might be 
fuppoi'ed, in fome degree, likely 
to att:cl public credit. The part 
which Mr, P. might finally take, 
and the confequenc^-s which might 
relulc from his anions, were ex- 
tremely undetermined; nor was it 
at ail clear, what d' gree of harmo- 
ny and real confiuence continued 
amongft the feveral parts of the 
fubfiliing adminidraiion. AH thefe 
confiderations could not fail of in- 
fpiring France with great confi- 

Great Britain, under thefe cir- 
cumftances, had, however, fomc 
things in her favour. The hope of 
plunder, which always attends a 
bpanilli war, difpofed the minds of 
many towards the prefent ; and was 
fure to call forth a very vigorous 
exertion both of public and private 
ftrength. This circumliance alfo 
infured the fupplies. 

With regard to the adminiflra- 
tion, their delay in entering into 
this Spanifh war, contrary to the 
ideas of Mr. P. his reftgnation in 
confequence of this delay; the ne- 
ceflity which fo foon after appeared, 
cf engaging in hoftilitics, and which, 
to the bulk of the people, feemed to 
jullify the fciitiments of that mini- 
Iter, together with a recollection of 
the fingular fpirit with which the 
French war had been carried on 
muft neccffaiily have excited thea^ 
to the mt>ll ibenuous efforts, and 
to every adt of laudable emula- 
tion. There was a neceffity o 
Ihcwing, tliat the fpirit of the na 
tiun, and the wifdom of its coun 

m 3 




cils, were not confined to a fingle 
man ; and it was Ihewn efFettu- 

We had, alfo, to balance the 
great llrength derived from the ex- 
traordinary combination of our ene- 
jnie!^, that uniform tenor of iuccefs 
on our fide which made our people 
b;lieve themfelves invincible. This 
was not an ungrounded prefump- 
tion, or a dream of enthufiafm : 
their jufl opinion of fuperior cou- 
rage, together with the folid expe- 
rience derived from fuch a variety 
of fervices, and fo many ftiarp con- 
flicts by fea and land, all combined 

to make cur forces feem, and be, 
almoft irrefillible. 

Spain, on the other hand, had, 
in the very conftitution of her 
power, an eflential defefi, which 
expofed her on this, as upon all 
other occafions. Her refources, 
though very great, are not within 
herfelf ; and conlequently are not 
always at her command, being fub- 
-jeft not only to be intercepted by 
the operations of the war, but to be 
dettroyed or loft by the calualty of 
long voyages J and in every event, 
are liable to delay and difappoini- 

C H A P. II. 

Portugal threatened. Melancholy fiate of that kingdom. Arrogant propofi- 
tion of the French and Spanijh minifters to the court of hijbon, A'l nver of 
that court. Several memorials. Re/olution of the king of Portugal. 
French and Spanijh minijiers depart. IVar declared by thofe ponuert 
againji Portugal. 

SUCH was our fituation, both 
at home and abroad, at the 
breaking out of this new war. 
Something extraordinary was to be 
cxpeded from the confederacy of 
the houfe of Bourbon. It was not, 
however, altogether certain where 
the ftorra, that was gathering, would 
fall. There were apprehenfions for 
the peace of Italy ; Holland had 
fome caiife of dread; and menaces 
were u!ed in that quarter. But Por- 
tugal feemed to be moll endanger- 
ed, on accouut of her clofe and na- 
tural connexion with Great Britain, 
her internal weaknefs, the ancient 
claims of the catholic king, and 
the opportunity of invafion ; the 
kingdom being on all fides, except 
to the fea, in a manner inclofed by 
Public conjefture was not mif- 

taken in fixing upon Portugal. No 
mention was made, indeed, of the 
Spanilh pretenfions to that crown : 
but a resolution was tr.ken not t nly 
to oblige her to renounce all friend- 
fliip, but to violate her neutrality 
with Great Britain. 

No attempt was ever defigned 
with lefs appearance ofjuftice; no 
propofition was ever made with 
more arrogance and defpotifm to 
an independent fovereign ; and no 
fcheme feemed, according to every 
human appearance, fo certain of 

The kingdom of Portugal on 
the recovery of her liberty, Vifbich 
happened in the year 1640, found 
herlelf ftripped of the greateft part 
ot thofe acquifitions, in both Indies, 
which had been the principal fources 
of her power, and the great monu- 
3 menu 



ments of the capacity of her former 
kings and commanders. During the 
interval of her fubjeftion, new com- 
mercfial powers had rifen, fome on 
the ruins of her fortune, and others 
upon different, but not lefs fubilan- 
tial foundations. Though the Bra- 
zils were recovered, and Goa and 
fome other places in India remain- 
ed itill to Portugal, her maritime 
power, and the fhare of trade, on 
which it depended, were not reco- 
verable. Contrary to the fate of 
other nations, who have (haken off 
a foreign dominion, fhe did not 
owe her liberty to great abilities. 
VVhilil the United Provinces were 
iirfi freed, and afterwards aggran- 
dized, by the capacity of the princes 
of Orange, and whilft Pruffia, from 
an inconfiderable and dependant 
principality, grew into a formi- 
dable monarchy by the genius of 
her fovereigns, Portugal continued 
to languilh in a ftate of mediocrity. 
Without any fymptoms of danger 
to her exiftence, fhe fuffered a gra- 
dual decay of her power and con- 
fideration. The character of her 
government was narrow and bigot- 
ted, and the whole fyliem of her 
commerce prepofterous. If, on the 
one hand, a Iqng peace added to 
the refources of her revenue, it, on 
the other, abfolutely annihilated 
her military; and no country in the 
world bad an army io incomplete 
in numbers, fo ill furnilhed with 
arms, fo deficient in difcipline, and 
fo wholly unprovided of abie and 
experienced officers. 

In this condition flie fuffered a 
fata! blow from the earthquake in 
1756. The wealthy anJ floarifh- 
ing city of L'fbon was laid level 
with the ground ; near thircy thou- 
fand of the inhabitants were bu- 
ried in the ruins; and cKofc who 

remained, with the court itfelf, 
were reduced to the utmoft diflrefs 
and mifery. 

As if this earthquake, which 
overturned their capital, had alfo 
Ihaken and diffracted the frame of 
their government, and the temper 
of their minds, the moft dreadful 
diftempers broke out in the ftate. 
A feries of horrid crimes, and of 
cruel punifliments, fucceeded to 
this calamity. The mofl r.oble and 
wealthy family of Portugal, having 
-engaged itfelf in a facrilegious^ at- 
tempt on the life of their fovereign, 
was cut off at once, with little dif- 
tindtion of fex or age, by a bloody ^ 
and dreadful exertion of juftice. 
Many others, who were accufed or 
fufpecled, I'uflered death, or exile, 
or imprifbnment. AmongH: thefe, 
and from the fanje caufes, one of 
the moft confiderable religious or- 
ders for wealth, influence, and po- 
licy, was ftripped of its pofTeflions, 
and entirely driven out of the 

All thefe circumftances left thia 
unhappy kingdom in the utmoft 
weaknefs and confufion. All thofe, 
and they were not a few, who were 
ati ached by connexion of blood or 
intereft to the nobles that had fuf- 
fered, or by religious prejudice to 
the Jefuits who had been expelled, 
could never be cordially relied upon 
by the crown, and were probably as 
little inclined to any extraordinary 
crtorts in favour of a government, 
v/hich their refentmcnts mufl have 
reprefented to theui as no better 
than a bloody tyranny. 

The Bourbon confederacy had 
fome ground to fuppole that Por- 
tugal, in this fituation, would not 
have courage to withftand their 
menaces, and much lefs ability 
for any long li.Tie to refift their 

[Il]\\. efforts. 


eiForts. The Spanifh army over- 

fpread the frontiers of Portugal ; 

the commerce of corn between the 

two kingdoms was prohibiti;d, and 

every thing threatened a fudden 

^ , , . invafion. in themidiJ^of 
6th Mar. , ^ u n-i 

thele holhl.' preparations, 

the French and Spanifti minirters 
prefented a joint mem rial to the 
court of Lifbon, uhich v' as follow- 
ed by feveral others. The pjrport 
of thefe memorials was to perfuade 
his moft faithful majcliy to enter 
into the alliance, and co-operate 
in the meafures of the two crowns, 
againft Great Brit^iin. 

It was not eafy to iind very con- 
vincing arguments to induce Por- 
tugal to aoDpt {0 extraordinary a 
change of fyftem. The united 
crowns, in a memorial which was 
figned by the amballadors of both, 
infifted largely on the tyranny 
which Grea" Britain exerted upon 
all powers, elpecially the maritime, 
9,nd upon PortugJil among the reft ; 
on the pa'tlcuiar iniuit whicii had 
been offered to her jurifdictic.n, by 
Bolcawen's aUack on de la Clue's 
fquadron in a Portiiguefe har- 
bour; on that ability, by which 
the two monarchs of Spain and 
Portugal are as cloiely conneded 
by their ties of blood, as all pow- 
ers are by a common intereil, to 
oppofe the ambitious defigns of the 

Wl.acever thefe arguirents were 
deficier.t in reafon, was made up by 
a ftrong infjnuation of lorce. The 
memorial concluded with a decla- 
ration, that as HX)r as his moft 
faithful majefty had taken his re- 
folution, whicW they dojbtcd not 
would prove favourabk-, thtir army 
was ready to enter Poruga', and 
to garrifon the principal por.3 of 
tha^ kingdom^ in order to prevent 

the danger to which they might be 
expofed from the attempts of the 

The two mini iters added to this 
extraordinary memorial, that they 
were ordered by their courts to 
demand a categorical anfwer in 
four days ; and that any delay, be- 
yond that time, fliould be confider- 
ed . s a negative. 

The fituation of Portugal was at 
this time certainly worthy of com- 
panion. If, contrary to her known 
interefts, contrary to her antient 
connexions, and to the faith of trea- 
ties, (he Ihould er.gage in this cficn- 
five alliance, ftie muft exped to fee 
her terr.tories and her colonies ex- 
pofed to the formidable navies of 
England. This, however dangerous 
condcfcenfion, was not to fecure 
her ; by her own ad, (he would have 
pat herfeU, bound hand and foot, 
into the power of the Bourbon al- 
liance : and having received foreign 
garrifbns into all her places of 
llrensth, would have reduced her- 
(eif to the condition of a province 
of Spain, On the other hand, if (he 
adhered to her faith, and attempted 
to maintain her independency, an 
army of iixty thoufand men was 
ready to enter her territories, which 
contained no place of real ftrength, 
and which had rot twenty thcufa^d 
troops, and thoie ill armed, and 
worie dilciplined, to defend it. 

In this emergency, the (irmnefs 
of the king- of Portugal was emi- 
nent, and luch as mcft deliver his 
name lo pofterity to the utmoft dif- 
tingiiifhed advat:tage. He refolved 
(leacily to adhere to his antient and 
natural alliance, and to brave sll 
dangers and dilhcjlties, that he 
might prefervc iiis fidelity invio- 
lable ; following that generous 
maxim of king John of France^ 




that if good fiiiih were to be ba- 
nilhed from all othtr parts of t\\z 
world, it ouglit to be found in the 
breall of fov=reigns. 

His anfwer to this infuln'ng pro- 
pofition was humble ar.d moderate, 
but firm : he ohferved, that tie tie?, 
which equilly united him to Great- 
Britain and the two crowns, render- 
ed him as proper a m3diator to them 
all, as they made it improper for 
him to declare himfelf an ent-my ro 
any of them ; that his alliance witfi 
England was antient, and therefore 
could give no offence at tnis con- 
junfture ; that it was purely defi:n. 
five, and therefore innocent in ^ili 
its circutnftances ; that the late fuf- 
ferings of Portugal difabied her (in 
cale Ihe wer.- willing) from taking 
part in an ofier.fiye war, into tae 
calamities of v. hich, neither the 
love his faithful majelly bore to 
his fubjefts as a tadier, nor the 
duty by which he -vas bouoii to 
them as a king, could fulter him to 
plunge them. Final v, ne remi. d- 
ed the catholic king of .ais pdcific 
difpofitions, by wliicri, on former 
occafions, he had yielded lb mucn, 
to preferve peace between t>:e two 

'I his reafonable and moderate 
anf.vcr drew on replies, whicn more 
and more difclofed the true charac- 
ter and fpirit of the Bourbon con- 
fed racy. They denied tiiat the 
alliance with England was purely 
defenfive, or en:ire!y innocent; and 
for this unheard-of reafon, that the 
defenfive alliance is converted into 
an cfFenfive one, Jrc/n ihe Jituaii-.n 
of the Portugueje d-tmnionsy and fror,; 
the nature of the Englijh p^^ir : the 
Englilh ibuadron, faid they, can- 
not keep the {]fa. in all feafons, nor 
Cruize on the principal coafts for 
cutting ciF the French and Spanifti 

naviga':i.->n, wiih lut tht ports and 
the afTi .;nce of Portugal ; :hai t ;cfe 
illanders cculd t ot infak all mari- 
time Eu'ope,ifall he riches of Por- 
tugal did lot pafs into their hands; 
that therefore Pv^^rtugal furnifhes 
them wiih the means to make war; 
and their alliance with tr.e court of 
Great Britain is^ofFenlive. 

Certainly, the Jit if at, on of a coun- 
try was never before given as a 
reafon, however it might have 
ftrved as a fecret motive, for de- 
claring war again'i it. Nor was it 
bi fore heard, that the common 
advantages of trade, derived from a 
neutral nation, could be deemed an 
aft of hollility. Thefe were rather 
iniults than arguments. And the 
whole proceedings of the united 
crowns were in the fame (train: they 
undertook to judge for Portugal of 
t'le pret'-nded yoke which was im- 
poied upon her by England, and 
whi-h (he cojld not herlelf difcover ; 
to relent it juries for her, for which 
lie had received and accepted fatif- 
fadlion ; and, as if thi^ had not been 
irdii'niiy fuificient, thjy inlulting- 
ly inform the king of Portugal, 
that he ought to he glad rf the necejjity 
'which th,y laid upon him to make u/e 
of his reajon^ in craer to take the road 
of his giory, and the common inttreji, 
I'his neccffity was the immediate 
march of their army to take pof- 
feinon of his dominions. 

So extraordinary a treatment nei- 
ther iiitimioated the king from 
the firmnels of his refolution, nor 
provoked him to change from the 
moderation of his lar.giSage. He 
mainiaincd, that the treaties of 
league and commerce, whicn lub- 
fiited between Portugal and Great- 
Britain, are fuch as the law of God, 
of' nature, and of nations, have al- 
ways deemed innocent. He intreat- 


ed their mod chriftian and catholic 
majefties to open their eyes to the 
crying injuftice of purfuing againft 
Portugal, the war kindled again ll 
Great-Britain : he defired them to 
confider, that they were giving an 
example which would produce the 
deftruflion of mankind; that there 
^vas an end of the public fafety, if 
neutral nations were to be attacked, 
becaufe they have defenfive treaties 
with the belligerent powers; that 
a maxim fo dellrudlive would occa- 
sion defolaiion in all Europe, the 
moment a war was kindled between 
any two ftates ; that, therefore, if 
their troops could enter his domi- 
nions, he would, in defence of his 
neutrality, endeavour to repuife 
them with all his forces, and thole 
of his allies; and he concluded with 
ihis magnanimous declaration, that 
it uuould aff'eSi bint kfs, though re- 
duced to the laji extremity, of "which 
the Great Judge is the j'ole arbiter^ 
to let the laji tik of his palace fall, 
and to fee his faithfulfuhjeds fpill the 
laft drop of their blood, than tofacri- 
fce, together ^vith the honour cf his 
(roivn, all that Portugal holds mojl 
d^ar, and to fuhniit , by fuch extra- 
ordinary meanSi to become an unheard 
of example to all pacific poiuers, 'who 
ivill no longer be able to enjoy the be- 
nefit of neutrality, ivhene-ver a nuar 
Jhall be kindled betxKieen other po-vjers, 
luith n»hich the former are conneQed 
by defenfive treaties. When this 
final refolution was thus fpiritedly 
declared, paflports were demanded 
., for the ambafladors of the 
27 April. ^^^ crowns, who imme- 
diately departed ; and in a little time 

after, France and Spain jointly de- 
clared war againft Portugal. 

We have dwelt fome time upon 
this tranfaftion: we hope the reader 
will not think the narrative drawn 
into a blameable length. The fub- 
jeft is interefting, the procedure un- 
common, and the example alarm- 
ing. This war againft Portugal was 
the firft fruit of the Bourbon coin- 
pad : they Ihe^ved very early to the 
world, what it was to expeft from 
the maturity of this league ; when 
they were fo elevated by the fope- 
riority they imagined they had at- 
tained, even in forming it, that they 
thought themfelves diipenfed from 
thofe decorums, and plaufible ap- 
pearances, which the moft ambi- 
tious princes commonly make ufe 
of, in the execution of their moft 
ambitious defigns. If they had in- 
vaded Portugal witbout any decla- 
ration at all, it might, perhaps, be 
confidered as a piece of convenient 
injuftice, which they left the pre- 
vious neceffity, and fubfequent iuc- 
cefs of their affairs, to juftify as they 
could; but fo many memorials and 
reafonings on the fubjeft fhew, that 
this oppreffion was deliberate, and 
they had not been driven to it by a 
fudden emergency, but that it be- 
came a regular and avowed part of 
their political fyftera. 

Having laid open the manner in 
which the fouthern part of Europe 
fo furprifingly became engaged in 
this war, it is now our bufinefs to 
relate in what manner fome of the 
northern parts were as iu;prifingly 
extricated out of it. 




Death of the Empre/s Elizabeth of RuJJia. Her charaSer. State of the 
poiuer of Ri/JJia on her deceafe. Her Jiephevj, Peter \.\\. jucceeds. Entire 
change ofjyjiem. Peace voith RuJJia. Peace betixeen Pr JJiu and Siueden. 
Prujjian conquejis rejiored. The Czar enters into an aiiiume nnith ibe 
king of PruJJta. War luith Denmark threatened. Its cuu e. Extorted 
loan from Hamburgh. Campaign bet^xjeen Prujjians and ^iijirians opens. 
PruJJians obtain ad-vantages in Saxony and Silejia, Sudden revolution 
in RuJJia. 

WE have feen, in the clofe of 
laft year, that, by the tak- 
ing of Colberg, on one hand, and 
Schweidnitz, on the other, the king 
of Pruffia's dominions were entire- 
ly at the mercy of his enemies ; his 
forces were worn away, and even 
his efforts had gradually declined: 
a complete viftory, though this was 
an event not at all probable, could 
not fave him. The Ruffians, by 
wintering in Pomerania, and by the 
poiTellion of Colberg, which infared 
them fupplies by a fafe and expedi- 
tious channel, were in a condition 
to commence their operations much 
earlier than ufual, as well as to fuf- 
lain them with more fpirit and uni- 
formity. No refource of policy 
could be tried with the leafl expec- 
tation of fuccefs. After fuch a re- 
fiilance for five years, of which the 
world never furnilhed another ex- 
ample, the king of Prulfia had no- 
thing left, but fuch a conduft as 
might clofe the fcene with glory^ 
fince there was fo little appearance 
of his concluding the war withfafety. 

In the midlt of thefe gloomy ap- 
pearances, his inveterate and in- 
flexible enemy, the emprefs of Ruf- 
j f:a, died, in the fifty -fecond 

•' * ' year of her age, and the 
twenty -fecond of her reign. 

This princefs was fecond daugh- 

ter to Peter the Great, and a defcend- 
ant not altogether unworthy of that 
il'uftrious founder of the Ruffian em- 
pire. From being little better than 
a prifoner, fhe became in a moment 
a defpotic fovereign. At the ac- 
ceflion of this princefs, the Ruffian 
power, fo newly created, feemed to 
be in danger of a decline, from the 
many revolutions to which the em- 
pire had been fubjed ; and the in- 
ffitutions of Peter the Great, by 
which that extenfive part of the 
world was drawn out of barbarifm, 
began perceivably to decay, until 
her acceflion to the throne, when 
the former was put out of all que- 
flion by the vigour of her govern- 
ment, and the latter cherifhed and 
promoted by the encouragement 
which fhe gave to every valuable 
art and fcience. The academy at 
Peterfburgh is at prefent one of the 
moll flourifhing in Europe, and has 
already enriched the learned world 
with confiderable difcoveries. 

In faft, fhe governed the Ruffian 
empire with more lenity than any 
of her predecefTors ; and, perhaps, 
carried this amiable difpofition to an 
impolitic excefs. She regulated and 
increaled her finances ; kept alive, 
and even increafed, the diicipline 
of her armies; and in all her tranf- 
adions with foreign Hates, and in 



the various faces which her politics 
affumed, ilie always fupported the 
dignity and importance of hfr coun- 
try at the highefl point. Fcr her 
privsre pleafures, indeed, /he has 
been much "cenfured ; but as they 
were merely pleafures, and of fuch 
a nature tnat femiment h:i<l little 
in them, they had little influence 
00 her public conduct, which was 
always manly and firm. 

The part fr.e took in this war, 
though it might in fome meafure 
have been di£iated by relentmenc, 
was at the fame time the refult of 
the foundeft policy. No power, but 
that of the king of Prniiia, was ca- 
pable of checking hers. He was, 
not only from his Itrength and cha- 
radler, but from the fituation of his 
dominion-, the only prince in Eu- 
rope from whom it could be mate- 
lially her intereil to make conquefts. 
By thv retention of Pruflia, and 
by the dominion which, in arother 
name, fhe held over the dutchy of 
Ccurland, Ibe poffelTed a very great 
ihareof the Baltic coalt, and there- 
by poireffed the means of becoming 
a maritime power of the ftrll order. 
With th-;fe advantages fne might 
eafily complete all that had been 
wanting towards efiablHhing an un- 
controulable power over Poland. 
By the fame means fhe might en- 
tirely over-awe Denmark and Swe- 
den ; and alfo, by her vicinity, fhe 
would be enabled to interpofe in the 
concerns of Germany with much 
more authority than fhe had hi- 
therto poffeiTed ; although her in- 
tervention had always been of con- 

In reality, the hcufe cf Auflria, 
fccmed to make far greater facrifices 
cf her interelt to her refcntmenc 
than Ruffia did, with whom thofe 
two principles went hand in hand, 

and fupported each other. For no- 
thing is more evident, than that 
Ruiiia would let up for a defender 
cf tile lib; riies of Germany, if ever 
file got any looting in its neighly^ur- 
hood : that (i.c would animate the 
powers there to ailert a greater de- 
gree of independence than they do 
at prefcnt ; that Ibe would render, 
by her machit:atior.s, tr.e empire in 
the Auftrian family very precarious; 
and might even find means of fel- 
ting fi me feeble prince on the im- 
perial throne, in order to embroil 
the whole Germanic body, and to 
keep it in entire dependence upoa 
Ruiiia. On the whole, if the pro- 
jects of Auflria had fucceeded in 
their full extent, (he would have very 
foon found in Ruflia a more power- 
ful reiiraint, than ever fhe had either 
in France or Sweden, even in the 
greatell heights of their power and 
credit in Germany. She would in- 
deed have ruined the king of Pruflia ; 
but ihe would have purchafed his 
ruin with her own independency. 

Thefe were the profpects that lay 
before all poiitical rcaloners at the 
time cf the death of the emprels 
Elizabeth. Charles Peter Ulric, of 
the houfe of Ho'ftein, who had been 
created grand duke of Ruflia, ^nd 
appointed heir apparent to that vafl 
empire, by the late czarina, fuc- 
cecded, under the name of Peter III, 
None but thofe who were inti- 
mately acquainted with the cha- 
racter and difpoiition of the new 
czar, could have any reafon to ima- 
gine that he would abandon the 
fyftem of his preueccfur, which was 
certainly founded on the true inte- 
rells of the country he governed. 
The king of PrulTia himfelf I'eemed 
for fome time to have entertained 
no great hopes from this change. 
The czar had, however, fomctimes 



^ifcovered marks of efl:=em for the 
charatler of tiiis monarch. He had 
the black eagle, of w.'iicii rder the 
king of PrufTia is grand mafter. B-it 
the king of Pruffia couM place very 
little confid:?nce in this ; however, 
with the air of pleafantry, which 
never entirely fonoo!; liim in all 
his misfortunes, he faid in a letter 
to Mr. Mitchel, the Britilh mini- 
Iler ;.t the RjOian court, " Is not 
this a very e.xtraordinar/ knight, 
to feed 8o,coo men at my ex pence ? 
He is the only one cf my knights 
that takes that liberty. If every 
knight of the earter did the fame, 
your England (England though it 
is) would be devOLred by them. I 
beg you would endeavour to make 
my knight more tractable, and teil 
him it is againft the inllitutes of the 
order, for a knight to eat up his 
grand mafter." 

The eyes of all Europe were row 
fixed upon the Heps vvhich the czar 
might take. With regard to the 
government of his country, no- 
thing could be more popular and 
auipicious than his firft meafures. 
The earliau: ufe he made of his ab- 
folute power, was, to fet the Ruaian 
riobility and gentry free, and to 
put them on the fame footing with 
tkofe of their rank in the other 
more moderate governments of Eu- 
rope. Almoit all the exiles were 
recalled to court, and amongft the 
reil the unfortunate count Bircn, 
who, from a fovereign prince, had 
been reduced to the moft wretched 
condition, in the mo.*l wretched 
c untry on the globe. He had 
been many years a peafant of Sibe- 
ria, and may very probably once 
more become a fovereign prince. 
It is in thofe defpotic governments 
we fee the moil ilriking exctfTss, 
and difmal reverr..'S of fortune : in 

wh-ch one day a perfon is raifed to 
fomething almoft above man, and 
the next is perhips in a moment 
degraded to the lowed ftatio.n of 

The new emperor proceeded ia 
his reformation to aboliih fome fe- 
vere and tvrannical jurifdidions, 
and, intending the fame beni^^n dif- 
pofuion to all degrees of his fub- 
jei5ls, he lefi'ened the tax upon fak, 
to the very great and univerfal re- 
lief o*^" the poor. 

Thefe beginnings gave the moil 
favourable imprefTions of his do- 
mcftic government. But Europe 
was principally concerned in his 
foreign politics. Ic was not lono- 
before his difpofitions to peace be- 
came appareor. What ailonifned 
the world was the high rate at 
which he valued this bleffing. Li 
a memorial, vvhicli he caufed to b* 
delivered on the 23d of Fabruarv, 
to the mir.ifters of the allied courts, 
he declared, that, in ordtr to the 
ejiahlijhmsnt of peace, he nuas reacy 
to facr:j:ce all the ccnjueJIs made by 
the arms of RiiJJla in this rivar, zn 
hopes that the allied courts -will on 
their parts equ.'iUy prefer the rejlora- 
tion of peace and tradq-uilliiy, to the 
advantages •Tohich they might expect 
from .'/i.' continuance of the luar, hut 
nxihich ihey cannot obtain hid by a 
coniinuance cf the eff^Jion of huiHan 

The allies praifed the difinterefl- 
ednefs, fpirit, and humanity of this 
declaradon; but rccommenied to 
his atteotion the fidt-liiy to treaties, 
which conititutes a no lefs valuable 
part of the roy.X character, and a 
no lefs cG.-ifiderahle branch o^ the 
duty of a monarch to his fubjcclj. 
T.'icv ilicwed a difpcfiticn to imi- 
tate his deli re for peace, but by ro 
m.'a\5 to follow the example in "ur- 
c ha ling 

h] annual register, 1762, 

chafing it by a ceflionof all the ad- 
vantages which they had acquired, 
or hoped to acquire by the war. 

The czar having thus far com- 
plied with decency, and being of 
a charafter little fitted to wait the 
flow produce of a joint negotiation, 
gave way to his ardent defires for 
peace, and to the fentiments of that 
extravagant admiration, which he 
had conceived for the king of Pruf- 
fia. A fufper.fion of hoftilities was 
concluded between them on the i6th 
of March ; and it was followed not 
j^ long after by a treaty of 

y 5- peace and alliance. No- 
thing was ftipulated by the czar in 
favour of his former confederates, 
whom he entirely abandoned. He 
even agreed to join his troops to 
thofe of the king of Pruflja to aft 
againft them. In a little time a 
Ruffian army was feen in conjunc- 
tion with one of Pruflia, to drive out 
of Silefia thofe Aullrians, who had 
been a few months before brought 
into that province by the Ruflian 

This was a miraculous revolution. 
Fortune, who had fo long abandoned 
the king of Pruflia to his genius, 
after having perfecuced him for 
near five years, and overpowered 
him with the whole weight of her 
anger, at length made amends by a 
fudden turn, and did for him, atone 
ilroke, the only thing by which he 
could poffibly be faved. 

Sweden, who fiiice {he has reco- 
vered her liberty has loft her poli- 
tical importance, and for a long 
time adcd entirely under the direc- 
tion of Ruflian councils, followed, 
on this, as on all other occafions, 
the example of the court of Peterf- 
burgh, and figned a treaty of peace 
with the king of Frulila on the azd 
of May. 

In order to account for whatever 
was not the refult of mere perfonal 
charafler in this extraordinary re- 
volution of politics in Ruflia, it will 
be necefiary to remind the reader, 
that the czar Peter the Third was 
duke of Holftein ; and that the 
dukes of Holftein had pretenfions 
to the duchy of Slefwick. Thefe 
pretenfions were compromifed by a 
treaty in 1732. But as the ceffion 
made by the houfe of Holftein in 
this treaty was the efi^edl of necef- 
fity, it had always been apprehended 
that fhe would make ufe of the firft 
fafe opportunity of reclaiming her 
ancient rights. The czar feized 
eagerly on the great one, which 
the pofl"eflion of the whole Ruflian 
power afforded him, and he refolved 
to enter into an immediate war for 
this objecH:, to which his predilec- 
tion for his native country gave 
in his eyes a far greater importance 
than to all the conquefts of his pre- 
deceflbr. As long as this war with 
the king of Pruflia fubfifted, it was 
impofiible that his defigns againft 
Denmark could be profecuted with 
any hope of fuccefs. Wholly in- 
different therefore to all others, 
and paflionately fond of this objeft, 
as foon as he came to the throne, 
without any difpute or negotiation, 
he offered the king of Pruflia, in 
his great diftrefs, every thing he 
could have hoped from a feries of 
vidtories, and whilft he joined his 
arms to tbofe of that monarch in 
Silefia, he caufed an army to march 
towards Holftein. 

Thus the peace with Ruflia, far 
from conducing to the general peace 
of Europe, did very little more than 
change the face of the war. It 
brought in new fubjefts of dUpute, 
and new parties, and, by threaten- 
ing Denmark, left not a fingle power 



in the north in a ftate of afiured 

Tae krng of Denmark, though 
threatened by fo formidable a power 
engaged in purfuic of a favourite 
cbjedt, was not terrified into any 
mean conceflions. He recruited his 
army, repaired his fortifications, 
and prepared for his defence with 
temper and magnanimity. As mo- 
ney maft be much wanting for the 
fervices of fo important a war, as 
his country could furnifh no great 
fupplies, and the borrowings in 
every part of Europe, together with 
the {uddcn invafion of his doniini- 
ons, could enable him to form no 
fanguine hopes of public credit, he 
turned his hopes towards the city 
of Hamburgh, which had enriched 
itfelf by its-induflry and neutrality 
during the whole war, and by the 
number of wealthy perfons who had 
fled taere for refuge from the cala- 
mities which all the neighbouring 
countries had fuffercd. 

His Danilh majefty had always 
kept alive a claim of fovereignty 
over that city, which (however 
founded) he exercifed whenever he 
found himfelf able. He thought 
the prefent one of thofe conjunc- 
tures. Therefore without any previ- 
ous notice he appears with a llrong 

, o army before Hamburgh, 

lune 18. /■•' ri_t L 
•* leizes tne luburbs, threa- 

tens the city with an immediate 
fiege, if they did not immediately 
fubrnit to a loan of i,oco,ooo of 
rixdollars. The magiftrates of this 
trad!i,g city, little prepared for or 
accullomed to war, having no ally 
at hand, and who would be equally 
endangered by the llrength of any 
ally able to protetl them, prudently 
fubmitted, and furnilhed the king 
with fuch a fupply as his affairs re- 

The king of Prufiia loft no time 
to profii of this great and unexpec^c- 
ed revolution in his favour. The 
neutraHty of the Ruffians Itill left 
the Auilrians mucn fuperior to him. 
Their i-lliar.ce brought him to a(5l 
on the offenfive : the Auftrian armies 
in Silefia, and one in Saxony, were 
prepared to a£t, and it was not clear 
which fide would begin to afl en 
the offenfive : the Aalrrian armi.s 
threatened Glogau and Breflaw with 
a liege, and the king of Prulha's 
threatened Schweidrdtz. 

The adive character of the king 
of Pruffia, and the caution of mar- 
(hal Daun, foon determined the 
part v.hich the feveral armies were 
to take, and the fpirit of the feveral 
operations. Very early in ^ 
the campaign prince Hen- ' ■' 
ry made a vigorous pu!h on the im- 
perial pofts towards the frontiers of 
Saxony. The imperialifts were ob- 
liged to evacuate Dippolf.valda with 
fom.e loi's in killed. About four 
thoufand men were taken prifoners; 
365 waggons were alfo taken, asid 
feveral trophies. 

By this fignal advantage, all the 
part of Saxony, poffeffed by the 
Prufllans, was effeftually fecured; 
and any attempt which migh: here- 
after be thought proper for the re- 
covery of Drefuen was much faci- 
litated. Although the Auftrians, 
fenfible of the confequences of this 
lofs, and largely reinforced from 
the armies in Silefia, attempted to 
recover thefi; polls by feveral live'y 
efforts, they were repulfed with : o 
fmall Uaugluer on both fides; and 
prince Henry remained fo much 
mafler of Saxony, that it was ne- 
ceffary to keep a large army from 
the war in Silefia, to prevent, if 
poflible, his making irruptions into 
the heart of Bohemia. 


His Pruffian r.i je'1y derived ad- 
vantages from the cordudl of his 
brother, vvhicn he did rot negled 
to improve. It was not until the 
latter end of June thac he was join- 
ed by new RuffiaT allies. As 
foon as this janftion was fcrrred, 
he rcfolved to make a trial of what 
thofe men could do in h'.s favour, 
who had ?.6l^d lo ftrenuoufly againft 
him. Marfh.i Daur/s army occu- 
pied fe» ral ftrong but detached 
eminences, vvh:ch enabled liim to 
commun.cace with and proteft 
Schweidnitz from all attempts of 
J , the enemy. The king of 

J ^ * Prufiia utxlertook to dif- 
lodge him from thofc advantageous 
polls. In lome of his attempts he 
fucceeded, in others he was baffled 
with fome lofs. 

This was no regular battle ; but 
the king of Prufiia, though he did 
not fucceed immediately in his at- 
tack, yet by his j'ldicicus manoeu- 
vres he attained all the advantages 
he prop< led Irom his enterprile. 
For marfhal Daun, apprehenfive, 
from the motions of his army, that 
the ki.:g of Prufiia intended to feize 
upon his prii cipal magazine, and 
even to cut cff his communication 
with Bohemia, abandoned thofe im- 
portant polls which he had hitherto 
maintained with fuccels, fell back 
to the extremities of Siiefla, and left 
Schweidnitz entirely uncovered. 

The king of Prufiia immediately 
pre.ared tv irveft that city, whilft 
diff_rent detachment? of Prufiians, 
Tome on 'he fide ot Saxony, others 
on the fide of Silelia, penetrated 
deep intw Boh'.mia, laid many parts 
of the c ui^try under contribution, 
and fpread an univerfal alarm. It 
was abou* five years fince they had 
been driven trom thence bv the 
vidoricns arms of marlhdii Daun, 
who now found himfelf unable to 
proted that kingdom from their ra- 
vages. A confidcrable body of Ruf- 
fian irregulars ulfo made an irrup- 
tion into Bohemia, and began there 
to retaliate on the Auftrians thofe 
exccffes which they had themfelves 
fo often before committed on the 
Pruffian dominions. 

Whilit the king of Pruffia was 
thus playing with fpirit the great 
game which fortune had put into 
his hands, he was all at once threat- 
ened with a fudden reverfe, by an- 
other revolution in Ruflia, which 
bore all the appearance of being as 
unfavourable to him, as the former 
had been beyond all hopes bene- 
ficial. That variable political cli- 
mate of Ruffia, under whofe in- 
fluence all his fortune decayed or 
riourilhed, was covered with a fud- 
ded cloud, by tne depofition^ fol- 
lowed clofe by the death of his fall 
friend, and faithful ally, the czar 
of Mufcovy. 




Cau/es of the Rewlufion in RuJJia. Czar irritates the clergy and foldierj. 
Differences ivith the czarina. Con/piracy againji him. Czar depc/ed by 
the/enate. Jt tempts an e/cape. His imprifonment and death. The cza- 
rina declared empre/s. Her politic conduct. Ingratiates her/elf zuith 
the people. 

FROM the moment of the late 
czar's acceffion to the throne 
of tbe Ruflias, fomething extraor- 
dinary was expedted. His difpo- 
fition feemed to lead hltn to make 
alterations in every thing, and hav- 
ing fet before himfelf two great ex- 
amples, that of the king of Pruf- 
fia and of his predeceffor Peter I. it 
was expefted that this vaft empire 
was going once more, almofl with- 
in the life of a man, to affume a 
new face ; a circumftance which 
could not fail of having a ferious 
influence on the affairs of Europe. 
Peter HI. made more new regula- 
lations in R uffia in a few weeks, than 
wife and cautious princes undertake 
in a long reign. It was to be fear- 
ed that his adions were rather guid- 
ed by a rafli and irregular turn of 
mind, and the fpirit of innovation, 
than by any regular and well-digeil- 
cd plan, for the improvement of his 
extenfive dominions. 

His firft aftions on coming to 
the throne, it is true, were laudable, 
and feemed well calculated to ac- 
quire him the affedlions of his peo- 
ple. But if in fome inftances he 
confulted their interefls, in many 
he (hocked their prejudices; and he 
loft thereby that opinion, v.hich is 
on all occafions neceffary, but is par- 
ticularly fo for carrying fuch uncom- 
anon defigns as his into execution. 

The power of the czars, though 
.abfolute and uncontroulable in its 

Vot. V. 

exercife, is extremely weak in its 
foundation. There is not perhaps 
in Europe a government, which 
depends fo much on the good-will 
and affedlion of thofe that are go- 
verned, and which requires a great- 
er degree of vigilance and a Hea- 
dier hand. The regular fucceffion 
which has been fo often broken, 
and the great change of manners, 
which in lefs than a century has 
been introduced, have left in Ruf. 
iia a weaknefs amidft all the ap- 
pearance of ftrengih, and a great 
facility to fudden and dangerous 

Peter HI. paid little attention to 
thofe difficulties, which to him were 
the greater, as he was a foreigner 
bcrn. They were augmented by the 
fuperior and invidious regard he 
feemed to pay to foreign interefts, 
and foreign perfons. The prefe- 
rence he fo manifertly gave to the 
uncertain hope of an inconfiderable 
conqueft in Holftein over the folid 
and valuable poffeffions which the 
fortune of his predrc:flbr had left 
him, muft have difgufted all the 
politicians of his country. His in- 
timate connexions with, and bound- 
lefs admiration of that prince, with 
whom Ruflia had been fo lately, 
and fo long, in a lUte of the moft 
violent hoftility, could not add 
to the opinion of his pruJence. 
They did not think he fufiiciently 
confulted his dignity, in folicitin^ 

[C] with 


with great anxiety a command in 
the Pruflian fervice. When he re- 
ceived it, he drefled himfelf in the 
Pruffian uniform, made a grand fef- 
tival, and difplayed all the marks 
of an immoderate and puerile fatif- 
faciion. He pufhed his extrava- 
gance in this point fo far, that he 
made preparations in this immature 
flate of his government to quit Ruf- 
fia, and to go into Germany, for the 
fake of an iriierview with that great 
monarch, whofe genius, principles, 
and fortune he fo greatly admired. 

Although this proceeding was, 
almoft in every refpedt, extremely 
impolitic, it did not threaten fo 
dangerous confequences as the other 
fteps which he took about the fame 
time. Nothing requires fo much 
judgment, and fo nice a hand, as to 
efFed a change in the fettled efta- 
biifhments of any country. Above 
all, there mull be fomething favoiw- 
able in the conjundture ; or fome- 
thing fo uncommon and over-ruling 
in the genius of the conduftor of 
thofe changes, as will render him 
iuperior to all difficulties. This lat- 
ter was the cafe of Peter I. who had 
indeed very little favourable in the 
conjunfturej but he did every thing 
by his capacity, courage, and per- 
feverance. The foldiery and the 
ecclefiaftics are the great fupports 
of all abfolute rule, and they are 
certainly the la ft bodies, upon which 
a prince of this kind would chufe to 
exert an invidious acl of authority. 
But the czar was indifcreet enough, 
very early in his reign, highly to 
provoke both thefe bodies ; the iol- 
diery, by the manifeft preference 
he gave to his Holftein guards, and 
to all officers of that nation ; and by 
the change he made in favour of the 
Pruffian uniform, to the exciufionof 
that, in which the P^iillians believed 

they had fo often aflerted the ho- 
nour of their country, and gained 
many fignal advantages over the 
troops, diilinguifhed by thofe regi- 
mentals which were now preferred. 

Thefe trifles had very important 
confequencef. But what he did in 
matters of religion, was ftill more 
dangerous. This prince had been 
educated a Lutheran; and though 
be conformed to the Greek church, 
in order to qualify himfelf for the 
fucceffion, he never fhewed much 
refpeft to that mode of religion, to 
the rites and dodlrines of which his 
fubjefts had been always extremely 
attached. He feized upon the reve- 
nues of the clergy, whether monks 
or feculars, whether bifhops or in- 
feriors, and for compenfation al- 
lowed them fome mean peniiont, 
in fuch a proportion as his fancy 
fuggefted. His capricious order, 
that the clergy fliould be no longer 
diftinguilhed by beards, was in it- 
felf of lefs moment, but it was 
hardly lefs offenfive. He made 
alfo fome regulations concerning 
the images and piftures in their 
churches, which gave them reafon 
to apprehend his intention of ac- 
complilhing a total change in the 
religion of the empire, and intro- 
ducing Lutheranifm. 

Whilft he was taking thefe mea- 
fures to alienate the minds of his 
people in general, and efpeciallyof 
thofe bodies, with whom it wa« 
the moil his intereft to be well, he 
had not the good fortune to live in 
union wirh his own family. He had 
long flighted his confort, a prin- 
cefs of the houfe of Anhalt Zerbft, 
a woman of a mafculine under- 
Handing, and by whofe counfels he 
might have profited. He lived in 
a very public manner with the 
countefs of Woronzofl", niece to the 



chancellor of that name, and feem- 
ed devoted to her with (o ftrong a 
paflion, that it was apprehended he 
had fome thoughts of throwing his 
emprefs into a monaftefy, and raif- 
ing this lady to the throne of all the 
Ruffias. What feemed to confirm 
this opinion, was his omitiing for- 
mally to declare his fon the grand 
duke Paul Petrowiit the fucceiTor. 
This omiffion, in a country where 
the fucccflion Is eftabliftied and re- 
gular, would have been of no confe- 
quence; the punctual obfervance of 
fuch a ceremony would rather have 
betrayed fome doubt of the title. 
But the nature of this government, 
as well as pofitive conftitutions, had 
made it neceflary in Ruflia, and the 
omiffion was certainly alarming. 

That unfortunate prince, having 
in this manner aifronted his army, 
irritated his clergy, offended his no- 
bility, and alienated his own family, 
without having left himfelf any firm 
ground of authority, in perfonal 
eftcem or national prejudice, proceed- 
ed with his ufual precipitation to new 
changes. In the mean time a moft 
dangerous confpiracy was forming 
againfthim. The cruel punifhments 
inflided in Ruflia on ftate criminals, 
have only an effeft to harden the 
minds of men already fierce and ob- 
durate, and feldom deter rhem from 
the moft defperate undertakings. Ro- 
famoufki, Hetman or chief of the 
Coflacks, a perfon of importance by 
that command, Panin, governor of 
the great duke Paul, marlhal Butter- 
Hn, the chamberlain Teplow, the at- 
torney-general Glebow, baron Or- 
low major of the guards, and many 
others of the great officers and firft 
nobility of the empire, engaged in a 
confpiracy to dethrone the czar, who 
was now univerfally hated; and, what 
was more fatal to him, univerfally 

They aflured themfelves, that 
their aftion could not be difagree- 
able to the emprefs ; whofe con- 
dudl had always been the very re« 
verfe of that of her confort. This 
princefs finding that the afFc£lions 
of her hulband were iirecoverably 
alienated, endcavouied to fet up a 
feparate and independent intereft in 
her own favour, and for afferting 
the rights of her fon. She therefore 
affiduoufly cultivated the afFedions 
of the Ruffian nation, and paid a 
refpedl to their manners and religion, 
in the farhe degree that her hulband 
feemed to contemn them. 

So ill was the czar ferved, that 
this confpiracy was grown general, 
without his receiving the leaft no- 
tice of it, and he remained in per- 
feft fecurity, whilft the fenate and 
the clergy were aflembled , 
to pafs the fentence of his ^^"^ 
depofition. At this time the em- 
prefs and he were both abfent from 
the capital at different country 
ftats. The emprefs, as foon as fhe 
found that the defign was declared, 
got on horfeback, and with all pof- 
fible fpeed arrived at Peterfburgh. 
She immediately harangued the 
guards, who chearfully and una- 
nimoufly declared in her favour, 
and proclaimed her emprefs of 
Ruffia independently of her huf- 
band. She then addreffed herfelf 
to the clergy, and the chief of the 
nobility, who applauded her refo- 
lution ; and all orders immediately 
took the oath of allegiance to her 
as fole emprefs. She was no fooner 
acknowledged in this manner, than, 
without lofing a moment's time, 
fhe marched from Peterfburgh to- 
wards the emperor, at the head of 
a body of troops. 

This prince was indulging him- 
felf in indolent amufesaencs, and 

[C] 2 lulled 


lulled in the moft profound fecuricy, 
at a houfe of pleafure, called Ora- 
n'lebaum, on the fea-(hore, when a 
foldier brought him an account 
that his kingdom was taken away 
from him. 

Aftonilhed, and wholly unpre- 
pared for this event, he was fome- 
time fenfelefs, and entirely at a lofs 
what part to take. When he was 
rouzed from this trance by the ap- 
proaching danger, liis firft fuggef- 
tion was to defend the place with 
his Holftein guards ; but though fa- 
tisfied of their attachment, he doubt- 
ed their ftrength, and he knew it 
was in vain to hope for any effort in 
his favour from the Ruffians. 

Nothing then remained but flight, 
by which he might efcape to Hol- 
ftein, and wait feme favourable 
turn of fortune. This late lord 
of powerful fleets and armies em- 
barked in a fmall vefl'el, and with 
a few attendants, and rowed to- 
wards Cronftadt: but he had not 
proceeded very far, when he was 
informed that this fortrcfs was in 
the hands of his enemies, and that 
every avenue for efcape was fhut 
againft him. Dejefted and de- 
fponding he returned to Oranie- 
baum. After fome (hort and tu- 
multuous deliberation, he refolved 
to abandon all thoughts of defence, 
and to throw himfelf on the com- 
paflion of the emprefs. 

On her march fhe met his mef- 
fengers, who brought letters con- 
taining a renunciation of the em- 
pire, and ftipulating no other terms 
than leave to return to HolHein, 
and the fatisfaftion of taking with 
him, as the companion of his re- 
treat, thecountefs of WoronzofFand 
one fingle friend. 

Reafons of {late would rot per- 
mit the emprefs to con lent to the 

firft of thofe terms, and the laft 
could not be very flattering to her. 
His terms were rejeded; and he was 
required to fign an unconditional 
refignation of his crown, according 
to a form that was prepared for 
him. Not fatisfied with depriving 
him of his crown, it was thought ht 
ro make him the murderer of his 
own reputation ; and this unfortu- 
nate prince, moved with the vain 
hope of life, figned a paper declar- 
ing his convidlion of his inability 
to govern the empire, either as a 
fovereign, or in any other capaci- 
ty, and his fenfe of the diArefs, in 
which his continuing at the head of 
affairs would inevitably involve it. 
After he had figned this abdication, 
he gave up his fword, and was con- 
duced to prifon, where in a Ihort 
time, but according to i \ f. 
what had been univerfally •' ^ 
expefted, he died. The diforder, 
which killed him, was called an 
hemorrhoidal cholic. 

Thus was a revolution of fuch 
immenfe importance efieded in a 
fingle day, and without Ihedding 
a fingle drop of blood. The unfor- 
tunate emperor enjoyed the power, 
of which he had made fo impru- 
dent and impolitic an ufe, no long- 
er than fix months. His wite, 
without any hereditary title, is fo- 
vereign miftrefs of the Ruflian em- 
pire; and the moft abfolute power 
on earth is now held by an elective 

Immediately on this revolution a 
number of manifeftoes appeared, 
in which the conduft of the late 
czar was feverely condemned, the 
weaknefs of his perfonal character 
expofed, and defigns of the blackeft 
kind, even that of murdering his 
confort, attributed to him. Thofe 
manifeftoes at the fame time were 



filled with the ftrongeft declarations 
of afFeftion from the emprefs to the 
fubjeds of Ruffia, of regard to their 
interefts, and of attachment to their 
religion; and tliey are all filled with 
fuch unaiFeded and fervent llralns 
of piety, as muft needs prove ex- 
tremely edifying to thofe vvho are ac- 
quainted with the fentiments of pure 
religion, by which great princes are 
generally animated on occaiions of 
this nature. 

Nothing could be more able than 
the conducl of the emprefs, fince 
her accefEon to the throne. In al- 

moft all refpeds it was the very re- 
verfe of that of her hufband. She 
difminedall foreigners from her con- 
fidence and fervice ; fhe fent away 
the Holftein guards, and chofe R-uf- 
fian, whofe ancient uniform was re- 
vived with new luftre, the emprefs 
herfelf frequently condefcending to 
appear in it. The clergy were re- 
ilored to their pofTelTions, and iheir 
beards. She conferred all the great 
ports of the empire on native Ruf- 
fians, and entirely threw herfelf on 
the atFectlcns of 'hat people to whom 
(he owed her elevation. 


EffeS cf the renjolution in RuJ/ia on the king of PruJJia's affairs. Situation 
of the ntzu emprefs. She adepts a neutrality. RuJJlan ccnquefts refiored. 
Rujffians quit the PrvJJian camp. King of Prujp.a draius marJJjal Daun 
from Buckcrfdorff, Schixieidnitz b-Jieged. Marjhal Laudohn attacks the 
prince cf Bez^ern. Is repulfed. Difpojition of the French and allied armies, 
Broglio removed. Battle of Graebenjiein. French defeated. Lord Granbj 
drives the French from Hombourg. Prince Xwuier of Saxony defeated^ 
Gottingen evacuated. French army called from the Loiuer Rhine. 

THIS great change in the go- 
vernment of Rulfia, it was 
univerfally feared, would be follow- 
ed by a total change of fyltem with 
regard to foreign affairs. The peace 
and alliance with the king of PruITia 
■were very unpopular meafures in 
Mufcovy. It was not probable that 
the clofe and intimate connedion 
which had fubfifted bctv>,een the king 
ot Pruflia and the late czar, could 
greatly recommend him to the fuc- 
ceffjf. And as it was imagined that 
this revolution muft have been in a 
^reat degree owing to the machina- 
tions of thofe courts, whom the czar 
had irritated by withdrawing from 
their alliance, there was the greater 
reafon to apprehend that the power, 
which was now fet up, would be ex- 
erted in their favour. 

There were alfo great advantages 
on the fid<; of Ruliia, if the emprefs 
fhould r.ct hold the peace concluded 
by her late hufband to be binding 
on her, as none of the conquel's 
were at tiiis time evacuated. Every 
thing feemed to confpire towards 
plunging the king of Pruff.a into 
the abyfs of his J'ormer diftreffes, 
afier he had emerged from them, 
only for a fuch a time, and in fuch a 
manner, as to make them more bit- 
ter and infupportable. 

Fortunately, however, for this 
wonderful man, the emprefs, who 
had come to th2 Ruflian throne in 
the extraordinary manner that we 
have feen, could not look upon her- 
felf as fufficiently fecure to under- 
take again a war cf fo much im- 
portance as that which had been 

[C] 3 juft 


juft concluded. It was neceflary, 
for feme tine at lead, that fhe 
ihouIJ confine her attention foljy 
to her own fafety. Therefore it was 
expedient to coiled, within itfelf, 
all the force of the empire, in order 
to oppofe it to the defigns of the 
m toy iB^lecontents, with which that 
empire always abounds, and who, 
though not attached to the intereft 
of tie late czar, and little inclined 
to revenge his fate, would find now 
both inducement and opportunity 
for raifing troubles and attempting 
new changes. Very pjaulible pre- 
tences tor lach attempts exifted from 
the time of Peter the Gieat; who, 
whilfl he improved and llrengthen- 
ed his kingdom, left in it, at the 
fame time, the feeds of civil wars 
and revolutions. 

Thefe confiJeration?, whatever 
her defires might be, induced the 
czarina to continue fo much of the 
fyilem of her predecefTor, as coin- 
cided with hrfituation. She there- 
fore declared to the king of Pruf- 
fia's minifters, " that llie was re- 
folved to obferve inviolably, in all 
points, the perpetual peace conclud- 
ed unJer tne preceding reign ; that 
neverthelefb (he had thought proper 
to bring back to Ruflia, by the near- 
eft roads, all her troops in Silefia, 
PruHia, and Pomerania." 

It was not the critical fituation 
alone of the czarina which produced 
this moderation ; the prudent be- 
haiour of his Pruffian majefty, du- 
ring the time of nis connexion with 
the late czar, had a confiderable 
Ihare in rtconcilmg the mind of this 
emprefs to him, and of perpetuat- 
ing fome.hing hke the fame friend- 
fhip, with iniererts fo very different. 
The Ruffia.i fenate, flaming withre- 
fencment againft this monarch, and 
againit tneir late fovereignj and the 

emprefs full of fufpicion that the con- 
dud of the latter might have been 
influenced by the councils of the for- 
mer, fearched eagerly amongft the 
papers of the late emperor for an 
elucidation or proof of this point. 
They found indeed many letters 
from the kins; of Pruffia: but in a 
ftrain abfoluiely different from what 
they apprehended. The king of 
Pruffia had, as far as prudence would 
admit, kept a referve and diftance 
in regard to the rafh advances of this 
unhappy ally^ Too experienced to 
be carried away by his inconfider- 
ate impetuofity, he gave him much 
falutary, though fruitlefs, advice; he 
counfelled him to undertake nothing 
againft the emprefs his confort; to 
defift from the war with Denmark ; 
to attempt no changes in the reli- 
gion and fundamental laws of the 
country ; and not to think of com- 
ing into Germany. 

On hearing thefe letters read, the 
emprefs is faid to have burft into 
tears of gratitude, and madeincon- 
fequence the ftrongeft declarations in 
favour of this prince. They were 
not without effedt. Orders had 
been given with relation to Pruffia, 
which threatened a renewal of hof- 
tilities. They were foon fufpended. 
The army of the Ruffians was in- 
deed feparated from that of Pruflia; 
but all the important places, which 
the Ruffians had, with fo much 
blood fhed, and through fo many dif- 
ficulties, acquired, and which gave 
them the command of every thing 
elfe that remained to the king, were 
faithfully reftored. 

This change from a ftrid alli- 
ance to a cold neutrality, though 
it made no fmall dift'erence in the 
Pruffian affairs, yet, all things con- 
fidered, muft be regarded as an 
efcape, and as a deliverance almoff 



as wonderful as his former. How- 
ever, this circumftance could not 
fail of infpiring fome degree of con- 
fidence into his enemies, which the 
king of Pruffia endeavoured above 
all thing? to prevent. 

On the 2lft of July, the orders 
arrived at the allied camp from Pe- 
terlburgh, for the Ruffians to fepa- 
rate themfelves from his army, and 
return without delay to their own 
country. The king, without being 
confounded by this fudden order, 
and inftead of flackening his efforts 
on account of this defertion, re- 
folved to fall with vigour, and with- 
out delay, upon marihal Daun, and 
to attack him before the news of this 
change could reach him. Since he 
could no longL-r profit by the arms 
of the Ruffians, he endeavoured to 
profit at leaft by their appearance 
in his camp. The very next day 
therefore he attacked the Aullrian 
army, whofe right wing occupied 
the heights of BuckenaoriF, drove 
them from that eminence, and from 
fome villages where they were ad- 
vantageoufly pofted. The fuccefs 
was not owing only to the fpirit of 
the aftual attack, but to an appre- 
henfion of the Aulbians, that the 
whole united army of the Pruffians 
and Mufcovites was on the pomt of 
engaging them. The king of Pruf- 
fia made an ufe of thofe allies, in the 
moment they deferted him. 

This lively attack was made with 
alois of only three hundrtd men on 
the fide of the Pruffians; the num- 
ber of the Auftrians killed is not 
known. The prifoners amounted to 
one thoufand; and fourteen pieces of 
cannon were taken. It was indeed 
no m.ore than an affair of polls ; but 
itsconfequences were important; for 
the communication of the Imperial- 
ifts with Schweidniii was now en- 

tirely and finally cut off; they could 
not attempt any thing confiderable 
for the relief of that place. Prince 
Henry held them in continual alarm 
for Bohemia, and a great part of 
their attention, and no fmall part of 
their forces, were kept continually 
engaged upon that fide. 

The king cf Pruffia having thus 
pulhed back marfhal Daun, iiivefled 
Schweidnitz, and laid fiege tp that 
important fortrefs before his^'ace. 
This was the fourth time which that 
place had been befieged finca the 
beginning of this war ; and this cir- 
cumlUnce alone might fufnce to 
{hew the many and extraordinary- 
changes of fortune which dilHn- 
guiffied thefe campaigns. We ap- 
prehend no inftance has happened 
before of any place tike this of real 
ftrength being fo often faccelTively 
taken and retaken in the courfe of 
a Tingle war. 

As Schweidnitz is the key of Si- 
lefia, and, though not quite a regu- 
lar place, is notwithftanding well 
fituated and well fortified: as the 
garrifon amounted to nine thouland 
men, commanded by a good offi- 
cer, and affifted by a very expe- 
rienced engineer, and as two great 
armies of the enemy obferved all 
his motions, it was neceil^ry to 
make the difpofitions for the fiege 
with uncommon care. His infan- 
try were encamped on the heights 
benind Schweidnitz. His cavalry 
formed a chain in the plains of 
Keintzerdorf, to be nearer the camp 
of the prince of Wirtemberg, which 
was fituated fo as to prevent any 
enterpnze from the county of 
Glatz. The prince of Bevern com- 
manded a flrong corps, which polV- 
ed itfeif advantageoufly near Cofei. 
One under general Werner did the 
fame at Neifla. 

[c] 4 ^y 


By thefe difpofitlons thf Pruffian 
convoys were protected, the prin- 
cipal places in Silefia guarded, the 
fiege of Schweidnitz covered, and 
an eafy communication preferved 
between aU the detached corps em- 
ployed in thofe feveral fervices. 

The efFeds of this wife difpofi- 
tion were foon felr. Marfhal Daun, 
defpairing to fucceed againft the 
army, which, under the king in per- 
fon, covered the fiege of Schweid- 
ritz, endeavoured to break this 
chain, and by that means dilirefs 
the Pruflians who were carrying on 
the fiege. Laudohn was therefore 
detached with a very fuperior force, 
to attack the prince of Bevern, and 
to drive him from the advantageous 
poll he occupied. This attack was 
made with all the celerity and refo- 
lution which diftinguifh the opera- 
tions of this brave ofHcer. But the 
prince, mindful of the difgrace he 
had formerly fufFered in this pro- 
vince, oppoied him with fuch con- 
llancy and perfeverance, that the 
king of PrufTia had time to come to 
his relief. The Auftrians were then 
put between two fires, routed, and 
purfued with a terrible flaughter. 

This attempt being defeated, the 
king of Pruffia met with no dillurb- 
ance in the preparations for the 
liege, and the trenches were opened 
on the night of the iS.hof July. 

Whilft the king of Pruffia was 
making this advantageous ufe of 
his fortune, the armies of the French 
and the allies in Wellph .lia were 
not inaftive. Among the command- 
ers of the former a great difunion 
had long prevailed. The marfhals 
de Broglio and de Soubife had mu- 
tually accufedeach other; the camp 
and the court were for fome time en- 
tirely diflraded with the cabals of 
the partifans of thofe officers. The 

refult was not favourable to marflial 
Broglio, In him the French court 
was obliged to recall, and in fome 
meafure to difgrace, one of the very 
beft of their officers. A fufpicion, 
and that not weakly founded, pre- 
vailed againfl this general, that, un- 
able to bear a competitor in fame, 
or an afTociate in command, he had 
often, in order to difgrace thofe with 
whom he was to adl, neglefted to 
improve his favourable opporturu- 
ties; and that in fome inflances, by 
his conduft, he had purpofely occa- 
fioned fome failures, and even de- 
feats. This was a fault which no 
great qualities in an officer could 
compenfate. He was therefore re- 
moved from his command, and the 
conduft of the army left to the prince 
de Soubife, who was infinitely be- 
loved by the foldiers for his generous 
and benevolent difpofition; and mar- 
fhal d'Etrees, who has been fo often 
mentioned in the courfe of this hif- 
tory, was affociated with him. 

The plan of the campaign, on the 
part ofthe French, did notdiffermuch 
from that which had been formerly 
purfued. They had, as before, two 
armies ; this under the prince de Sou- 
bife and marfhal d'Etrees on the 
Wefer, and another under the prince 
de Conde on the Lower Rhine. 

The difpofition of the allies was 
alfo but little varied. The heredi- 
tary prince was poilcd in the bi- 
fhopric of Munfter, to watch the 
latter of thefe armies ; and prince 
Ferdinand in perfon, with the body 
of the army, lay behind the Dy- 
mel to make head againfl the for- 
mer. So little had the French pro- 
fited by their fuperior numbers, 
and fuperior refources in this con- 
tinental war, and fo little decifive 
ufe had they made even of fome 
advantages in the field, that this 



campaign commenced very nearly 
in the fame plac-, and they con- 
tended for pretty much the fame 
objefts which they had ftruggled 
for in the two preceding years. 

So fuperior was the genius of 
prince Ferdinand, that under many 
difad vantages he was the firrt to 
commence offenfive operations. The 
ftroke he ftruck on this occafion 
would fuffic? alone to rank him with 
the firft commanders of his age. 
His abilities throughout the war 
have never (hone out with more 
luftre than in this campaign, which 
concluded it. 

The French army was moft ad- 
vantageoufly polled, both for com- 
mand of the country, and for 
ftrength, near a place called Grae- 
bcnftein, in the frontiers of Heffe ; 
their centre occupied an advan- 
tageous eminence ; their left wing 
was almoft inacceflible by feveral 
deed ravines, and their right was 
covered by the village of Graeben- 
ftein, by feveral rivulets, and a 
ftrong detached body under one of 
their beft ofRcerSi monfieur de Ca- 

In this fituation, they imagined 
they had nothing to fear from the 
attempts of prince Ferdinand, whofe 
army, befides the inferiority of its 
numbers, was feparated in fuch a 
manner, and in fuch diftant places, 
that they judged it impoflible it 
could unite in any attack upon their 
camp. But whilft they enjoyed 
themfelves in full fecurity, the 
llorm was preparing to fall upon 
them from all quarters. 

A confiierable corps of the al- 
lied army, under general Luckner, 
was polled to the eaftward of the 
Wefer, near Eimbecke, on the 
Leine. He lay there to obferve 
prince Xavier of Saxony, who was 

encamped between the Werra and 
Gottingen. But if he watched the 
prince, the prince alfo watched him. 
Wnen, therefore, he had orders to 
quit this pod, that he might co- 
operate in the grand defigr,, he left 
a fmall party of his corps in his 
ftation, by which he deceived the 
prince cf Saxony; and marching ia 
the night with the utmoil fpeed, he 
crolTed the Wefer, turned the right 
of the French army, and, witn^ut 
being dlfcovered, placed himfelf 
upon the rear. General Spork-^n 
at the fame time placed himfelf fo 
as to attack the fame wing in flank. 
Prince Ferdinand croflTcd the Dy- 
mel, in order to fall upon their centre. 
The attack on the enemy's left was 
commanded by lord Granby. 

Thefe preparations were made 
with fo much judgment, celerity, 
and good order, that the French had 
not perceived the approach of the 
allies, when they found t, 
themfelves attacked with J'"^"^ ^'^' 
infinite impetuofity, in front, flank, 
and rear. The battle was fcarc ly 
begun, when they thought of no- 
thing but flight. The corps under 
moniieur de Caftries had time to 
retreat in tolerable order, and with- 
out any great lofs. Bat it did not 
fare fo well with their centre, and 
their left, which were oppofed by 
the calm refolution of prince Fer- 
dinand, and the generous courage 
of Granby. 

As the French placed all their 
hopes rather in retreat than com- 
bat, an entire rout mull have en- 
fued, if monfieur Stainville, who 
commanded on the left, had not 
thrown himfelf with the flower of 
the French infantry into a wood, 
which enabled him, at the expence 
of the bell part of it, to cover the re- 
;reat of the army. Here this brave 



and accomplilhed officer made a re- 
Iblute ftand, and for a long time 
fuftained the whole weight of the 
allies. His corps was a devoted fa- 
crifice. All but two battalions were 
cut to pieces or made prifoners. 
The other bodies, covered by this 
refolute manoeuvre, made a (hift to 
(helter themfelves under the cannon 
of Caflel, or precipitately efcaped to 
the otiier fide of theFulda. 

Thus did the French army, by 
the virtue of monfieur de Scainville, 
efcape a total defeat ; but the con- 
iequences of the aftion were not 
recovered during the whole^ cam- 
paign. They loft much credit both 
in point of refolution and general- 
fhip. Their infantry, in this en- 
gagement, confifted of one hundred 
battalions, when that of the allies 
was compofed but cf fixty. The 
common men made prifoners by the 
allies, on this occafion, were two 
thoufand feven hundred and fifty, 
and no lefs than one hundred and 
fixty-two officers were taken. The 
Englifh loft but a few men killed, 
and no officer of rank, but lieute- 
nant-colonel TownftiendJ, who fell 
with great glory to himfelf, and to 
the regret of the whole army. 

Every thing in the condudl of 
priace Ferdinand appears the effedl 
of a well-digcfted plan ; and one 
great aftion completed always helps 
to difclofe a feries of bold, mafter- 
ly, andconnefted defigns. 

As foon as the enemy was dif- 
lodged from their ftrong port, ufe 
was made of this advantage (whilft 
the French, under the hurry and 

confufion of their late mlsfortonefa 
were unable to provide againft un- 
expeded accidents) to puin forward 
a body of the Engliih under lord 
Granby and lord Frederick Caven- 
difli. The French could fcarcely 
imagine, that, whilft they were in 
pofleffion of fo ftrong a place as Caf- 
fel, and commanded an army fo fu- 
perior in number to the allies, that, 
whilft prince Ferdinand braved them 
in from, they (hould find one of his 
detachments upwards of thirty miles 
behind them. In this em.ergency, 
monfieurde Rochambeau perceiving 
their motions, haftily colleftedfomc 
brigades of infantry and ■, ■, g 
cavalry at Hombourg, to •' ' * 
prevent, if poffible, the communica- 
tion of the grand army with Franc* 
fort from being cut off. But they 
were charged with fo much vigour 
by the two Englifh commanders, 
that, though they defended them- 
felves with fpirit for fome time, they 
were in theiffue difperfed with con- 
fiderable lofs. They were obliged 
to evacuate that tradl of country. 
Fritzlar, Feltzberg, and Lohr, and 
almoft all the important pofts in the 
fouth part of HefTe, were occupied 
by the allies. The communication 
with Francfort, from whence the 
French drew their whole fubfiftence, 
was abfolutely intercepted. 

To the north cf HefTe alfo the 
allies were not lefs aftive, nor lefs 
fuccefsful : they obliged prince Xa- 
vier, with his Saxon detachments, 
to abandon his advanced poft on 
the Leine, and unite himfelf to the 
grand army. They got between him 

X This col. Townftiend was fecond fon to the hon. Thomas Towulhend, Efq. 
}Ie had diftinguiihed himfelf on feveral occafions. At Guadaloupe he was pufhcd 
overboard in the landing of the troops, but his black, faved his life by jumping 
after him. In the laft campaign in Germany, he was fhot through the arm, and 
in this engagement he loft his life, fceking the poft of honour that his duty did 
sot require. 



and which the French 
garrifon there was left without fup- 
port. This garrifon, feeing its com- 
munication interrupted, blew up a 
part of the fortifications, and at- 
tempted a retreat ; but finding no 
avenue open, they were obliged to 
feturn in ccnfufion. Defpairing of 
their ability to hold this important 
place, they thought themfelves hap- 
py, when at length, with much ma- 

A c nagement and difficulty, 

Aug. 16. ,^ . , , '* 

** they were able to evacu- 

ate it without oppofition. 

Prince Xavier, after having, as 
we faid before, quitted his advanced 
fituation at Morungen in the terri- 
tories of Hanover, united himfelf 
to the right of the principal army, 
which was polled to the eaftward 
of the Fulda, not far from the 
place where that river forms an 
angle in its jundion with the Wer- 
j-a. In this angle Hands the town 
of Munden, a fortified place, in 
which the French had a garrifon. 
Full of confidence from this fitua- 
tion, they were under no appre- 
henfions; but the generals Zallrow, 
.1 Gilfac, and Waldhaufen, 

J ' ^' paired the Fulda in their 
fight, and under a heavy fire of 
their cannon. The corps of the 
two former officers pofTeiTed them- 
felves of a wood on the enemy's 
right flank. General Waldhaufen, 
in the mean time, had feized the 
village of Bonneverr, which enabled 
him to keep the garrifon of Mun- 
den in check, and gave him alio 
an opportunity, whenever the occa- 
•fion required it, of falling on the 
enemy's rear. 

The bold paflage of the Fulda, 
and the judgment of the fubfequent 
difpofitions, infured the victory. 
Prince Xavier, for a good while, de- 
fended hinifdf with sa oblUnate re- 

folution; but finding his flank gain- 
ed, he began to give way. In this 
inftantWaidhaufen, who hadhither'O 
only watched the ifTue of the engage- 
ment, threw in his horfe upon their 
rear, and completed the defeat. 

Generel Siainville, who occu- 
pied a ftrong inttenched camp in the 
neighbourhood, feeing the parry of 
the prince of Saxony in danger of 
being totally cut to pieces, quitted 
his intrenchments with his whole 
army, often thoufandmen, and haf- 
tened to their relief. Prince Fre- 
derick of Brunfwick, attentive to this 
movement, with quicknefs 
feized this critical opportunity, en- 
tered their camp the moment they 
had left it, and entirely dellroyed 
all their works. In this adtion eleven 
hundred of the enemy were made 

The French finding their comma, 
nication deftroyed, their army fur- 
rounded and harafled on every fide, 
and without intermiffion, were nei- 
ther able to advance with a pro- 
fpefl of fuccefs, or to retreat v.'ith 
any hope of fafety. In this difirefs 
they had nothing left but to call 
their army from the Lower Rhine 
to their affiftance. No time was to 
be loil. Exprefs after exprefs was 
fent to haften them. In confequencc 
of thefe difpaiches, the prince of 
Concie advanced by forced marches; 
the hereditary prince lluck cloie to 
him, and kept himfelf in readinefs 
to fall upon his corps, when a favour- 
able opportunity Ihould offer. 

In the mean time prince Ferdi- 
nand prefied upon Soubife's army. 
Advantageouily as they were fitu- 
ated, he offered tliem battle for a 
whole day. Rather than ri que an 
engagement they decamped 'in th« 
night, and quitted, without an ac- 
tion, tnofe advantageous grounds 
• called 


called the heights of Mulfingen, 
where they could not be attempted 
without the greatelt difficulty and 
hazard ; and the quitting of which 
gave prince Ferdinand the moft im- 
portant advantages over them. 

Never were military operations 
puQied with more vivacity, whilil the 
negotiation for peace was in great 
forward nefs. The two great con- 
tending courts had opened conferen- 
ces, whilft their armies were cutting 
one another in pieces : but prince 
Ferdinand, on that account, rather 
llrained than flackened his efforts. 
He knew that the negotiation for 

peace is always much forwarded by 
the operations of the campaign, and 
that a fuccefsful adtion often haften* 
the decilion of a contefted article. 
Perhaps too he was willing to fhew 
in England, that the necefllty of 
making peace ought not to be attri- 
buted to the circumltances of that 
part of the war which had been com- 
mitted to his care. People imagined 
they could difcern fomething like 
coldnefs towards this great com- 
mander in the new Britiih minillry ; 
and that be, on his fide, ftemed ra- 
ther to favour that party ia England 
which was for prolonging the war. 



War in Portugal. Plan of the campaign. Miranda, Bragatiza, and C have* 
taken. Almeida befieged and taken. Count of La Lippe arrives in Portu- 
gal. Surpri/e tf Valentia d* Alcantara, by General Burgoyne, Affair of 
Filla Vdha. Spaniards retire. 

TH E events of the war in Ger- 
many, though its object was 
not more intercfling than that in 
Portugal, feem to rank far before 
the adions of the latter in dignity 
and importance. They naturally 
occupy the firft place, and juftify a 
more minute detail in an hiftory of 
military operations. It is in Ger- 
many that the great efforts of all the 
great powers in Europe were made 
from the beginning. Here the moft 
confiderable armies were maintain- 
ed ; here the great battles were 
fought; and on lias theatre the great 
commanders gave a full fcope to their 
genius, Germany feems, as it were, 
the natural foil of holtility ; but Por- 
tugal, which had long languifhed in 
a tranquil obfcurity, couid fcarce 
furnifli out a f<tint image of war. 

Of the ftate of the military in 
that country we have fpoken in a 
preceding chapter. The marine 
wai not on a much more refpeft- 

able footing. About fix or feven 
fhips of the line, and a very few 
frigates, compofed all the naval 
force of Portugal that was fit for 
fervice ; of that Portugal which 
had formerly been one of the firft 
maritime powers in Europe. The 
fortifications in that kingdom had 
been alfo long negleded, and fcarce 
any of them were in a condition to 
fuftain a regular fiege. 

Portugal, however, poffefTed fome 
advantages ; bat they were only 
fuch as Ihe derived from her weak- 
nefs. The extreme barrennefs and 
poverty of the country, made it 
very difficult for an army, either of 
friends or enemies, to fubfift in it._ 
The badnefs of the roads, and the 
frequency and lleepnefs of the moun- 
tains, which occupy the greateft 
part of that kingdom, made it no 
lefs difficult to advance with rapid 
marches, and to improve the ad- 
vantages of the campaign with pro- 


per expedition. The nature of the 
country alfo rendered it more fit 
for that fpecies of defence which 
the belt force it had was beft quali- 
fied to make ; that is, in the way of 
an irregular war, by i''< armed pea- 
iantry ; for the defiles in many 
places are of fuch a nature, as to 
be capable of being maintained by 
a fmall and undifciplined body, 
againll very numerous and very re- 
gular forces. And the Portuguefe, 
from the highell to the loweft, were 
animated with fuch a fincere and 
inveterate hatred to the Spanifti 
name, and were filled with fo much 
terror at the profpect of falling 
a fecond time under the govern- 
ment of that nation, that great 
hopes were entertained of their ex- 
erting themfelves to the utmoit on 
this occafion, and of their roufmg 
that natural courage in which the 
Portuguefe are not deficient. 

Thefe advantages, however, did 
by no means balance the dangers to 
which that kingdom was expofed, 
from the joint hollility of France 
and Spain. All the hope of Portu- 
gal was centered in England, for 
whofe fake, and in whofe quarrel 
ftie had been drawn into this un- 
equal contelt. The greater the 
weaknefs of Portugal was, the more 
confpicuous were the magnanimity 
and refources of Great-Britain, who 
made, in the dofe of fo expenfive 
and ruinous a war, fuch altonifh- 
ing efforts, and who was in a con- 
dition by her flrength to prop up, 
at lead for a time, fo very feeble a 
fyftem. She fent to Portugal, offi- 
cers, troops, artillery, arms, mili- 
tary (lores, provifions, and money, 
every thing which could enable the 
Portuguefe to exert their natural 
ftrength, and every thing which 
could fupply thai ftrength where it 
tvas deficient. 

When the Bourbon courts made 
war againft Portugal, the declared 
objeft was to prevent Great-Britaia 
from the military and commercial 
ufe of the ports of that kingdom. 
As it was impoffible to attain this 
objeft by naval operations, they at- 
tempted it by military ones, and aim- 
ed their principal endeavours at the 
two great ports to which the Englifh 
principally refort, Oporto and Lif- 
bon. The pofTeffion of thefe two 
objeds would probably have finiflied 
the war in their favour ; the pof- 
feffion of either of them would have 
given them the moft decifive advan- 
tages in it. With this view three 
inroads were to be made, one to the 
north, another was propofed more 
to the fouth, whilrt the third was 
made in the middle provinces, in 
order to fuftain thefe two bodies, 
and preferve the communication be- 
tween them. The reader muA eon- 
fider thi-s as what appears from 
their defigns, and from the ftep« 
they took to execute them, to have 
been their general plan ; not that 
it was ever perfedly executed in all 
its parts, or at the fame time. 

The firft body which commenced 
hoftilities was commanded by the 
marquis de Sarria. Tiiis army en- 
tered into the north-eaft angle of 
Portugal, and marched towards 
Miranda. This town, though ia 
no good ftate of defence, might 
have delayed them in their pro- 
grefs; but a powder magazine hav« 
ing blown up by accident, the forti- 
fications were ruined, and the Spa- 
niards, before they had raifed their 
firft battery, marched into ^ 
the tov.n by the breaches ^ 9* 
in the wall. 

Animated by this erAy and fortu- 
nate fuccefs, they proceeded to Bra- 
ganza, a confidcrable city, from 
whence the royal family of Portugal 


derived its ducal titles. This town 
made no greater defence than Mi- 
randa. From thence a 
^^y '5* detachment marched to 
Moncorvo, which was furrendered 
in the like manner; and every 
thing was cleared before them to 
the banks of the Douro. A party 
under count O'Reilly made a forced 
-- march of fourteen leagues 

«^^y 24. jp ^^^^ j^yj^ JO the city 

of Chaves, which was immediately 
evacuated. By thefe fucceffes they 
became mafters of aliucft the whole 
of the extenfive provinces of Tralos 
Monies, and their progrefs fpread 
a general alarm. Oporto was al- 
moft given up as loil ; and the 
admiralty of England prepared 
tranfports to carry off the effeds 
of the Britifli faftory. However, 
the body which had traverfed this 
province without refiftance, at- 
tempting to crofs the Douro, had 
its progrefs checked on that fide. 
The peafants, animated and guided 
by fome Englifti officers, and feiz- 
ing a difficult pafs, repulfed and 
drove them back to Torre de Mon- 
corvo. They are faid to have been 
guilty of fome cruelties to the Spa- 
m(h prifoners who fell into their 
hands. Thefe cruelties were after- 
wards feverely retaliated upon them. 
Thefe people, on both fides natu- 
rally ferocious, had not been fuffi- 
ciently inured to war, to moderate 
its fury, and reduce it under laws ; 
they hated mutually, and they gave 
' a full fcope to their hatred ; they did 
not fee each other as foidiers, but 
as enemies. 

The fecond body of the Spa- 
niards, which we have mentioned as 
the connedtive link between the two 
others, entered into the province of 
Beira, at the villages called Val de 
Mula and Val de Coelha. They 
were joined by ftrong detachments* 

amounting to almoft the whole army 
in Tralos Monies, and immediate- 
ly laid fiege to Almeida, which* 
though in no good order, was the 
ftrongeft and belt provided place 
upon the frontiers of Portugal. 
Befides, it was of the greateft im» 
portaoce from its middle fituation, 
as the pofTeflion of it would greatly 
facilitate the operations upon every 
fide, and would efpecially tend to 
forward an attempt upon Lifbon, 
which was the capital objed, to- 
wards which, at this time, all the 
endeavours of the Spaniards feem 
to have been direfled. 

Almeida was defended with fuf- 
ficient refolution ; but its fate was 
forefeen as foon as it was attempt- 
ed, there being no means of afford- 
ing relief to any of the places be- 

fieeed. It furrendered, . 

u » u^ Aug. 2C. 

however, upon terms ho- *> ■' 

nourable to the garrifon. 

The Spaniards having made 
themfelves mafters of this place, 
overfpread the whole territory o1». 
Caftel Sranco, a principal diftrift of 
the province of Beira, making their 
way to the fouthward, until they ap- 
proached the banks of the Tagus. 
During the whole of their progrefs* 
and indeed during the whole cam- 
paign, the allied troops of Great- 
Britain and Portugal bad nothing 
that could be called a body of an 
army in the field, and they could 
not think of oppofing the enemy in 
a pitched battle. All that could be 
done was by the defence of paffes, 
by fkirmifti, and by furprife. 

By this time the count of la Lippe 
Buckeburg had arrived in Portugal, 
Lord Tyrawly, who had been fent, 
at the defire of the court of Lifbon, 
thiiher before the breaking out of 
the war, being difguiled by the be- 
haviour of fome perfons at court, and 
much difappointed in his expeAa-^ 



general Burgoyne. This gallant 
and able officer, though at a dif- 
tance of five days march, and in 
fpite of all the difappointments 
and obftruftions to which fervices 
of this kind are fo liable, when 
they cannot be executed imme* 
diately; yet efFefted a complete 
furprife on the town of . 
Valentia de Alcantara ; ^^' ^^' 
took the general, who was to have 
commanded in the intended inva- 
iion, one colonel, two captains, and 
feventeen fubaltern officers. One 
of the beft regiments in the Spanifli 
fervice was entirely deftroyed. 

Although they were difappointed 
in their expeftations of finding ma- 
gazines in this place, the efFedl of 
this well-condudied enterprize was 
not loft. The taking of this gene- 
ral was probably the caufe which 
prevented the Spaniards from en- 
tering into the province of Alen- 
tejo. This feemed to have been for 
fome time the deflination not only 
of that particular body, but alfo 
the great objeft of the Spaniih 
army, which had hitherto aded in 
Beira. The former of thefe pro- 
vinces is a plain, open, fertile 
country, where their cavalry, in 
which confilted the chief of their 
army, and in which lay their moft 
marked fuperiority, might have 
adted, and adled decifively : where- 
as the latter was a rough moun- 
tainous region, in which the horfe 
were fubfifled with difficulty, and 
could be of little fervice. To pre- 
vent, therefore, the entry of the 
Bourbon army from any quarter 
into Alentejo, feemed to be the 
great and fingle objed of the cam- 
paign on our fide. General Bur- 
goyne, by this expedition into the 
Spanifh territories, had already pre- 
vented it in one pan; and the vigi- 

trons of the exertion they had pro- 
snifed to make of their own force, 
and even of the ufe they had made 
of the fuccours from England, had 
been recalled very early in the cam- 
paign, and probably not contrary to 
his own inclination. 

It is impoffible to exprefs the joy 
which filled the whole nation at the 
arrival of fo celebrated an officer as 
the count la Lippe to their affifl- 
ance. More unanimity was now 
expeded, as the count had nothing 
to complain of, and came an en- 
tire flranger to all the fubjeds of 
debate, which had hitherto' exifled 
between the Britilh general and the 
court of Lilbon. 

That army, which we have men- 
tioned as the third corps deflined 
for the invafion of Portugal, aiTem- 
bled on the frontiers of Eftrema- 
dura, with an intention of pene- 
trating into the province of Alen- 
tejo. Had this third body been 
joined to the others already in Por- 
tugal, it would probably have form- 
ed fuch an army as might, in fpite 
of any obftrudion, have forced its 
way to Lifbon : had it aded feparate- 
ly, it might have greatly diltraded 
the defence, fo as to enable fome 
other body to penetrate to that 
city. It was neceflary to prevent, 
if poffible, their entrance into Por- 
tugal ; fince their mere entrance 
would have been alraoft equal, in 
its confequences, to a vidory on 
their fide. 

The count la Lippe, therefore, 
formed a defign of attacking an ad- 
vanced body of the Spaniards, 
which lay on their frontiers, in a 
town called Valentia de Alcantara, 
as he heard that they had here 
amafl'ed confiderable magazines. 
The condud ot this important en- 
terpriae was committed to brigadier- 

32] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762.- 

lance and adiivity of the fame of- 
£cer, had no fmall (hare in prevent- 
ing it alfo on the other. 

That part of the Bourbon army, 
which aded in the territory of Caf- 
lel Branco, had made themfelves 
mafters of feveral important pafTes, 
which they obliged fome bodies of 
the Portuguefe to abandon. They 
attacked the rear of the combined 
army, which was pafling the river 
Alveito, with the appearance of a 
retreat ; but, in reality, with a view 
to draw them infenfibly into the 
mountainous tradls : here they were 
repulfed with lofs; but ftill they 
continued mafters of the country ; 
and nothing remained but the paf- 
fage of the Tagus, to enable them to 
take up their quarters in Alentejo. 
. Burgoyne, who was polled with 
an intention to obftruft them in 
their paffage, lay in the neighbour- 
hood, and within view of a detach- 
ed camp, compofed of a confider- 
able body of the enemy's cavalry, 
which lay near a village called Villa 
Velha. As he obferved that the 
enemy kept no very foldierly guard 
in this port, and were uncover- 
ed both on their rear and their 
flanks, he conceived a defign of 
falling on them by furprife. He 
confided the execu:ion of this de- 
fign to colonel Lee, who turned their 

d-\n. c camp, fell upon their rear 
UCt. o. . k • u. J r 

m the night, made a confi- 

dcrableflaughter,difperfedthe whole 
party, deftroyed their magazines, 
and returned with fcarce any lofs. 
Burgoyne, in the mean time, fup- 
poned him by a feint attack in an- 
other quarter, which prevented the 
enemy's being relieved from the ad- 
jacent polls. 

This advantage^ being obtained 

in a critical moment, was attended! 
with important confequences. The 
feafon was now far advanced ; im- 
menfe rains fell at this time ; the 
roads were deftroyed ; the country 
became imprafticable; and the Spa- 
niards, having feized no advanced 
pofts in which they could maintain 
themfelves during the winter, and 
being efpecially unprovided with 
magazines for the fupport of their 
horfe, every where fell back to the 
frontiers of Spain, where their fup- 
plies were at hand, and where they 
were not liable to be haraffed by 
the efforts of the combined army. 

In this manner Portugal was fav- 
ed, at leaft for that campaign, by 
the wife conduft of count la Lippe, 
and the diftinguilhed valour of the 
Englifh commanders and foldiery : 
all that was wanting towards their 
deliverance was accomplilhed by the 
fuccefs of the Englifh army in more 
diftani quarters, and by the peace, 
in which fo valuable and fo expofed 
an ally was not negledted. There 
never was probably fo heavy a ftorm 
of national calamity, ready to fall 
upon an unprovided people, fo hap- 
pily averted, or fo fpeedily blown 
over. Every thing, at the beginning 
of this campaign, bore the molt lour- 
ing and ominous afpeft to the affairs 
of Great Britain. As it advanced, 
the fky continually cleared up ; and 
the fortune of no nation, towards 
the clofe of it, was enlivened with a 
more brilliant and more unclouded 
proiperity. We fhall now proceed 
in the relation of thofe lucceffes, and 
of the progrefs of the Englifh arms 
in other parts of the world, where 
new fcenes of danger and honour 
were now opened to them. 



CHAP. vir. 

Ixpe^ithn a^rainji Martinko, Force fent thither. Troops land at Cas 
Na-vire Nature of the country. Atcack cf the pfts near Fort Royal. 
Fort Royal furrendered. St. Pierre and the ^vhole ,p.nd captuLte. St. 
Lucia, the Grenades, and St. Vincent taken. Preparations for ^o:ar againft 
the Spanijh Weft Indies. 

Towards the clofe of the lafl 
year it was determined to re- 
fume the fcheme of operations in 
the Weft Indies; where nothing had 
been attempted fince the year 1759. 
DiftrefTed as the French trade to 
their iflands had been, it ftill con- 
tinued a refource to that nation. 
On the other hand, nothing could 
poiTibly furnifh us with places of 
more importance either to retain, or 
to exchange upon a peace, than our 
fuccefs in this part of the world. 
Another confideration had proba- 
bly no fmall fhare in direcling our 
arms towards that quarter. From 
the time that the difpofitions of 
Spain had become equivocal, it was 
neceffary to take fuch fteps as 
would put us in a refpeftable ficua- 
tion, in cafe a war with that king- 
dom fliould become unavoidable. 
It was therefore very proper to 
have a ftrong armament in the 
Weft Indies, that fide on which 
Spain is moft vulnerable, and 
in which every wound affects 
a part of the quickeft fenfibility. 
Accordingly the force which was 
fent into the Weft Indies on this 
occafion, was very great ; and, if 
we take the naval and military to- 
gether, it was fuch an armament as 
had never been before feen in that 
part of the world. It was certainly 
very right to leave as little to ha- 
zard as pofTible ; and when, in the 
moft frugal method of proceeding, 
a great many men muft have been 
Vol. V. 

employed, and a great deal of 
money fpent, it would have been 
an unpardonable error, from a 
confideration of almoft any faving, 
to have left any thing imperfedl; 
efpecially at a time, when the effeft 
of every operation became, almoft 
hourly, more and more critical and 

Every thing which had been an 
objedl of war in North America, 
was by this time completely ac- 
quired. It was therefore eafy to 
draw a very confiderable part of the 
army from thence. Eleven batta- 
lions were drawn from New York ; 
a draught was alfo made from the 
garrifon of Belleifle. Thefe were, 
reinforced by fome troops which 
had been fcattered among the Lee- 
ward illands; fo that the whole 
land armament did not fall very 
Ihort of twelve thoufand men. Ge- 
neral Monckton, who had acquired 
fo much reputation in North Ame- 
rica, and had received a very grie- 
vous wound at the taking of Que- 
bec, commanded the land forces in 
this expedition. The marine was 
under rear-admiral Rodney. 

The failure in 1759 did not dif- 
courage our adminiftration from 
making Martinico the objedl of 
another attempt. The Englifti fleet 
after having rendezvoufed at Bar- 
badoes, came before this ifland oa 
the 7th of January, 1762. The 
troops landed at a creek called Ca: 
Navire, without the lofs of a 

[D] mail i 


man ; the fleet having been difpofed 
fo properly, and having dircifted 
their fire with fuch efFed, that the 
enemy was obliged in a fliort time 
to abandon the batteries they had 
ereded to defend this inlet. 

When the landing was effe<f};ed, 
the difficulties were far from being 
at an end. It is true, that neither 
the number nor the quality of the 
enemy's regular troops in the ifland 
was very formidable. But the mi- 
litia was numerous, well armed, 
and not unqualified for fervice in 
the only kind of war, which cculd 
be carried on in their country, 
Befides, the whole country was a 
natural fortification, from the num- 
ber of ravines with rivulets between 
them, which lay from diftance to 
dirtance. Where-ever thofe grounds 
were praclicabie, the French had 
ported guards and erected batteries. 
It is eafy from hence to difcern 
what obltruclions the progrefs of an 
army y/as liable to, particularly with 
regard to its artillery. Thefe ob- 
ilruftions were no where greater 
than in the neighbourhood of the 
place, againft which the firft regular 
attack was propofed. 

This town and citadel is overlook- 
ed and commanded by two very con- 
liderable eminences, called Morne 
'Tortenfon and Morne Gamier. Whilft 
the enemy kept polfclfion of thefe 
eminences, it was impoffible to at- 
tack the town ; if they loll them, 
it would prove impofiib'e to defend 
it. Suitable to the importance of 
rhofe ntuations Vv'en? the meafures 
taken to render th?m impradlicable. 
They were protefted, like the other 
high grounds on this ifland, with 
very deep ravines ; and this great 
natural ftrength VN^ai improved by 
every contrivance of art. The 
Mcf-jie Tortenfon was lirfl to be 

attacked : to favour this operation, 
a body of regular troops and ma- 
rines were ordered to advance on. 
the right along the fea-fide, towards 
the town, in order to take the re- 
doubts which lay in the lower 
grounds. A thoufand failors, in flat- 
bottomed boats, rowed clofe to the 
ihore CO afliil them. On the left, 
towards the country, acorpsof light 
iTfantry, properly fupp.orted, whs X.o 
get round the enemy's left; whilft 
the attack in the centre was made by 
the Britilh grenadiers and the body 
of the army, under the fire of bat- 
teries, which had been erefted on 
the oppofite fide with great labour 
and perfeverance; the cannon hav- 
ing been dragged upwards of thre© 
miles by the feamen. 

Thetedifpofitions for the attack of 
this difficult poll having been made 
with fo much judgment on the part 
of the commander, it was executed 
with equal fpirit and refolution by 
the foldiery. The attack fucceeded 
in every quarter. With irrefiftible 
impetuofity the enemy's works were 
fucceffively carried. They were 
driven from port: to poft ; until our 
troops, after a fliarp ftruggle, re- 
mained mafters of the whole Morne : 
forne of the enemy fled precipitate- 
ly into the town, to the very en- 
trance of which they were purfued. 
Others faved themfelves on the 
Morne Garnier,which was as ftrong, 
and much higher, than Morne 
Tortenfon, and overlooked and 
commanded it. Thus far had they 
proceeded with fuccefs ; but no- 
thing decifive could be done, with- 
out the poflefllon of the other emi- 
nence, our troops being much mo- 
lefted by the enemy from that fu- 
perior Jituation. 

It was three days before proper 
difpolitions could be made for 



driving them from this ground. 
WhilSl thefe difpofitions were mak- 
ing, the enemy's whole force de- 
fcended from the hill, fallied out of 
the town, and attacked the Eng- 
lifh in their advanced ports ; but 
they were immediately repulfed : 
and the ardour of the Britilh troops 
hurrying them forward, they im- 
proved a defenuve advantage into 
an attack, paiTed the ravines, min- 
gled with the enemy, fcaled the 
hill, feized the batteries, and pofted 
themfelves on the fummit of Morne 
Garnier. The Frenchregular troops 
efcaped into the town. The militia 
difperfed themfelves in the country. 
Ail chefituations vvhichcommand- 
ed the town and citadel were now fe- 
cured; and the enemy waited no 
longer than until the batteries 

T^ , again ft them were com- 

Jbeb. 4. ? , . , J 

^ pleted to capitulate, and 

to furrender this important place, 
the fecond in the ifland. 

The capital of the ifland, St. 
Pierre, ftill remained to be reduced : 
this is alfo a place of no contemp- 
tible firength ; and it was appre- 
hended that the refiftance here 
might be confiderable, if the 
ftrength of the garrifon in anv de- 
gree correfponded with that of the 
fortifications, and with the natural 
advantages of the country. Our 
troops therefore were flill under 
fome anxiety for the final fuccefs of 
their work, and feared, if not dif- 
appointment, at leaft delay. But 
the reduiflion of Fort Royal had fo 
greatly abated the enemy's confi- 
dence, that the militia defpaired 
of making any effeftual defence. 
The planters alfo, folicitous for their 
fortunes, were apprehenfive of 
having their eftates ruined by a war 
too long continued, or perhaps of 
lofing all by pafling the opporru- 

nity of a favourable capitulation. 
Influenced by thefe motives, and 
difheartened by the train of misfor- 
tudes which iiad attended the 
French arms here and in all other 
parts of the world, they refclved to 
hold out no longer ; and general 
Monckton, juft as he was ready to 
embark for the reduction of St. 
Pierre, was fortunately pre- p , 
vented by the arrival of de- *^* 

puties, who came to capitulate for 
the furrender of that place, and of 
the whole ifland. 

The furrender of Martinico» 
which was the feat of the fuperior 
government, the principal mart of 
trade, and the centre of all the 
French force in the Caribbees, na- 
turally drew on the furrender of all 
the dependent iflanis. Granada, a 
fertile ifland, and poffefled of fome 
good harbours, was given up with- 
out oppofition. St. Lucia, and St, 
Vincent, the right to which had fo 
long been objedts of contention be- 
tween the two nations, followed its 
example. The Englifn were now 
the fole and undillurbed pofTefTors 
of all the Caribbees, and held that 
chain of innumerable iflands which 
forms an immenfe bow, extending- 
from the ealtern point of Hifpa- 
niola almoft to the continent of 
South America. And tliough fome 
of thefe iflands are barren, none of 
them very large, and not many of 
them well inhabited, they boaft 
more trade than falls to the lot of 
many refpedlable kingdoms. 

The time, in which Martinico 
was reduced, was a circumftance of 
almoft as much confequence as the 
redudtion itfelf ; for the war sgainft 
Spain having been declared in the 
beginning of the year, it became 
advifable to ftrike early fuch an ef- 
fjftive blow againii: that nation as 
[D] 2 might 


might incline them to a fpeedy 
peace, or might influence the for- 
tune of the whole war, if, contrary 
to our wilhes, the war (hould conti- 
nue. It was, on this plan, necef- 
fary to employ a very great force, 
and, of courfe, to call away a very 
confiderable part of that which had 
been employed at Martinico, whilft 
the feafon permitted them to act. 

When the Briiilh adminiflration 
determined to transfer the war into 
the Spanifh Welt Indies, with great 
judgment they fixed their eyes at 
once upon the capital objcft ; and 
refolved to commence their opera- 
tions where others of lefs ability 
would have chofen to conclude them. 
In an attempt upon fubordinaie 
places, the conquelt would not have 
been much more certain ; when ob- 
tained, it would be far from deci- 
five ; and a failure would have been 
fatal, as it would include a lofs of 
reputation. The failure of an ar- 
mament in a fubordinate attack is a 

bad preparative for a greater at- 
tempt. The plan, therefore, of the 
war of 1740 in the Spanifh Indies, 
in which we began with Porto Bello, 
and fo proceeded to Carthagena, 
See. was mean, becaufe the fuccefs 
in one of thofe attempts did nothing 
towards infuring fuccefs in the 
other; and if we had fucceeded in 
both attempts, our advantage would 
have had but little influence on a 
third. But the plan of the war, 
juft now concluded, was great and 
jufl; becaufe we began with the 
Havannah, in which the whole 
trade and navigation of the Spa- 
nifh Weft Indies centers, and with- 
out which it cannot be carried on. 
If we fhould acquiefce in this con- 
queft, this conqueft alone would 
almoft have finilhed the war ; be- 
caufe it would have utterly inter- 
cepted the enemy's refources. If 
we chofe to purfue our advantage, 
it expofed the whole Spanifh Ame- 


Ccnwiajiders in the expedition agair.Jl the Hanjannah . Fleet fails from Portf- 
mouth. Paffage through the old freights of Bahama, '^fonvn atid har- 
bour of the Hwvannah defcrihed. Troops la7td. Difpoftion of the troops. 
Siege of Fort Mora. Captain Hari'ey cannor.ades the Moro. Englifh bat- 
tery fired. Difrefs of the Englijh faces. Succours arri-ve from North 
America. A fally. The fort formed. Operations againft the toiun. 
The Havannah furrenders, Ad'u ant ages of this acquiftion. 

with this enterprize, fuch com- 
manders were to be chofen, as could 
be fafely inirufted with the conduft 
of an undertaking fo weighty, and 
on the fuccefs of which fo much de- 
pended. Lord Albemarle, the friend 
and difciple of the D. of C. com- 
manded the land forces. Ad- 
miral Pococke, who having contri- 

buted by his valour towards that 
fovereignty which his country had 
obtained in the Eaft Indies, was 
now cbofen to extend its empire 
and its honour in the Weft. 

They failed from Portfmouth on 
the 5th of March, the day on which 
the Grenades were furrendered. 
A fleet had failed from Martinico 
under the command of that fpirited 



and intelligent officer. Sir fames 
Douglas, inorder to reinforce them. 
The fquadrons very happily met, 
without delay or difperfion, at Cape 
Nichola, the north-weit point of 
Hifpaniola, on the 27 :h of »VIay. 
After this junflion the armament 
amounted to nineteen fhips of the 
line ; eighteen fmall vefTels of war ; 
and near one hundred and fifty 
tranfports, which conveyed about 
ten thoufand land forces. A fupply 
of four thoufand had been ordered 
from New York, and was expedted 
to join them very near as early as 
they could be fuppofed able to 
commence their operations. 

There were two choices before 
the admiral for his courfe to the 
Havannah. The firft and mod ob- 
vious was the common way, to 
keep to the fouth of Cuba, and fall 
into the track of the galleons. Buc 
this, though by much the fafelt, 
would prove by far the mofl tedious 
paflage ; and delays, above all 
things, were to be avoided, as the 
fuccefs of the whole enterprize 
would probably depend upon its 
being in forwardnefs before the 
hurricane feafon came on. He there- 
fore refolved to run along the north- 
ern fhore of that ifland, purfuing 
his career from eaft to well through 
a narrow paffage, notlefs than feven 
hundred miles in length, called the 
old ftreights of Bahama. 

This pafTage, through almoft the 
wholeofits extent, isbounded on the 
right and left by the moft dangerous 
fands and fhoals, which render the 
navigation fo hazardous, that it has 
ufually been avoided by fingle and 
fmall vefTels. There was no pilot 
in the fleet whofe experience could 
be depended on to conduct them 
fafely through it. The admiral, 
however, determined on this paf- 

fage; and being provided with a 
good chart of lord Anfon's, he re- 
folved to trurt to his own fagacity, 
conduft, and vigilance, to carry 
fafely through thofe llreights a fleet 
of near tw-o hundred fail. So bold 
an attempt had never been made ; 
but every precaution was taken to 
guard this boldnefs from the impu- 
tation of temerity. A vefl'el was fent 
to reconnoitre the pafTage, and, when 
returned, was ordered to take the 
lead ; fome frigates followed ; Hoops 
and boats were ftationed on the right 
and left on the fliallows, with well- 
adapted fignals both for the day and 
the night. The fleet moved in feven 
divifions ; and being favoured with 
pleafant weather, and fecured by 
made, they,without thefraalleftlofs 
or interruption, got clear thro' this 
perilous pafTage on the 5 th of June, 
laaving entered it the 27th of May. 

The Havannah, the objed of 
their long voyage, and of fo many 
anxious hopes and fears, was now 
before them. This place is not de- 
nominated the capital of Cuba ; 
St. Jago, fituated at the fouth-eaft 
part of the ifland, has that title ; 
but the Havannah, though the fe- 
cond in rank, is the firft in vealth, 
fize, and importance. The har- 
bour, upon which it ftands, is, in 
every refpeft, one of the beft in the 
Weft Indies, and perhaps in the 
world. It is entered by a narrow 
pafTage, upwards of half a mile in 
length, which afterwards expands 
into a large bafon, forming three 
culdefacs ; and is fulficient, in extent 
and depth, to contain a thoufand 
fail of the largeft fhips, having a!? 
moft throughout fix fathom water, 
and being perfedlly covered from 
every wind. In this bay the rich 
fleets from the fevcral parts of the 

\p\ i Spa- 


Spanifli Weft Indies, called the 
Galleons, and the Flota, aflemble, 
before they finally fet out on their 
voyage for Europe, 

This circumftance has rendered 
the Havannah one of the molt 
opulent, flourifhing, and populous 
cities in this part of the world. 
Great care was taken to fortify and 
fecure a place, which, by being the 
centre of fo rich a commerce, would 
naturally become the faireft mark 
for the attempts of an enemy. The 
narrow entrance into this harbour 
is fecured on one fide by a very 
ftrong fort, called the Moro, built 
■upon a projedling point of land : 
on the other, it is defended by a 
fort called the Pantal, which joins 
the town. The town itf?If, which 
is ntuated to the weftward of the 
en tranceof the harbour, an doppofite 
to the Moro fort, is furrounded by 
a good rampart, flanked with baf- 
tions, and covered with a ditch. 

The Spaniards, who had been 
for fome time preparing for war, 
had formed a confiderable navy in 
the Well: Indies: this fleet, which 
was near twenty fail, moilly of the 
line, lay at this time in the bafon 
of the Havannah ; but they had 
not, when our armament appeared 
before the port, received, it feems, 
any authentic account from their 
court concerning the commence- 
ment of hoftilities between tne two 

Whether the Spaniards were 
rendered inadlive by the want of 
inftrudliors, whether all their fhips 
were not in fighting condition, or 
whatever elfe was the caufe, this 
fleet lay quiet in the harbour. If 
fome of the above reafons did net 
oppofe, it may be very rationally 
fuppofed, that their beft part would 
kave been to come out and fiwht 

our fquadron. They were not very 
far from an equality ; and though 
the ilTue of a battle might have 
proved unfavourable to them, yet 
abattle tolerably maintained would 
have much difablcd our armament, 
and perhaps have been a means of 
preventing the fuccefs of the whole 
enterprize. The lofs of their fleet in 
this way might poflibly have faved. 
the city ; but, the city once taken, 
nothing could poflibly fave the 
fleet, it is true, they much trufted, 
and not wholly without reafon, to 
the ftrength of the place, and to 
thofe aftonilhing difficulties which 
attend any military operation, that 
is drawn out to length in this un- 
healthy climate. In other refpefts, 
they were very far from being defi- 
cient in proper meafures for their 
defence. They made a ftrong boom 
acrofs the mouth of the harbour; 
and almoft the only ufe they made 
of their fliipping, in the defence 
of the place, was to fink three of 
them behind this boom. 

When all things were in readi- 
nefs for landing, the admiral, with 
a great part of the fleet, bore away 
to the vveftward, in order to draw 
the enemy's attention from the true 
object, and made a feint, as if he 
intended to land upon that ficie; 
while commodore Keppel and cap- 
tain Harvey commanding a detach- 
ment of the fquadron, approached 
the ftiore to the eaftward of the 

harbour, and eiFefted a , 

1 J- ' • L Tune 7. 

landing tiiere in the ut- •' ' 

moft order, without any oppofi- 
ti®n, having previoufly filenced a 
fmall fort, which might have given 
fome dillurbance. 

The principal body of the army 
was deftined to adl upon this fide. 
It was divided into two corps ; one 
of which was advanced a confi- 



dera'ole way in the country, towards 
the fouth-eaft of the harbour, in 
order to cover the fiege, and to fe- 
ture our parties employed in wa- 
tering and procuring proviiions. 
This corps was commanded by ge- 
neral Elliot. The other was im- 
mediately occupied in the attack on 
Fort Moro, to the reduction of 
which the efforts of the Engjifh 
were principally direfted, as the 
Moro commanded the town, and 
the entrance of the harbour. This 
attack was conduced by general 
Keppel. To make a diverfion in 
favour of this grand operation, a 
detachment, under colonel Howe, 
was encamped to the weftward of 
the town. This body cut off :".ie 
communication between the town 
and the country, and kept the 
enemy's attention divided. Such 
was the difpohtion, and it was im- 
poffible to find a becter, of the land 
forces during the whole fiege. 

The hardships which the EngHfh 
army fuflained, in carrying on the 
fiege of the Moro, are almoft in- 
expreiTible : the earth was every 
where fo thin, thatitwas with great 
difficulty they could cover them- 
felves in their approaches. There 
was no fpring or river near them ; 
it was neceii'arv to bring water 
from a great diit.;nce ; and fo pre- 
carious and fcanty was this fupply, 
that they were obliged to have re- 
courfe to water from the fhips. 
Roads for communication were to 
be cut through thick woods ; the 
artillery was to be dragged foravsft 
way over a rough rocky fhore. Se- 
veral dropped down dead with heat, 
thirft, and fatigue. But fuch was 
the refolution of our people, fuch 
the happy and perfect unanimity 
which fubfilted between the land 
and the fea fervices, that no diffi. 

culties, no hardlhips, flackened for 
a moment the operations againlt 
this important, flrong, and well-de- 
fended place. Batteries were, in 
fpiteof all difficulties, raifedagainll 
the Moro, and along the hill upon, 
which this fort Hands, in order to 
drive the enemy's fhips deeper into 
the harbour, and thus to prevent 
themfrommoleiling our approaches. 

The enemy's fire, a.".d that of 
the beliegers, was for a long time 
pretty near on an equalitv, and it 
was kept up with great vivacity on 
both fides. The Spaniards in the 
fort communicated with the town, 
from which they were recruited and 
fupplisd : they did not rely folelyon 
their works ; they made y 
a fall V with fuiticientrefo- -* ^' 

lution, and a coniiderable force, 
but with little fuccefs. Thev were 
obliged to retire, with a lofs of two 
or three hundred men left dead on 
the fpot. 

VVhilH thefe works were thus vi- 
gorouily pullied on fhore, the navy, 
no: contented with the great affifi- 
ance which they had before lent to 
every part of the land fervice, re- 
folved to try fomething further, and 
which was more directly within their 
own province, towards the red uftion 
of the Moro. Accordingly, the day 
the batteries on fhore were opened, 
threeoftheir^reateft fhips, the Dra- 
gon, the Cambridge, and the Marl- 
borough, underthe conduilofcapt. 
Harvey, laid theirbroadfidesagainll 
the fort, and began a ter- j, 
rible fire, which was re- J / • 
turned with great conltancy. This 
firing, one of the warmefl ever 
feen, continued for feven hours 
without intermifnon. But in this 
cannonade the Moro, which was 
fituated upon a very high and fleep 
rock, had great advantages ove« 
[D] 4 th« 


the (hips, and was proof againft all 
their efforts. Be/ides, the fire from 
the opp'ifite fort of Pantal, and the 
batteries of the town, galled them 
extremely. Infomuch that, in or- 
der to fave the Ihips from abfoiute 
deftruclion, they were obliged at 
length, and unwillingly, to bring 
them all off. Even this retreat was 
not efFefled without difficulty, as 
the fhips were v;ry much Shattered 
in this long and unequal conteH:. 
They had one hundred and fifty men 
killed and wounded; and one of 
the captain?, captain Gooftrey, of 
the Marlborough, a brave and 
experienced officer, was alfo killed. 
The captains Harvey and Burnett 
gained, with better fortune, an 
equal honour, by their firm and 
inrrppid behaviour throughout the 
wholf^ operation. 

This bold attempt, though it had 
very little efFeft upon the works on 
thar lide of the f?rt which the fhips 
attacked, was neverihelefs of confi- 
dernble fcrvice. The enemy*s at- 
tention being diverted to that file, 
the other ^vas a good deal neglefted ; 
our fire was poured in the mean time 
with redoubled fury from the batte- 
ries ; itbecjmemuch l"uperir>r to that 
of the enemy, and did no fmall da- 
mage to their works. But the mo- 
jnent the Spaniards were releafed 
from their attention to our men of 
war, they returned again to the 
eaRward face of the fort : their de- 
fence was revived with as much 
vigour as before ; on both fides a 
conflant unremitted fire was kept 
up, with a fierce emulation, for 
leveral days. It now became evi- 
dent that the redudlion of this 
fortrefs was to be a work of time. 
Never, from the beginning of the 
war, had the Englifh valour been 
fo well matched. Here was at 

length an adverfary worthy of our 
arms, and our whole military ikill 
and fpirit was put to the fevered 

In the midft of this (harp and 
doubtful contention, the ca- J . 
pital battery againft the fort-' ^ '* 
unfortunately took fire ; and being 
chiefly conftrufted of timber and 
fafcines, dried by the intenfe heats 
and continual cannonade, theflames 
foon got a-head, and became too 
powerful for oppofition. The bat- 
tery was almoft wholly confumed. 
The labour of fix hundred men, for 
feventeen days, was deftroyed in 
a moment, and all was to begin 

This was a mortifying ftroke. It 
was felt the more feverely, becaufe 
the:other hardfhips of the fiege were 
become by this time almoft infup- 
portable. The ficknefs, fomething 
of which the troops had brought 
with them from Martinico, and 
which increafed infinitely in this 
unwholefome country and rigorous 
fervice, had reduced the army to 
half its number, at the fame time 
that it doubled the fatigue of thofe 
few who ftill preferved fome re- 
mains of ftrength. Five thoufand 
foldiers were at one time down in 
various diftempers ; no lefs than 
three thoufand of the feamen were 
in the fame miferable condition. 
A total want of good provifions ex- 
afperated the difeafe, and retarded 
the recovery. Thedeficiencyofvs ater 
was of all their grievances tbegreat- 
eft, and extremely aggravated all 
the reft of their futferings. The pro- 
curing from a diliance this wretched 
fupply,fo unequal totheirwants, ex- 
hauftedall their force. Befides, as the 
feafon advanced , the profpedt of fuc- 
ceeding grew fainter. The hearts of 
the moft fanguine funkwithin them, 



cies for the fiege. Not many days 
ter this they received a j , r> 
nfiderable part of the ^ ■' 

whilft they beheld this gallant ar- 
mv wafting away by difeafes ; and 
they could not avoid trembling for 
that noble fleet which had rid fo 
lono- on an open fhore, and which 
muft to all appearance be expofed 
to inevitable ruin, if the hurricane 
feafon fhould come on before the 
redutlion of the place, A thoufand 
languifhing and impatient looks 
were call out for the reinforcement 
from North America. None how- 
ever as yet appeared ; and the ex- 
haufted army was left to its own 
endeavours. Many fell into defpair 
and died, overcome with fatigue, 
anguifli, and difappointmenr. 

But in the midll of thefe cruel 
delays and diftrefTes, the fteadinefs 
of the commanders infufed life and 
adlivity into their troops, and roofed 
them to incredible exertions. The 
rich prize which was before them ; 
thefhameofreturninghomebafRed ; 
and even the ftrenuous refiftance 
which was made by the enemy ; all 
thefe motives called loudly on their 
intereft, their honour, and their 
pride, and obliged them to the ex- 
ertion of every nerve. Nobody could 
imagine that it was this reduced and 
difabled army, by which thefe afto- 
nifhing efforts were made, and this 
extenfive fphere of duty fo perfeftly 
filled. New batteries arofe in the 
place of the old ; the fire foon be- 
came equal, and then fuperior to 
that of the enemy. They by de- 
grees filenced the cannon of the 
fort, beat to pieces all the upper 
Tulv works, andmadeat length 
^ -^ ' a lodgment in the covered 
way. Their hopes were now be- 
come more lively. Some days be- 
fore they had gained this grand ad- 
T| vantage, the Jamaica fleet 

^ ■' ' appeared in its paflage to 
Europe, with feveral convenien- 


conliderable pj 

New York reinforcement. Some 

of the tranfports in their paflage 

through the old Bahama ilreights 

were loft, but the men were faved 

on the adjacent iflands, 

Thefe favourable events infufed 
double life into their operations, ia 
this advanced ftate of the fiege ; 
but a new and grand difficulty ap- 
peared, juft at the feeming accom- 
pliihment of their work. An im- 
menfe ditch yawning before them, 
for the greater part cut in the folid 
rock, eighty feet deep, and forty feet 
wide. To fill it up by any means ap- 
peared impoflible. Difficult as the 
work of mining was in thofecircum- 
ftances,it was the onlyexpedient. It 
might have been an imprafticable 
one,if fortunately a thin ridge of rock 
had not been leftinorder to cover the 
ditch towards the fea.On this narrow 
ridge the miners, wholly uncovered, 
but with very little lofs, , , 
paflied the ditch, and foon J ' " ' 
buried themfelves in the wall. 

It now became vifible to the go- 
vernor of the Havannah, that the 
fort muft be fpeedily reduced, if left 
to its own ftrength. At all events, 
fomething muft be done in this exi- 
gence for its immediate relief. 
Accordingly, before break of day, 
a body of twelve hun- y , 
dred men, moftly com- -^ ^ 
pofed of the country militia, mu- 
lattoes and negroes, were tranf- 
ported acrofs the harbour, climbed 
the hills, and made three attacks 
upon our pofts. But the ordinary 
guards, though furprized, defended 
themfelves fc refolutely, that the 
Spaniards made little impreffion, 
and were not able to ruin any 
part of the approaches. The 



pofts attacked were fpeedily rein- 
forced, and the enemy, who were 
little better than a diforderly rab- 
ble, and not conduced by proper 
officers, fell into terror and confu- 
iion. They were driven precipi- 
tately down the hill with great 
flaughter; fome gained their boats, 
others were drowned, and they loft 
in this well imagined, but ill exe- 
cuted fally, upwards of four hun- 
dred men. 

This was the laft effort for the re- 
lief of the Moro; which, abandon- 
ed as it was by the city, and while 
an enemy was undermining its 
walls, held out with a fullen refo- 
lation, and made no fort of propofal 
, . to capitulate. The mines 

J^ y J ' at length did their buli- 
nefs. A part of the wall was blown 
up, and fell into the ditch, leaving a 
breachjwhichjtho' very narrow and 
difficult, the general and engineer 
judged prafticable. The Englifh 
troops,who were commanded on this 
moll dangerous of all fervices, re- 
joiced that it was to be the end of 
laboursmuch more gl-ievous to them. 
They mounted the breach, entered 
the fort, and formed themfelves with 
fo much celerity, and with fuch a 
fpirited coolnefs of refoluticn, that 
the enemy, who were drawn up to 
receive them, and who might have 
made the affault an affair of great 
blood (bed, aftonilhed at their coun- 
tenance, fled on all hands. About 
four hundred were flaughtered on 
the fpot, or ran to the water, where 
they perifhed. Four hundred more 
threw down their arms, and obtained 
quarter. The feccnd in command, 
the marquis de Gonfales, fell whilft 
he was making brave, but inef- 
feftual efforts to animate and rally 
his people. Don Lewis de Velafco, 
the governor, who had hitherto de- 

fended the fort with fuch obftinate 
bravery, feemed refolved in this 
extremity to fhare the fame fate 
with it. He coilefted an hundred 
men in an intrenchment he had 
made round his colours. But feeing 
that all his companions were fled 
from him, or flaughtered about him, 
difdaining to retire or call for quar- 
ter, he received a mortal wound, and 
fell, offering his fword to his con- 
querors. The Englifli wept with 
pity and admiration over that unfor- 
tunate valour which had occafioned 
the.m fo many toilfome hours, and 
coft them fo many lives. 

Thus the Moro came into our 
poffeffion, after a vigorous ftruggle, 
forty-four days from the time the 
firft operations had been begun 
againft it. No time was loft to pro- 
fit of this great advantage, not- 
withftanding that the ficknefs ftill 
raged like a peftilence, and that 
many new and great works were to 
be undertaken. Not only the fire 
of the fort was turned againft 
the town ; but a line of bat- 
teries was erefted along the hill 
of the Cavannos, en the ex- 
tremity of which the fort ftands. 
By thefe batteries, which mounted 
three and forty pieces of cannon, 
and twelve mortars, almoft ther 
whole eaftern fide of the city was 
commanded from one end to the 
other. Preparations for an attack 
were alfo made, and batteries erect- 
ed to the weft ward of the town, 
which OH that fide had hitherto 
been only watched. Some » 
time before a part of the ° 
fecond divifion of the troops from 
North America had arrived. Apart 
had been taken by a fquadron of 
French men of war ; but thofe who 
efcaped, came very feafonably, and 
were of fignal fervke. 

3 Whc» 


When thofe preparations were 
. perfectly ready to take 

Aug. 10. efFea, lord Albemarle by 
jneffagereprefented to the governor 
the irrefiftible force of the attack, 
which he was ready to make upon 
the town, but which, in order to 
avoid unnecefiarvefFufion of blood, 
he was willing to fufpend, that the 
Spaniards might have leifure to ca- 
pitulate. The governor in a refc- 
lute, but civil manner, returned, 
that he would defend the place 
committed to him to the laft extre- 
mity, and began iniiantly to fire. 

To convince the governor that 
the menaces employed were not an 
empty boaft, lord Albemarle the 
very next morning ordered a gene- 
ral fire from the batteries, which 
was poured from all fides, with fuch 
continued and irrefiltible fury, that 
in fix hours almolt all the enemy's 
guns were fitenced. To the inex- 
preffible joy of the fleet and army, 
flags of truce appeared from every 
quarter of the town. A capitula- 
tion enfued, in which the eftablifh- 
ed religion, the former laws, and 
private property, were fecured to 
the inhabitants. The garrifon, 
which was reduced to about feven 
hundred men, had the honours of 
vv^ar, and were to be conveyed to 
Spain. A diftri^l of an hundred 
and eighty miles weftward of the 
Havannah was yielded along with 
the town. The Spaniards fliruggled 
a long time to fave the men of war ; 
but this was a capital point, and 
wholly inadmifiible. They alfo 
made fome attempts to have the 
harbour declared neutral during 
the war; but this was no lefs ef- 
fential to the completenefs of the 
conqueft, and was fteadily refufed. 
After two days altercation, they 
gave up thefe points, and the Eng- 

liih troops were put in pofTeffion of 
the Havannah on the i^th of Au- 
gull, when they had been before it 
two months and eight days. 

Although we have not purfued 
In exact order all the detail of the 
more minute operations of this me- 
morable fiegc, we have dwelt on it 
a longer time, than we have on our 
plangenerallyallov/edtofuch tranf- 
actions ; becaufe it was, without 
queftion, initfslf the moftccnfider- 
able, and in its ccnfequences the 
moft decinve conqueft we have 
made fince the beginning of the 
war; and becaufe ic no operation 
were the courage, fleadinefs, and 
perfeverance of the Britifh troops, 
and the conduct of their leaders, 
more confpicuous. The acquifitioa 
of this place united in icfelf all the 
advantages which can be acquired 
in war. It was a military advan- 
tage of the higheft clafs ; it was 
equal to the greateft naval viftory, 
by its eiFeft on the enemy's marine ; 
and in the plunder it equalled the 
produceof a national fubfidy. Nine 
fail of the enemy's Ihips of the line, 
fome of the finefl veffels in the 
world, were taken, with four fri- 
gates. Three of their capital ihips 
had been, as already mentioned, 
funk by themfelves at the beginning 
of the fiege ; two more were in for- 
wardnefs on the ftocks, and thefe 
weredefiroyed by the Englifh. The 
enemy, on this occafion, loft a 
whole fleet. In ready money, in the 
tobacco colledled at the Havannah 
on account of the king of Spain, 
and in oiher valuable merchandizes, 
the plunder aid not perhaps fall 
fhort of three millions fterling. 

So lucrative a conqueft had never 

before been made. But this im- 

menfe capture, though it enriched 

individuals, contributed nothing 



dlreftly to the public fervice. How- 
ever, it might be faid to contribute 
fomething to it indireftly ; by in- 
creafing the ftock of the nation, 
and fuppl ying that prodigious drain 
of treafure, which for feveral years 
had been made from this kingdom 
for foreign fubfidies, and for the 
maintenance of armies abroad. If 
it had not been for fuch pecuniary 
fupplies, with which the uncom- 
mon fucceffes of this war were at- 
tended, it never could have been 
maintained in the extent to which 
it was carried, notwithftanding the 
increafe of trade, which has been 
uniformly progreffive for the laft 
three years. It has in a loofe way 
been computed, that the fuccefs of 
our arms in the Eaft Indies, inde- 
pendently of the great increafe of 
valuable merchandize (which ufed 
to be formerly the fole produce and 
advantage of the Eaft India com- 
merce) has brought into England, 
during the war, near fix millions 
in treafure and jewels. 

The capture of the Spanlfh re- 
-. gifterfliip,theHermione, 

May 21. ^,j^j(,j^ happened foon af- 
ter the commencement of the war 
with Spain, and juft as ftie was on 
the point of entering one of the 
ports of Old Spain, muft be added 

to thefe refources ; this capture 
was little fhort of a million. The 
taking of this fingle fhip is not 
altogether unworthy of a place in 
hiftory ; becaufe it had no fmall in- 
fluence on the affairs of the Bour- 
bon alliance, and confiderably funk 
thofe refources of money, which 
were the principal objefts to 
France, when fhe formed that fa- 
mous treaty. All thefe advantages 
were without any confiderable allay 
on the fide of Great Britain ; they 
would have ferved to balance any 
poflible fuccefs, which the enemy 
might have had in Portugal. But 
their fuccefs in that quarter, where 
they had entertained the moft fan- 
guine hopes, was by no means con- 
fiderable, and very far from tend- 
ing to any thing decifive. Thefe 
confiderations helped to difpofe the 
Bourbon courts to peace, almoft as 
foon as they had jointly entered 
into the war; and Europe, after 
having been deceived in the hopes 
of tranquillity, which were enter- 
tained from the late negociation, 
and plunged apparently deeper 
than ever into war, was in reality 
approaching faft to peace, and the 
public repofe was preparing, when 
it Teemed to be at the greateft 




Propojah for peace. State of the mlnijiry and parties. Dukes of Bedford 
and Nivirnois employed in the negotiation. Nenvfoundland taken and re- 
taken. War in Gennany. Hereditary prince defeated at Johanniferg. 
French repulfed, Caffel in-vefted. Remarkable cannonade at Bucker Muhl. 
French take Amoneherg, Caffel furrendered to the allies. War in Weji- 
pbalia concluded. 

WHEN France had found ex- come familiar to us, and made but 
perimentally, that the pre- little impreffion. The marks of 
fent at leaft was not the favourable public joy on the moft confiderable 
time for drawing from her alliance conquelts,were become much flight- 
all thofe advantages with which fhe er and colder than were {hewed at 
flattered herfelf, fhe inclined in good the beginning of the war upon very 
earneft to peace. The fincerity of trivial advantages. Befides, the na- 
her procedure in the former nego- tion had occafion for peace. Though 
tiation might be jufHy queftioned ; her trade had been greadyaugment- 
becaufe fhe had prepared an after- ed, a circumllance without example 
game in cafe of its breaking off. favourable, and though many of 
And fhe fo much relied on it, that her conquelb, as we have feen,were 
it is very pofTible the negotiation it- very far from unlucrative, her fup- 
felf was but a feint made to cover plies of money, great as they were, 
and to prepare that projed. But did not keep pace with her expen- 
finding that Great Britain was nei- ces. The fupply of men too, which 
ther intimidated by the threats of was neceffary to furnilh the wafle 
that formidable alliance, nor at all of fo extenfive a war, became fenfi- 
likely to be reduced by the exertion bly diminifhed, and the troops were 
of its forces ; fhe came in good ear- not recruited but with fome diffi- 
neft into thefe pacific fentiments, culty, and at a heavy charge. It 
which formerly fhe had only coun- was time to dole the war, when 
terfeited. The flow progrefs of the every end, we could rationally pro- 
Bourbon troops in Portugal, the re- pofe to ourfelves in carrying it on, 
trograde motion of theFrench army was anfwered ; we had enough in 
in Germany, the taking of Marti- our hands to anfwer all our de- 
nico and its dependenciesj and the mands, and almoft all our expefta- 
imminent danger in which they be- tions ; and as it is grown into a fort 
held the Havannah, all confpired of maxim, that nations greatly vie- 
to humble the pride, and dafh the torious, muft cede fomething on a 
hopes of the Bourbon alliance. peace, the difficulty on our fide was 
OnthefideofGreatBritain, like- only whatand how much we fhould 
wife, the difpofitions to peace be- retain. Not that there was a doubt, 
came much more cordial. No peo- but whatever choice of acquifitioa 
pie were ever lefs intoxicated with could be made upon any rational 
their fucceffes. Victories were be- principles, a great deal would ftill 



remain to give the fulleft fcope to 
every fentiment of equity and mo- 

All thefe were fufficient induce- 
ments to peace. But other things 
operated as caufes. An alteration 
in the fyftem of the Bricifh miniftry 
had begun this war ; another altera- 
tion put an end to it. 

The whole council had been al- 
anofi; unanimous to oppofe 
his fcheme for precipitating the de- 
claration of war againft Spain. They 
thought his principles too violent, 
and they did not perfeftly like his 
perfon. When he retired from pub- 
lic hufinefs, it feemed as if they 
breathed more freely, and had got 
rid of a burthen that opprefled 
them. Buthewasnotlongremoved, 
when it appeared that the remain- 
ing part of the fyflem was framed 
upon principles fo very difcordant 
in themfelves, that it was by no 
means likely to ftand. 

The D. of N , firfr lord of 

the treafury, by bis early zeal in fa- 
vour of the proieflant fucceffion, by 
the liberal and politic ufe he had 
made of a great fortune, by the ob- 
ligations which in a courfe of many 
years, and in a fucceffjon of great 
employments, he was enabled to 
confer on feme of the moil confider- 
able people in the kingdom, had 
attached a great number to his for- 
tunes, and formed an in'tereft in the 
parliament and the nation, which 
it was extremely difficult to over- 
turn, or even fnake. tie came to be 
confidered as theheadof thevvhigs ; 
and he v/as in reality well qualifi- 
ed in many relpefts for the chief 
of a party, from his unbounded 
liberality, from his affability, mag- 
nificence, and perfonal difinterell- 
ednefs. Even thedefefts and faults, 
which might have appeared in his 

charafter, were rather of fervice to 
him, as they often tended to foften 
refentments, and helped to give 
that great power, of which he was 
pofTefled, an appearance lefs for- 

During a great part of the late 
king's reign, his family had directed 
all things without controul. On the 
acceffion of his prefen: majelly, his 
iituation feemed moredoubtful. But 
in a little timeheappearedoutward- 
ly as well ellablifhed as ever, not 
only in his former high employ- 
ments, but in that fhareof influence 
which is commonly fuppofed to at- 
tend it. There was, however, very 
little reality in this fpecious appear- 
ance ; for he did not pofTefs the r— > 
confidence, upon which all the ef- 
fential of power depends. Neither 
his age, nor his fituation in the 
former reign, had allowed him the 
opportunity of cultivating an in- 
terelt with the prefent K. Another 
noble perfon had been in an em- 
ployment near his perfon ; and hav- 
ing formed his mind with much at- 
tention and fuccefs to thofe virtues 
which adorn his ftation, deferved 
and obtained a very uncommon 
fhare of his confidence. 

This nobleman was, firft, groom 
of the ftole : afterwards, taking a 
more open fhare of the condutl of 
affairs, he accepted the feals as fe- 
cretary of ilate. On the removal of 
Mr. P. who preferved a fort of union 
in the adminiftration by their com- 
mon dread of him, the only com- 
petition was between the D. of N. 
and L. B. The former could not 
well endure that decay ofinfluence, 
which, on a thoufand occafions, he 
muil: have fenfibly felt, and which 
the great rank he held muft have 
rendered only more painful. L. B, 
on the other hand, could not bear 



to fee the treafury boar4, which, 
under whatever limitations, was 
attended with fo much power, in 
the hands of his rival. It is in- 
deed a department, the entire con- 
duiSl of which isabfolutely elTential 
to the perfon who has any preten- 
fions to be at the head of the Bri- 
tilh adminiftration. 

Thefe principles foon prodaced 
their natural eftecl. In a fhort time 
the D. of N. thought himfelf ob- 

May 26 ^'S^*^ \° ""^^S"* and the 
■^ ' L. B. became firf!: com- 
miflloner of the treafury. This re- 
fignatipn was followed by that of 
others of greater conlideration for 
their rank and influence. No one 
was furprifed at the ferment which 
enfued ; in which perfonal refent- 
Jiient, party violence, and national, 
or rather local prejudices, were all 
united, to throw every thing into 

In this condition of parties, a 
numberofthofe called Whigs, who 
had loll their places, being highly 
irritated at the late changes, and 
even many of thofe who llill con- 
tinued in employments, being fup- 
pofed attached to the intereft of the 
I), of N. and therefore' not to be 
depended on by the new admini- 
ftra.tion, it became aeceffary to 
have recourfe to thofe called To- 
ries, or country gentlemen. 

From the beginning of this reign 
it had been profeiTed, with the ge- 
neral applaufe of all good men, to 
abolilh thofe odious party diftinc- 
tions, and to extend the royal fa- 
vour and protection equally to all 
his majefty's fubjecls. The perfons 
called Tories had, befides, been 
before aftive in lapport of fome of 
thofe, who now clamoured at the 
very meafures which they had them- 
felves, more than once, adopted. 

However, occafion was taken from 
thence to endeavour at the revival 
of this almoft exploded dillinftion. 
There were great heats, which were 
blown into a combuftion by every 
art, and every inl^rument of party, 
that had ever proved eiFeclual upoa 
fimilar occalions. 

Whilft the nation was thus dif- 
trucled, the conduft of a war be- 
came difficult ; its continuance un- 
fafe; and its fupplies uncertain. If 
the adminiilration failed, their fai- 
lure would be conftrued into inca- 
pacity ; if they fucceeded, their fuc- 
ccfs would be converted into an ar- 
gument for fuch terms of peace, aa 
it would be impoffible for them ta 
procure. Above all, the ancient and 
known connedlion between the. 
chiefs of the monied intereft and 
the principal perfons in the oppofi- 
tion, muft have been a fubjecl of 
great anxiety to the admjniination. 

Tliefe caufes co-operated to ren- 
der the intentions of the Britilh mi- 
niltry towards peace altogether cor- 
dial and fincere; and they thought, 
themfelves abundantly jultlned ia- 
their wifhes for it at this junfture, 
both from the fucceffes aod the bur- 
thens of the nation ; from the flou- 
rilhing ftate of fome of their allies, 
and the doubtful ftate of others ; 
and in general, from thofe argu- 
ments of humanity, which made it 
high time that Europe fnould enjoy 
fome interval of repofe. 

Both courts thus concurring in the 
fame point, all difnculties wercfpee- 
dily fmoothed. It is faid, that the 
firll overtures were made under the 
mediation of his Sardinian majefty. 
As foon as terms were propofed, ia 
order to give a pledge to each other 
of their mutual iincerity, it was 
agreed that this treaty fhould not be 
negociated, as the former had been, 



byfubordinateperfons; but that the 
two courts fhould reciprocally fend 
to London and Verfailles a perfon 
of the firft confequence and dillinc- 
tion in either kingdom. Accord- 
ingly the duke of Bedford was fent 
to negociate on the part of Eng- 
land, and the duke de Nivernois on 
that of France ; the great outlines 
of the treaty were very foon ex- 
plained and adjuiled. The detail of 
fome articles took up more time. 

During this mixed 
and treaty, the French obtained a 
temporary advantage ; but which 
neither fufpended nor influenced 
the negotiation. It was the laft of- 
fenfive effort which they made ; 
and though this enterprize was at- 
tended with a temporary fuccefs in 
the execution, it was in the defign 
not fuperior to any of thofe that had 
failed. Monlieurde Ternay, with a 
fquadron of four men of war and a 
bomb-ketch, and M.d'Haufonville, 
with a proportionable number of 
land forces, arrived the 24th of June 
atthebayofBulIsin Newfoundland, 
and findingt he ifland lit tie prepared 
to refilt the,m, took, without diffi- 
culty, the forts of St. John, Trinity, 
and Carboncar, deftroyed the two 
laft, and likewife the ftages and im- 
plements of the fifhery to a confide- 
rable value. The immenfe extent of 
our military operations, rendered it 
little wonderful or blameable, that 
this particularpart was found weak. 

The French prefumed by far too 
much on the fupinenefs of the na- 
tion, when they hoped fuch an ad- 
vantage could have any great efFedl 
on the negotiation. In fail, as foon 
as the news arrived in England, a 
force was fitted out to retake thofe 
places. But fuch was the vigilance 
and readinefs of general Amherft, 
our commander in America, that it 

fuperfeded the neceffity of this ar- 
mament. He detached colonel Am- 
herft with a body of forces, and lord 
Colville with a fmall, but fufficient 
fquadron, to recover this valuable 
ifland. The land forces attacked 
fome detachments of the French, 
advantageoufly polled in the neigh- 
bourhood ofSt. John's, and prepar- 
ed to attack St. John's itfelf, with 
fomuch vigour anda6livity,thatM. 
d'Haufonville, who had remained 
there as governor, thought proper 
to deliver up that place, and fur- 
render himfelf and gar- o .. o 
■ r .r r ^ Sept. 18. 

nfon pnfoners of war, ^ 

before lord Colville could arrive 
from the place where the troops had 
been landed to co-operate with 
them. M. de Ternay efcaped with 
the fleet, partly by having gained a 
confiderable diftance, before they 
were difcovered,by means of a thick 
fog ; and partly becaufe lord Col- 
ville, after their having been difco- 
vered, did not apprehend that they 
really were the enemy's fhips. 

It was in Germany that the great- 
eft cfrorts were made. Even after 
the negotiations had been confide- 
rably advanced, the military ope- 
rations were in that country no way 
flackened. The body under the 
marfhals d'Etrees and Soubifc, be- 
ing ftreightened, in the manner we 
have feen, by the incomparable 
judgment of prince Ferdinand's 
meafures, had been obliged to call 
that under the prince of Conde 
from the Lower Rhine to their af- 
fiftance. In order to complete their 
junction with this corps, the grand 
army uncovered Caflel, quitted the 
banks of the Fulda, and fell back 
to a confiderable diftance. The he- 
reditary prince cf Brunfwick, who 
had attended this corps all along, 
thought at length afairopportunity 



liad occurred of ilriklng a decifive 
- blow agiinllir. With this 

■^"2- 30- aid he attacked, with his 
ufual vivacity, that part of the 
French armv, which was polled at a 
place called the heightsof Joliannil- 
berg, near the banks of the Wetter. 
At firft hisfuccets was anfwerable to 
his own expeftations, and the cou- 
rage of his troops. He drove the ene- 
my entirely from the high grounds 
into the plain, but whilll he purlued 
his advantage, the body he attacked 
was reinforced by the main army. 
The aftion, which began fo favour- 
ably for the allies, ended in a de- 
feat. They loll above three thou- 
fand men in killed, wounded, and 
prifoners. The hereditary prince, 
who had, through the whole action, 
made the mod powerful efforts, and 
cxpofed himfelf to thegreateft dan- 
gers, received a wound from a 
mufket-ball in his hip-bone, from 
which his life was a long time 
doubtful, and his recovery linger- 
ing and tedious. Whilft his life 
continued in danger, the concern 
was unufual, and common to both 
armies ; both taking an interell in 
the prefervation of a prince, as 
much endeared for his humanity, 
as admired for his valour and mili- 
tary genius. 

A victory of the greatell import- 
ance could not have more fully 
difplayed the fuperiority of prince 
Ferdinand's capacity in the condudl 
of a war, than his meafures after 
this defeat. The Fxench were not 
fuffered to derive the fmallell ad- 
vantage from this vidory ; nor did 
the allies lofe a foot of ground. 
Thecommunication withCaffelwas 
ftill at the mercy of the allies. The 
French, in theirretreat,had thrown 
a garrifon of ten thoufand men into 
that place ; and the prince made 

Vol. V. 

immediate and vigorous prepara- 
tiona to beliege it. 

When the prince had adjufted his 
army to cover the fiege, the French 
took advantage of his movement 
for that purpofe,to repafs the Lahne 
nearGiefian, and advanced towards 
Marpurg. But as they advanced, 
the prince drew his army from the 
fiege, and made fuch difpofitions as 
enabled him to fall at once upoa 
their flank and rear, drove c ^ 

them from all their polls, ^ * * 
and obliged them once more to fly 
with precipitation behind the Lahne» 

After this fuccefbful affair, the 
body of the army refumed their pre- 
parations for the fiege of Caffel, 
which vvas now become the grand 
objeft of the campaign ; and the 
great purpofe of the endeavours of 
both armies was, of the one to 
open the communication withCai^ 
fel, of the other to cut it off. 

A number of feirmilhes happened 
in thefe movements. The m.oll re« 
markableamongthemwas q 
theaffairofBuckerMuhl, ^^P^" 3°» 
not fo much for the confequences, 
which were not extraordinary, but 
for the uncommon Ileadinefs of the 
two parties engaged. It was a poll 
of fome moment, the forcing of 
which would facilitate to the French 
the redaction of Am.onebourg, a 
fmall fortrefs, but of importance, 
as it commanded a pafs which led 
into the country which they pro- 
pofed to enter. This poft was 
nothing more than a bridge over 
the Ohme, defended by a flight re- 
doubt on one fide, and by a mill ott 
the other. The allies had no cover, 
except the redoubt ; nor theFrench, 
except the mill. The engagement 
began at firft between two fmall bo- 
dies, and an artillery proportion- 
ably fmall ; but as the action warm- 

[£] ed. 



eC, the artillery was gradually aug- 
mented, until it amounted to about 
five and twenty heavy cannon on a 
fide. The allies had originally but 
one hundred men in this port : but 
before the bufinefs ended, Teven- 
teen complete battalions were en- 
gaged, who fucceflively relieved 
each other, after each detachment 
had made fifty difcharges. The ar- 
tillery fired at a diftance of three 
hundred paces, and the mufquetry 
at thirty. Befides, the allied troops, 
as they paffed to and from the re- 
doubt, were, for a length of four 
hundred paces, expofed to all the 
enemy's cannon loaded with grape 

The fituation of the French was 
isearly the fame, A dreadful fire 
was Supported between thefe refo- 
lute bodies, without a moment's 
intermiflion, or the leaft flackening 
on one fide or the other, for near 
iifteen hours, from the dawn of 
day to dark night. Neither fide 
gave way; and this moft bloody 
conteft for a moft trifling objeft in 
the end left the allies in the pof- 
feffion of their redoubt, and the 
French of their mill. The whole 
compafs of military hiftory furnifhes 
uoinftanceof foobllinate a difpute. 
The allies loft fix hundred men 
in killed and wounded ; towards 
ihe clofe of the day, the dead bodies 
ferved to raife a parapet for the 
redoubt, in the place of that which 
had been beat to pieces by the 

The French are thought to have 
fuft'ered more in this atlion than 
the allies. However, though they 
did not fucceed in their attack 
upon the bridge, they battered at 
the fame time the caftle of Amone- 
bourg, with fo much fury, that in a 
itiort time they effefted a breach. 

and obliged the garrifon to furreil- 
der. By this advantage they gained 
a good deal of ground, and even 
got on the rear of the allied army. 
But with this advantage, confider- 
able as it was, they were able to 
do nothing decifive : they were able 
neither to raife, nor materially to 
difturb the fiege of Caffel, which 
went on without interruption ; nor 
were they able to throw the leaffc 
relief into this place, where their 
garrifon already began to fufi:er for 
want of provifions. 

This capital of an unfortunate 
principality, which has fo often been 
taken and retaken during the courfe 
of this war, defpairing of relief, at 
length furrendered to the ^ 
viftorious arms of the al- 
lies, after a fiegeof fifteen days open 
trenches. The garrifon made an 
honourable capitulation. And now 
prince Ferdinand might confider 
himfelf as mafter of HeiTe, no place 
of llrcngth in that country remain- 
ing in the enemy's hands, except 
Ziegenhayn. Advanced as the fea- 
fon was, the prince prepared to lay 
fiege to that fortrefs ; and as he 
was now able to draw down his 
whole army into that quarter, there 
was no queftion but he would have 
made himfelf mafter of the place 
withoutany difficulty. Bulthefign- 

ine of the preliminaries ^t 

Z' . u- • Nov. ic. 

of peace, at this time, no- ^ 

tified in the two armies, put an 

happy conclufion to all military 


Thefe preliminaries had very 

little to do towards completing the 

relief of our allies; except that they 

fet the feal on their good fortune, 

and prevented their being expofed 

any longer to the chances of war. 

This campaign, though it was not 

diftinguiflied by any great decifive 



Victory, was not thelefs honourable 
to the commander of the troops. A 
connecl:ed feries of judicious and 
fpirited operations produced all the 
efFeds, which could be propofed 
from a fmgle and brilliant ftroke. 
At this period, the French, after 
having for fix years exerted almoft 
the whole undivided Itrength of 
their monarchy upon this fingleob- 
jedl, were, in the end, very little 
more advanced than they were the 
day they firll fet their foot in Ger- 
many. The polTeffion of three or 
four poor unimportant places was 
all they had purchafed by many 
millions of treafure expended, and 
poffibly near two hundred thoufand 
lives thrown away. 

The whole body of the allies ac* 
quired great and juft glory in this 
war ; but the Englifh had all along 
the poll of honour, and obtained 
the higheft reputation. As to their 
commander, the Duke of Branf- 
wick, having begun his operations 
almoll without any army, having 
continued the war with an army 
always inferior in numbers, having 
experienced every variety of for- 
tune, his capacity and his firmnefs 
carried him with credit through 
all; and enabled him to conclude 
the war with a triumphant fupe- 
rlority. He may now enjoy, in the 
honourable repofe which his ex- 
ploits have purchafed for himfelf 
and his country, the beft of re- 
wards, the confcioufnefs of public 
fervice, Pofterity will confider him 
as the Deliverer of Germany. 

The Englifh troops, after fo many 
fatigues and dangers, at length en- 
joyed the profpecl: of a fpeedy re- 
turn to their country; but a general 

damp was caft fuddenly on their 
joy by the illnefs of lord Granby ; 
who was attacked by a very dan- 
gerous and long- continued fever. 
It is impoffible to exprefs the con- 
cern of the whole army duritig 
this anxious interval, or the joy 
which enlivened every b'reaft on 
his recovery. No commander had. 
ever been more diliinguifhed for an 
enterprifing and generous courage ; 
and none half fo mtich for an un- 
limited benevolence. The fick and 
wounded foldiej-, the officer whofe 
income was unequal to his rank or 
hisneceGitieSjin him found a never- 
failing and never-burthenfome re- 
fource. Whatever could be done 
to animate the fcldiery, to make 
them chearful in the fervice, to 
alleviate the hardlTiips of war, was 
exerted bevond what could be 
thought pollible in the limits of 
a private fortune ; and the fatifl 
faftion of the receiver went always 
beyond the aftual benefit, becaufe, 
in his greateft liberality, it was evi- 
dent that he wilhed to do a thou- 
fand times more. By his whole 
ccndudl heinfpired foreigners with 
a favourable idea of the Eneliih. 
nobility. His charaCler is, indeed, 
fuch as we are apt in romantic ideas 
fondly to conceive ot our old Eng- 
lifh barons. It is with pleafure we 
attempt, however feebly, to do 
juflice to the merit of thofe men, 
living or dead, who, in this me- 
morable war, have contributed to 
raife this country to a pitch of glo- 
ry, in -which it has not been ex- 
ceeded by any other in ancient or 
modern times. Future hilTrory will 
pay them a reward more adequate 
to their merits. 





Siege and fmrender of Sch-iXieiciiiit^. TFar transferred to Saxony. Aufiriam 
defeated at Freyberg. Friijfans ra'vage the empire. Preliminaries of 
peace betnueen Great Britain and France. Difputcs concerning them, 
Mr. F, comes into the adminifration. Preliminaries appro<ved by parlia- 
ment. Peace of Iluhertjboitrg bet'ween Auftria and PruJJia, Conclu- 

WHILST the courts of London 
and Verfailles were making 
fo confiderable a progrefs towards 
peace, thofe of Vienna and Berlin 
ieemed to remit nothing of their 
ancient animofity. The king of 
Pruflia, deprived of the afiiitance, 
but at the fame time freed from the 
hoUility of the Ruffians, direfted 
his whole force and attention to- 
wards the fingle objeft of driving 
the Auftrians out of Silefia. 

Prince Henry, who commanded 
in Saxony, contented himfelf with 
afling upon the defenfive. The 
king in perfon carried on the fiege 
of Schweidnitz, almoll in the pre- 
fence of marshal Daun, who fcarce 
made any attempt to relieve it. But 
whatever deficiency there might 
have been in the fpirit of the grand 
arrny of the Auftrians, it was am- 
ply compenfated by the obftinate 
bravery of the garrifon, which re- 
fifted all the attacks of the Pruffians 
for near two months from the open- 
ing of the trenches. It is faid that 
the attack was conduced, and the 
defence made, by two engineers, 
who had written on the fubjedl of 
the Attack and Defence of Places ; 
and they were now praflically en- 
gaged to prove the fuperiority of 
their feveral fyftems, 

However this rriaybe, Schweid* 
nitz coft the kingof Pruffia a great 
deal of time, many laborious ef- 
forts, and a number of men. The 
brave garrifon, to the number of 
eight thoufand men, were ^^ 
at length obliged to fur- ' °' 

render prifoners of war. Their ill 
fortune purfued them every where, 
A great part of this body of gallant 
prifoners were drowned at the mouth 
of the Oder, on their pafTage to 
their intended confinement at Ko- 
nigfberg, only nine men of the 
whole number efcaping. 

The king of Pruffia, now mafter 
of Schweidnitz, and confequentljr 
of Sileua, turned his attention to 
Saxony, where he confiderably re- 
inforced his brother's army, and 
made preparations which indicated 
a defiga of laying fiege to Drefden. 

In Saxony alfo the Auftrians be- 
gan to exert themfelves with great 
fpirit ; and made fome progrefs 
under the generals Stolberg and 
Pladdick. They obtained confi- 
derable advantages, in feveral en- 
counters, over the army of prince 
Henry; and even pulhed them back 
to Freyberg ; the poffeffion of which 
place they prepared to difpute with 
the Pruffians. 

But here fortune^ which has fel- 



dom proved long conftant to their 
arms, entirely foribok them. The 
united army of Imperialifts and 
^o Auftrians was attacked by 

' 9' prince Henry, (who took 
advantage of the abfence of gene- 
ral Haddick,) in the neighbour- 
hood of Freyberg, and totally rout- 
ed. Great numbers were flain. 
The PruiTians took near two thou- 
fand prifoners, among whom were 
about two hundred and forty oi5- 
cers of all ranks, thirty pieces of 
cannon, and feveral ftandards. The 
vidtory was complete, and, as far 
as regarded the event of the cam- 
paign, deciiive. 

The Auftrians attributed this de- 
feat to the treachery of one of their 
fuperior officers, who was foon after 
taken into cullody. But whilrt they 
were inquiring into the caufe of 
their difafter, and preparing to pu- 
nilh the author of it, the Pruffians 
were pufhing the advantages which 
their victory afforded them with all 
imaginable alacrity. And this they 
were enabled to do with the great- 
eft effect, by means of a partial cef- 
fation of hoftilities, which the Auf- 
trians were fo imprudent as to con- 
clude with the king of Prulfia for 
Silefiaand the electoral Saxony on- 
ly, without forefeeing the danger, 
or providing for the fafety, either of 
their own immediate dominions, or 
of thofe members of the empire, 
which were the moft attached to their 
interetts, nnd which were now ex- 
pofed to the attempts of a bold, ra- 
pacious, and exafperated enemy. 

One body of the Prufiian armv 
broke into Bohemia, pufhed on a!- 
moft to the gates of Prague, and 
deftroyed a capital magazine. Ano- 
ther fell upon the fame country on 
another quarter, and laid the town 
cf Egra almoft in aPaes, by a bom' 

bardment and a cannonade of red- 
hot bullets. Some extended them- 
felves all over Saxony ; others pene- 
trated into the fartheft parts of Fran- 
conia, and even as far as Suabia, 
ravaging the country, exacting the 
moft exorbitant contributions, and 
fpreading difmay and confufion up- 
on every fide. The diet of the em- 
pire fitting at Ratilbon did not think 
themfelves in fafety; but were be- 
ginning to fly, and preparing to 
remove their records. 

The free city of Nuremberg, fo 
famous for the ingenious induftry, 
and pacific difpofition of it's inhabi- 
tants, fuffered the moft by this in- 
vafion ; having been obliged to pay 
contribution to the amount of two 
hundred thoufand pounds of our 
money. It has been fuppofed, that 
in this expedition the Pruffians raif- 
ed a fum equal to the annual fub- 
lidy, which had formerly been paid 
by Great Britain to their fovereign. 
Many of the ftates found themfelves 
obliged to fign a neutrality, in or- 
der to fave their territories from 
farther ravages. 

And now, a great part of the 
empire being already included in 
the peacebetween GreatBritain and 
France, and the reft, tied down 
by this neutrality, entirely difabled 
by the late defeat, or exhaufted 
by the fubfequent incurfions, were 
no longer in a condition to fur- 
nlfla an army under the imperial 
name and authority. After the 
whole alliance had been thus gra- 
dually diffolved, the affair was, at 
length, left to be decided, as it was 
begun, by the nngle arms of Auftria 
and Pruffia; fo that there was great 
reafon to hope, as the war in Ger- 
many had fucceeded immediately to 
the rupture between Great Britain 
and France, the peace between 

[E] 3 thefe 


thefe powers would alfo lead to the 
fpeedy pacification of the empire. 

The preliminaries had been fign- 
ed by ihe Britifh and French minif- 
ters at Fontainbleau, on the third 
of November ; and icis necefiary.for 
the completion of our defign, that 
we ftould here give fome account 
of the definitive treaty which was 
bailt upon them. 

The reader will recolleft that, in 
the negotiation of 1761, it was laid 
down as a principle by the two 
courts, that their refpedive propo- 
iitions, in cafe the treaty fhould by 
any accident be broken oiF, were to 
be confidered as retraced or never 
made. At that time we remarked, 
that thefe propofilions would pro- 
bably have their influence, notwith- 
llanding this provifion ; becaufe, 
as we then obferved, things once 
fettled and agreed to, unavoidably 
ilamp their own impreffion upon any 
future negotiations relative to the 
fame fubjeft. It happened very 
nearly, as was then forefeen : for, 
as far as we can judge, the negoti- 
ation did not fet out upon any new 
or peculiar principle of its own, 
but fcemed to alTume as a bafis thofe 
points which were neareft to an 
adjuftment in the preceding treaty ; 
and to commence where that tranf- 
adlion concluded. 

The fpirit of the two negotiations, 
fo far as regarded the peculiar in- 
tereft of Great Britain, feems to 
have been perfedlly fimilar. There 
was fcarcely any other difference, 
than that Great Britain, in confe- 
quence of her fucceffes fince that 
time, acquired more than fhe then 
demanded ; but Itill the general 
idea, on which fhe acquired, was 
nearly or altogether the fame. But 
with regard to fome of our allies, 
the principle was greatly varied j 

and we imagine that this change 
was fufficiently juftified by the alte- 
ration, which happened in the af- 
fairs of Germany, during the in- 
terval between the two treaties. 
Thofe who conduced the negotia- 
tion in 176 1, were fteady in re- 
jedling every propofition, in which 
they were not left at liberty to aid 
the king of Pruffia, with the u'hole 
force of Great Britain; thofe who 
concluded the peace in 1762, paid 
lefs attention to the interefts, 
though they did not wholly negledl 
the fafety of that monarch. At 
the beginning of the year, and be- 
fore they had entered into this ne- 
gotiation, they refufed to renew 
that article of the annual treaty, by 
which our court had engaged to 
conclude no peace without the king 
of Pruffia ; though at the fame time 
they declared themfelves willing 
to alfift him with the ufual fubfidy. 
He on his part refufed the fublidy 
unconnedled with that article. Some 
coldnefs grew between the two 
courts from this time forward. 

The adjuftment of affairs in the 
empire, feemed to form no mate- 
rial impediment to the progrefs of 
the treaty. Both parties readily 
agreed to withdraw themfelves to- 
tally from the German warf. They 
thought, and rightly, that nothing 
could tend fo much to give peace 
to their refpeftive allies, as mu- 
tually to withdraw their affiftance 
from them ; and to flop that cur- 
rent of Englifh and French motiey, 
which, as long as it ran into Ger- 
many, would be fure to feed a per- 
petual war in that country. 

Circumftanced as affairs thea 
were, this condud on our fide was 
as defenfible as the conduft which 
we held in 1761. At that time the 
affairs of the king of Prulfia were at 

t Dcf. treat, art. xvi 


tlie lowed ebb ; he was overpower- 
ed by the whole weight of Auftria, 
of Sweden of the empire, and of 
Ruffia, as determined as ever in her 
enmitv, and then fuccefsful ; to fay- 
nothing of France. Neither gene- 
rofity, nor perhaps found policy, 
ought to have permitted us to de- 
fert him in that fituation. But 
when the laft treaty was made, the 
condition of his affairs was abfo- 

pacified by the ftipulation for the 
evacuation of Portugal*^. This was, 
indeed, with regard to the contract- 
ing courts, the primary objeifl. 

Whatremained after the concerns 
of the allies were provided for, was 
the adj uftment of what related to the 
fettlementsand commerce of Great- 
Britain and the Bourbon courts. 
The difficulty, which prevented this 
adj uftment in the preceding r.ego- 

lutely reverfed. He had got rid of tiation, was the intervention of the 
the mod powerful, and one of the claims of Spain. The attempt of 

moft implacable, of his enemies. 
He had concluded a peace with 
Sweden. The treaty itfelf freed 
him from all apprehenfions of 
France. He had then none to con- 
tend with, but a nominal army of 
the empire, and one of Auftria, 
which though fdmething more than 
nominal, was wholly unable to op- 
pofe his progrefs. His fituation, 
from being pitiable, was become 
formidable. It was good policy 
to prevent the balance of Ger- 
many from being overturned to 
his prejudice: it would have been 

the Bourbon powers to intermix and 
confound their affairs in the pre- 
ceding negotiation, had a (hare in 
making the war more genera] ; oa 
this occafion it had a contrary ef- 
feft. As the whole was now nego- 
tiated together, it facilitated the 
peace, by affording eafier methods 
of adjulHng the fyftem of compenfa- 
tion, and furnifhing more largely to 
the general fund of equivalents. 

The great objeft, and the ori- 
ginal caufe of the war, had beea 
the fettlement of limits in Ameri- 
ca. This was therefore the firft ob- 

the worft mi the world to overturn jeft to be attended to in the treaty. 

it in his favour. 

Thefe principles fufficiently ex- 
plain and juuify the different con- 
duft of this nation, at thefe two 
periods, towards the king of Pruf- 
fia. The demand of the evacuation 
of Wefel, Cleves, and Gueldres, 
which had been made in the firft 
negotiation, was then juftly except- 
ed to, becaufe we refufed to put an 
end to the German war. In this 
laft the French agreed to it, and 
with reafon, becaufe we agreed in 
common with them to be neutral 
in the difputes of the empire. And 
on thefe principles, the peace of 
Germany, fo far as it depend.'d 
on Great-Britain and France, was 
rcllored. The reft of Europe was 

And it muft be obferved, that this 
point was much more accurately, 
as well as beneficially, fettled, thaa 
it promifed to be in the negotiation 
of the foregoing year. For the 
French, not having afcertained the 
bounds between their own feveral 
poffeffions with greater exaftnefs, 
than they had thofe between their 
poffeflions and ours, it was not 
clear, in ceding Canada, how much 
they ceded to us. Difputes might 
have arifen, and did indeed im-* 
mediately arife upon this fubjedl. 
Befides, the weftern limits of our 
fouthern continental colonies were 
not mentioned. And thofe limits 
were extremely obfcure, and fub- 
jert to many difcuIEons. Such 
[£] 4 dif- 

* Def. tr. ait, xxi. 


difc'jflions contained in ■^hem the 
feeds of a new war. In the laft 
treaty it was agreed, that a line 
drawn along the middle of the river 
Miflifippi, from its fource to the ri- 
•ver Iberville (a fmall but navigable 
branch of the MiiTifippi), and thence 
along the middle of thisj-iver, and 
the Takes of Maurepas and Pont- 
chartrain, (which L'kes communi- 
cate with both rivers) to the fea, 
fliould be the bounds of the two 
nations in North America*. 

Nothing could be more diftinft 
than this boundary. It gave us, in 
addition to what w !s properly Ca- 
nada, a very large tract of territory 
vhich the French ufed to include 
under the name of Louifiana ; to 
which our claims were never clearly 
afcertained, and much lefs efta- 
bliflied by any pofleffion. The 
Prench have had for a long time 
forts and fettlements in that coun- 
try ; whereas the Englifh never had 
either the one or the other ; and this 
IS a conlideration of no fmall mo- 
ment in a contefl: concerning rights 
in a country fuch as America. 

What added alfo to the rounding 
©four territories, and cutting off the 
occafions of limitary difputes, was 
the ceffion of Florida on the part of 
Spainf . This country indeed makes 
no great figure in the commercial 
world; and cannot be therefore put 
in competition with the other con- 
quefts. But, from the fituation of 
its harbours of Penfacola and Mo- 
bile, it affords fome advantages in 
time of peace, and very confider- 
able ones in time of war ; by con- 
necting our future fettlements on 
the Miffifippi with thofe upon the 
Atlantic ocean, and by enabling us 
greatly to diftrefs, if not wholly to 
deftroy, the trade of the Spaniards 
an cafe of a rupture with them. 

* Def. tr. ai t. viiu f Def. tr 

The navigation of the Miffifippi was 
made common to both nations J. 

By the treaty of Utrecht, which 
fettled our northern limits, and by 
this treaty which afcertained thofe 
to the well, our pofleffions in Ame- 
rica are as well defined, as the na- 
ture of fuch a country can poffibly 
admit. They comprehend in their 
extent the foundation of a vaft em- 
pire; they have many advantages 
of foil and climate; and many, of 
iniercourfe and communication, by 
the number of noble lakes and na- 
vigable rivers, with which that part 
of the world abounds. Thefe cir- 
cumilances afford, though a diftant^ 
a fair profpeft of commerce to Great 
Britain, when this immenfe country 
comes to be fully peopled, and pro- 
perly cultivated. Some advantages 
alfo we derive from this pofTeffion, 
that are not oniy confiderable, but 
immediate; among the principal of 
which mufl be reckoned, the mono- 
poly of the fur and peltry trade of 
North America, much the greatefl 
trade of that kind in the world, and 
which is now, we may fay, entirely in 
cur hands. Befides, the poffelfion of 
Canada enlarged the fphere of our 
filhery, and took from the French an 
opportunityoftrade,which fhe might 
employ greatly to our detriment. 

Such are the advantages fairlyi 
and without any exaggeration, for 
which we are indebted to this part 
of the treaty, in which the interelts 
of Grfat Britain are well weighed 
and folidly provided for. 

The next point we fhallconfider, 
is the arrangement made concern- 
ing the Newfoundland nfhery. This 
was a point of infinite importance, 
and a fubjed of much controverfy. 
In a commercial view it is certainly 
of great eftimation. But it has been 
confidered as even more material 

art. XX, X Def. tr. art. vii. 


(hall not approach within three 
leagues of any of the coafts belong- 
ing to England. 

This precaution was taken, not 
only with a view of abridging the 
French fifhery of dry cod, but prin- 
cipally in order to prevent their 
landing, and, on that pretence, 
forming fettlements on thofe ex- 
tenfive deferts, which furround the 
gulf of St. Laurence. Otherwife 
this privilege mightbecomea means 
of exciting new controverfies be- 
tween the two nations. 

In compenfation for the ceffioa 
of theifles of Cape Breton and St» 
John to England, we agreed to fur- 
render to France ihe fmall iflandsof 
St. Pierreand Miquelon, fituated to 
the fouth of Newfoundland f. The 
ceffion of the two former iflands was, 
unquefi:ionably,more than an equi- 
valent for the two latter, though 
the latter are by no means either 
inccmmodiouny Jituated or ill cir- 
cumftanced for carrying on the 
fifhery. The French llipulatcd to 
erecl no fortifications on thefe 
iflands, nor to keep more than fifty 
foldiers to enforce the police. In 
this inftance the plan of the former 
negotiation was purfued. The 
ideas of a refident commifTary, and 
the occafional vifitation by a fhip 
of war, were omitted, as regula- 
tions, which were in truth more 
humiliating to France, than in any 
refpecl advantageous toour intereft. 

This fifhery was, as it had beea 
at the treaty of Utrecht, divided 
between France and England, but 
with lefs equality on this than on 
that occafion. The French are nos 
wholly deprived of their fhare ; but 
this fhare is confiderably impair- 
ed. Their lofs of Cape Brecon 
does not appear to be fully fup- 
plied bj St. Pierre and Miquelon, 

f Pef. tr. art. vi. 

in a political light. Every body 
knows that thej'e exteniive fifheries 
are the life of many maritime 
places, which would otherwife be 
of no fort of value ; that they are 
the great nurferies of feamen, and 
confequently the great refburces of 
the marine. Scarce any objedl 
could be of more importance to 
two nations, who contended for a 
fuperiority in naval power. 

The more clearly therefore it 
was the intereft of Great-Britain to 
acquire the exclufive exercife of 
this iiniery, the more ftrongly and 
evidently it became the intereil of 
France to oppofe themfelves to 
fuch a pretenfion. Not only a 
large part of her foreign trade de- 
pended on this fifhery ; but a great 
part of her domeuic fupply, Be- 
fides, every hope of the l^rength, 
and almofi of the exiilence, of a 
naval power, mult vanifh with the 
cefTion of the fifhery. 

The Englifh adminiftration pro- 
bably faw, that France would ra- 
ther run all the hazards of war, 
than totally reiinquifh this objeft. 
Since therefore they defpaired of 
driving the French entirely from 
the fifhery, they endeavoured as 
much as poflible to diminifh its va- 
lue to them. In this refpecl they 
followed the plan of the former ne- 
gotiation, except that fome im- 
provements were added. 

In the firfl place, that article of 
the treaty of Utrecht was eftablifh- 
ed, by which the French were ad- 
mitted tofifh, and to dry their fifb, 
on the north-eafl and north-v/ell 
parts of Newfoundland, from Cape 
Bonavifta to Point Biche, and ex- 
cluded from the refl ofthisifland *: 
They were alfo permitted to fifh 
within the gulph of St. Laurence ; 
but with this limitation, that they 

f Pef. tr. arW Y. 


The confiderable and growing filh- 
cry, which the French had fettled 
at Gafpe, is taken away without 
hope of recovery. On the whole, 
we are thus circumftanced ; we 
have advantages in this fifhery, 
which we may certainly improve to 
a great fuperiority ; but we have 
ftill a rival, which makes it necef- 
fary to exert ourfelves with unre- 
mitting induilry in order to fe- 
cure it. 

With regard to Spain, {he en- 
tirely dejljied from the right flie 
claimed of iifliing on thefe coalls *, 
A more fatisfadtory expreffion 
could have been wifhed, if it had 
been of great importance, in what 
terms a right was renounced, 
Tvhich for a long time had never 
been exercifed. 

When the affairs of the Weft 
Indies came to be fettled, though 
they caufed great difference of 
opinion among the public, they 
do not feem to have raifed any 
great difficulty in the negotiation. 
We had here made great conquells, 
and here alfo we m.ade great con- 
ceffions. We ceded the Havan- 
nah, with a confiderable part of 
the ifland of Cuba ; the iflands 
of Martinico, Guadaloupe, Mary- 
galante, Defirade, and Santa Lu- 
cia. We retained in our hands 
the iflands of Tobago, Dominica, 
St. Vincent, and the Grenades f . 
To the three former of which (as 
well as to Santa Lucia, which we 
furrendered) we had an old claim. 
The laft only was a new acquifi- 
tion ; and the three others are at 
prefent of fmall value. 

Many cenfured with great vehe- 
mence and afperity this part of the 
treaty. They infifted that in this 
treaty we had loil fight of that great 
fundamental principle, ThatFrance 
is chiefly, if not folely, to be dread- 
ed by us in the light of a maritime 

* Def. tr. art. xiii. 

and commercial power. That there- 
fore we had, by reftoring to her all 
her valuable Weft India iflands, and 
byour conceffions in thcNewfound- 
land fifhery, left in her hands the 
means of recovering her prodigious 
lofTes, and of becoming once more 
formidable to us at iea. That the 
fiflaery trained up an innumerable 
multitude of young feamen ; and 
that the Weft-India trade em- 
ployed them when they were train- 
ed. That France had long fince 
gained a decided fuperiority over 
us in this lucrative branch of com- 
merce, and fupplied almoft all Eu- 
rope with -the rich commodities, 
which are produced only in that 
part of the world. By this com- 
merce, faid they, fhe enriched her 
merchants, and augmented her fi- 
nances ; whilft from a want of 
fugar land, which has been long 
known and feverely felt by Eng- 
land, we at once loft the foreiga 
trade, and fuffered all the in- 
conveniencies of a monopoly aC 

That, at the clofe of fo expenfive 
a war, we might very reafonably 
demand fomething towards our in- 
demnification, as well as towards 
our fecurity. It is evident, faid 
they, that our conquefts in North 
America, however they mayprovide 
for the one, are altogether inade- 
quate to theotherof thefe ends. The 
If ate of theexifting trade of thefe con- 
queftsisextremely low; the fpecula- 
tions of their future are precarious, 
and the profpeft, at the very beft, 
very remote. We ftand in need 
of fupplies, which will have an 
effecl, certain, fpeedy, and confide- 
rable. The retaining both, or even 
one of the confiderable French 
iflands, Martinico or Guadaloupe, 
will, and nothing elfe can, eftec- 
tually anfwer this triple purpofe. 
The advantage is immediate. It 

f Dcf. tr. art. viii. ix. & xix. 


had been entirely driven in this 
war, and to a coafiderable fhare of 
which they were reftored by the 
treaty. But if further concelilons 
mult be made (for which however 
they faw no neceffity) let the pro- 
digiouj demand in North Ame- 
rica be fomewhat contracted ; by 
this method we lofe nothing to our 
commtrce ; and we do not hazard 
our fecurity, as we ihall ftill be 
iafinttely fuperior in ftrength ; and 
whenever a war breaks out, that 
power will be moft fee u re, whofe 
refources are moft confiderable. 

Such are concifely, and, we flat- 
ter ourlelves, fairly, the principal 
heads of argument, brought by the 
bell: writers upon this fide of the 
queftion : they were replied to by 
the beft writers on the other, upon 
the following principles : 

That the original object of the 
war was the fecurity cf our colonies 
upon thecontinent ; thattht dan2;er 
to which thefe colonies were ex- 
pofed, and, in confequence of that 
danger, the iramenfe waHe of blood 
and treafure which enfued to Great 
Britain,together with the calamities 
which were, from the fame fource, 
deri\ed upon the four quarters of the 
world, left no fort of doubt that it 
was not only our beft but our only 
policy, to guard againft all polfibi- 
lity of the return of fuch evils. Ex- 
perience has fhewn us, that while 
France pofTeiTes any fmgle place in 
America, from whencefhemaymo- 
left cur fettleraents, they can never 
enjoy any repofe, and of courfe 
that we are never fecure from being 
plunged again into thofe calami- 
ties, from which v/e have at length, 
and with fo much difficulty, hap- 
pily emerged. To remove France 
from our neighbourhood in Ame- 
rica, or to contraft her power within 


is a matter not of conjedure, but 
of account. The trade with thefe 
conquefts is of the utmoft lucrative 
nature, and of the moft confiderable 
extent; the number of fl-iips employ- 
ed by it are a great refource to cur 
maritime power ; the monopoly at 
home is corrected, and the foreign 
trade is recovered : and, what is of 
equal weight, all that we gain on 
this fyftem is made fourfold to us 
by the lofs which enfues to France. 
But our conquefts in North Axe- 
rica, however advantageous they 
may prove to us, in the idea of fe- 
curity (for in that refpect alone 
they are cf any moment) are of very 
little detriment to the commerce 
of France, On the Weft Indian 
fchem.e of acquifition, cur gain and 
her lofs go hand in hand. 

They infifted upon the obvious 
connection of this trade with that 
of our colonies in North America, 
and with our commerce to the coaft 
of Africa. The African trade, faid 
they, will be augmented by the de- 
mand for flaves. That of North 
America will all centreinourfelves. 
Whereas if the iflands are all re- 
ftored, a great part of the benefit 
of the northern colony trade muft 
redound, as it has hitherto done, 
to thofe who were lately our ene- 
mies, and will always be our rivals. 

They obferved, that there was 
nothing extravagantor overbearing 
in this demand. That though we 
Ihould retail either Martinico or 
Guadaloupe, or even both thefe 
illands, our conquefts were fuch, 
that there was ftill abundant matter 
• lett to difplay our moderation in the 
ceffion of the reft : to fay nothing of 
our many conceffions in the filhery, 
on the coaft of Africa, and in the 
Eaft Indies ; from all which great 
provinces of commerce the French 


the narroweft limits poilible, is 
therefore the molt capital advantage 
we can obtain; and is worth pur- 
chafirig by almoft anyconceffions. 

They infiiled, that the abfolute 
fecurity derived from this plan in- 
cluded in itfelf an indemnincation : 
Firft, by faviogus, more efteftually 
than any otlier method could, from 
the neceffity of another war, and 
confequently by giving us an op- 
portunity of increafing our trade, 
and lowering our debt. Secondly, 
by permitting our colonies on the 
continent to extend themfelves 
without danger or molellation. 
They fhewed the great increafe of 
population in thofe colonies within 
a few years. They fhewed that 
their trade with the mother coun- 
try had uniformly increafed with 
this population. That being now 
freed from the moleftation of ene- 
mies, and the emulation of rivals, 
unlimited in their pofleffions, and 
fafe in their perfons, our American 
planters would, by the very courfe 
of their natural propagation, in a 
very Qiort time, furnidi out a de- 
mand of our manufadtures, as large 
as all the working hands of Great 
Britain could poflibly fupply. That 
there was therefore no reafon to 
dread that want of trade, which 
their adverfaries infinuated, fince 
North A.-nericaalone would fupply 
the deficiencies of our trade in 
every other part of the world. 

They expatiated on the great 
variety of climates, which that 
country contained, and thevaftre- 
fources which would thence arife 
to commerce. That the value of 
cur conquells thereby ought not 
to be eftimated by the prefent pro- 
duce, but by their probable in- 
creafe. Neither ought the value 
of any coantry to be folely tried oil 

its commercial advantages; that 
extent of territory and a number 
of fubjeds, are matters of as much 
confideration to a ftate attentive to 
the fources of real grandeur, as the 
mere advantages of traffic ; that 
fuch ideas are rather fuitable to a . 
limited and petty commonwealth, 
like Holland, than to a great, pow- 
erful, and warlike nation. That 
on thefe principles, having made 
very large demands in North Ame- 
rica, it was neceffary to relax in 
other parts. That France would 
never be brought to any confider- 
able ceffion in the Well Indies ; 
but that her power and increafe 
there could never become formi- 
dable, becaufe the exiftence of her 
fettlements depended upon ours in 
North America, fhe not being any 
longer left aplacefrom whence they 
can be fupplied with provifions ; 
that in lofing fomething of the fu- 
gar trade, we loil very little elfe 
than a luxury ; as to the other pro- 
duce of the Weft Indies, it might be 
in a great meafure, and in part al- 
ready was, fupplied by our poflef- 
fions on the continent, which daily 
increafed not only in the quantity, 
but in the kind of its produce. 

We do not pretend to pafs any 
judgment on the merits of the feve- 
ral fides of this queltion, which is 
certainly a very difficult one. We 
relate opinions, as well as fads, hif- 

The only point, which remained 
to be adjufted in the Weft-Indies, 
was the logwood trade. Spain con- 
fented not to difturb the Englifti in 
theiroccupatlon ofcutting logwood ^ 
in the bay of Honduras, and to per- 
mit them to occupy fuch buildings 
as may be neceffary for them in this 
occupation. Great Britain, on her 
fide, ftipulated to deftroy the forti- 


£cations which had been erected on 
that bay *. 

By this article theEngli/hacquir- 
edafqjid rightin this long contefted 
trade; but feemed, at thelametime, 
to lofe all the means of protecting it. 
It is, however, difficult to point out 
abetter method of adjuiting a claim 
of fuch a peculiar nature. The 
right we claimed was not a right 
to the territory, nor direclly to the 
produce; but only a privilege of 
cutting and taking away this wood 
by indulgence. To have infilled on 
the right of ereding fortifications, 
would have been making the ftrong- 
efl claim to an abfolute, direct, and 
exclufive dominion over the terri- 
tory itfelf ; a point, to which I do 
not find that our moft extenfive 
claims have ever been carried. 

In Africa, Goree was reftored to 
France, and Senegal remained to 
Great Britain f. This regulation 
feems to have divided the trade on 
this river, and the adjacent coaft, 
between the two nations. TheEng- 
lifh, as they are now circumftanced 
on that part, feem to be the moft 
advantageoufly fuuated for the trade 
in time of peace ; and the French 
for carrying away the whole of it 
in time of war. 

With regard to the Eaft-Indies, 
all the French factories and fettle- 
ments are reftored to that nation in 
everypartofIndia|. Although this 
muft be regarded as a very great con- 
ceffion, it does not however afford 
all thofe advantages toFrance which 
might be imagined at the firftview, 
Firft, becaufe the fortifications e- 
reded at fuch a vaft expence in all 
thofe fettlements have been totally 
deflroyed ; and it cannot be exped- 
cd, in the prefent fituation of the 
French company, that they can, in 

* Def. tr. art. xviii. f Def. 

H Def. tr. art. viii. and xii. 

the courfe of many years, if at all, 
be reltored to their former Itate. la 
Bengal (including, by an explana- 
tion annexed to the definitive treaty, 
the kingdom of Orixa) they have 
engaged to erect no kind of forti- 
fication, nor to keep any number 
of foldiers whatfoever. Secondly, 
they have agreed to acknowledge 
the prefent reigning fubas of Ben- 
gal, Decan, and the Carnatick, as 
the lawful fovereigns of thefe coun- 
tries. Thefe princes are the great- 
eft on the peninfula of India : they 
are in our intereft, and moft of them. 
owe either the acquifition, or de- 
pend for the prefervaticn, of their 
power on our arms ; by which means 
our company is become, in efFeft, 
arbiter of the commerce and politics 
of that great and opulent coaft, 
extending from the Ganges to Cape 
Comorin ; and in a great degree 
alfo of the other, from the fame 
cape to the mouth of the Indus. 
Thirdly, during the courfe of our 
fucceftesjthe traders and the manu- 
fadturers have removed from the 
French to our fettlements, where 
they will have at leaft an equal 
market, and a fuperior protedtion; 
and it will be difficult, if not im- 
poffible, to bring them back. 

Minorca and Belleifle were to be 
reftored to their former poflefibrs l(. 
The fortifications and harbour of 
Dunkirk were to be demolifhed, 
agreeable to the Itipulations of for- 
mer treaties §. 

This is the general outline ofthe 
late treaty. Thofe who chufe a more 
minute information, will recur to 
the treaty itfelf, which is printed 
among the State Papers. The par- 
ticulars given here will ferve to 
point out the fpirit and the general 
effect of that tranfadion, which has 


. tr. art. ix. J Def. tr. art. xi. 

§ Def, tr. art. xiii. 


been the fubje6l of fo much heat 
^nd controverfy; and which nothing 
but adulation will afl'ert to be free 
from defeft, nor any thing but fac- 
tion can deny to be productive of 
many very great and effentiai ad- 
vantages to this kingdom. 

This treaty, while it remained in 
agitation, formed a great crifis, not 
only in the affairs of the nation, 
but in the fortune of the new mi- 
niftry. Towards the latter end of 
the fummer, Mr. F. was called in, 
and engaged in their fupport. 
Tho' he continued in his old place 
ofpaymaller, he undertook to con- 
duit the affairs of government in 
the houfe of commons. Mr. Gr. 
whofe employment would naturally 
have engaged him in that tafk, re- 
figned the feals of fecretaryof flate, 
and was appointed firlt lord of the 
admiralty. The great experience 
and known parliamentary abilities 
of Mr, F. feemed to give new life to 
theaffairsof the adminiilration. A 
more vigorous and determined con- 
dudl was from that time adopted. 
Many of thofe, who were not per- 
feftly attached to the new fyftem, 
were immediately removed from 
their employments ; and meafures 
were taken to clear every depart- 
ment of every friend of the D. of N. 

The fpirit of thefe proceedings 
feemed to augment that of the op- 
pofition. It was apprehended, that 
the preliminaries would undergo a 
xigorous fcrutiny, and might pof- 
fibly incur a heavy cenfure from 
parliament. The terms of peace 
were criticifed without mercy. 
They were declared to be inglo- 
rious, inadequate, and unfecure ; 
unequal to the great fucceffes of the 
war, and below the juft expedla- 
tions of the nation ; that our com- 
tnerce was neglefted, and our allies 

abandoned. Public expedationV/aSj 
however, entirely difappointed* 
The preliminaries were approved, 
without any qualification, by both 
houfes ; by the lords without a di- 
vifion ; by the commons p. 
with a very difpropor- ' "' 

tionate majority. 

Many caufes concurred to pro- 
duce this moderate difpofition, 
Firft,a verygreat number^which in- 
cluded alm.oft all the Tories, were 
engaged in the fupport of the ad- 
miniltration. The then chiefs of 
the oppofition were not well agreed 
among themfelves. Mr. P. who was 
confidered as a party in himfelf^ 
had not joined with the D. of N* 
nor feemed difpofed to a£l with any 
particular body. The fame general 
plan of peace, which many now in 
the oppolition had formerly ap- 
proved, had been adopted in thefs 
preliminaries^ and evidently im- 
proved. It is true, it had been ob- 
jected, that our additional fuccelTes, 
fince that time, gave us ground to 
expert better terms; but it was an- 
fwered, that our national burthens, 
and the extent of the war, had in- 
creafed in, at Icafl:, an equal pro- 
portion J and that peace was be- 
come necefiary to the nation. 

Thefe arguments, whatever 
weight they might have in them- 
felves, were flrong againft thofe, 
upon whom they were rather re- 
torted, than for the firfl time le- 
velled, being altogether agreeable 
to the fyflem which many now in 
oppofition had always purfued, and 
to the fentiments many of them had 
publicly avowed, and perhaps flill 
fecretly retained. On the whole, it 
wasevident, that, when the queftion 
came on, the difcontented party was 
found not very well united, and ab- 
folutely unprovided of any regular 



fcheme of oppofition. However, the horfes of his artillery to aid 
though baffled on this occafion, it them in their cultivati-on. 
has iince begun to revive and to Europe is now pacified ; and flie 
unite; and though peace is happily begins to refpire, after a more ge- 
reftored with foreign powers, our neral and a more bloody war than 
domeilic quiet is Itill f^r from be- any the world experienced fince that 
ing fecurely eftablifiied. which was concluded by the peace 
With regard to the powers in of Weftphalia. As far as it is fafe 
Germany, the peace between Eng- to judge concerning a fyftem which 
land and France, and the fuperiority isfubjedtofo great and unforefeen 
of the king of Pruffia at the clofe variation, and fometimes from very 
of the campaign, infpired at length, flight caufes, this peace proraifes 
and unwillingly, a difpofition to a conilderable duration. The king 
peace. Conferences were opened at of Pruffia will hardly again com- 
Hubertfbargh,andatreatyconclud- mit his affairs, fo miracaioufly re- 
ed between his Prul!ian majefty and trieved, to the chances of war. 
the emprefs queen. As aiFairs in He fees how dearly he has a fe- 
this treaty were fpeedilyadjufted,fo cond time purchafed his conqueft 
•^hey may be very concifely related, of Silefia, and he will hardly aim 
The fubflance of it was no more at new acquifition?. The emprefs, 
than that a mutual reftitution and fince fhe failed to reduce Silefia, 
oblivion fhould take place, and each or even to recover the fmalleft par- 
party fit down at the end of the war tide of her lofTes, with fuch an 
in the fame fituation in which they exertion of her own ftrength, and 
began it. There has been talk of a with fuch an alliance as never was 
fecret article, which promifed fome feen united before, and with which 
kind of indemnification for the fhe can never flatter herfelf again, 
king of Poland ; bat of this there mufi: be convinced how vain it is 

is nothing of certainty. The king 
of PralTia, after having for fix years 
contended againit the efforts of al- 
moil all thegreat powersof Europe, 
by whofe enmity he could be afFed;- 
ed, having flood proof againft the 
mofl terrible blows of fortune, en- 
joys at length the full reward of his 
uncommon magnanimity. He re- 

to attempt any change in the pre- 
fent fyftera of Germany. 

Whilil RufCa remains circum- 
flanced as fhe feems to be at pre- 
fent, there is a very good profpedt 
for the tranquillity of the North. 

France has turned her thoughts 
to a much wanted oeconomy, and 
the re-eltab!ifhment of her marine. 

tains his dominions in their utmoll She has reduced her land forces by 

extent; and having delivered his above one half. England, without 

countryby his incomparable talents ieffening the ordinary eflablifh- 

for war, he now enjoys leifure to mentof her navy, has augmented 

recover it by his no lefs admirable her military, in confequence of tha 

talents for government. Scarcely extent of her conqueft^. Both na, 

was the war concluded, when he tions feem fenfible of the neceffity 

began to difplay his attention to of being prepared, and yet quiet. 

domeftic policy, and his care for 
the happinefs of his people. He 
immediately diflributed lands to his 
di/bajided foldiery ; and gave them 

The Bourbon courts are united, but, 
weakened. The mutual jealoufy 
of the nations, which have been 
lately at war, continues ; b'jt their 



fubjefts of difpute, and occafions 
of animofity, are much lefTened. 
This is as good a fituation as could 
leafonably be expedled. 

We have thus, in fome meafure, 
accompliflied our defign of laying 
before the public an annual con- 
nefled narrative of the events of the 
late mofl remarkable war; which 
we have purfued from its com- 

mencement to its conclufion. W(* 
have omitted no care to make it as 
perfeft as the nature of fuch an un- 
dertaking would permit ; and we 
flatter ourfelves, that it will be 
found as much fuperior in value to 
a collection of Gazettes, or a dry 
unconnected chronological table, as 
it is below the importance and dig- 
nity of a juil hiftory. 


[ 6s 1 




. TTT" A R was proclaimed 
+^ * VV againll Spain, at the 
ufual places, and with the ufual 

During lart year 521 fhips arrived 
at Cadiz, 87 of which wereEnglifh, 
13 of them men of war, and five 
Englifh prizes carried in by the 
French ; 99 Dutch, of which 16 
were men of war ; 41 Danilh ; 22 
French, of which four were men of 
war; 195 Spanifh, cf which 32 were 
men ot war; 19 Portuguefe, n Im- 
perial, eight Ruffian, fourMakefe, 
two Genoefe, one Savoyard, and 
live Neapolitan. 

A lilt of fliips taken by the 
French during the three laftmonihs 
of the year 1761 *. 

Oftober 32 

November 30 

December 56 

Total 118 
Among which were 15 Virginia 
and iVIaryland (hips, outward and 
homew?,rd bound ; 11 Newfound- 
land men, outward and homeward 
bound ; 6 Carolina men, outward 
and homeward bound ; and 16 Ja- 
maica and Leeward Ifland men, 
outward and homeward bound ; 
excKifiveof the North America il- 
licit traders, &c. &c. 

Method to difconjer alum in bread. 
Mix chalk with aqua-fortis ; 
pour them upon vv^ater in which the 
fufpefted bread has been infuled, 
and well foakeJ : if there be any 
aluminous acid, it will appear evi- 
dently foon after the mixture by a 
gypfeous or chalky concretion, 
forming a hard mafs at the bottom 
of the vefTel. 

His majefty this day made , , 
the ufual offering at the 
chapel-royal, of gold, myrrh, and 
frankincenfe ; but there was no 
playing at hazard, nor any ball at 

A letter to a nobleman from lieutenant 
colonel Elliot, ivho ivas miracu- 
loi'Jly pre/er'ved, after bei?ig f-ip- 
•wrecked on the ifland of Sable. 

Halifax, in Neva Scctia, 
May 9, 1761. 
*♦ My Lord, 
*' Soon after T did myfelf the 
honour of writing to you laft Sep- 
tember, I was crdered with a party 
to the bay Chaleur, to fee the 
French troops there comply with, 
the articles of capitulation made at 
Montreal, and from thence was to 
join general Amherft at New York, 
where I prcpofed fpending the win- 
ter. This induced me to take Mrs. 
Elliot along with me, which has Jed 
her into {ach diHreii'es, that ycur 
lordfhip's humanity will more eaiily 

* For thofe taken during the fiift nine months, fee cur laft volume, p. t6;. 
Vol. V. [F] cori- 


conceive than I can paint. A few 
days after we failed from Chaleur, 
after a very great itorm, we ilruck 
on the iiland of Sable (about forty 
leagues to the eallwardof this place) 
an iiland barren and uninhabited, 
with neither a flick of wood upon 
it, a Hone, or a fpot of earth, but 
one entire bank of fand. After we 
Itruck, the 15th of November, we 
were eight-and-forty hours before 
we durft venture on Ihore, the fea 
being fo very high ; though, at the 
fame time, we expefled our vefTel 
to fall to pieces every moment, our 
whole employ was toffinj^ overboard 
fuch prcvifions as we could come at, 
for our future fuRenancc, in cafe we 
were any of us lucky enough to get 
on fhore, whicli I began to defpair 
of, as the only boat we had was loft 
in returning to the vefTcl, after 
landing a man on Hiore to fix a 
rope: in doing this, two failors were 
drowned ; hovever, it was the pre- 
ervation of the reft of our lives ; 
for, iindingii impoilible to flay any 
longer on board, we faftened an 
empty barrel to this rope, and fo, 
one by one, were drawn through a 
verv great furf (for near the fpace 
of fourfcore yards) on (hore, with- 
out the lofs even of one man of my 
party : and Providence was pleafed 
even to preferve two little infants 
that were on board , the one brought 
on (liore upon the father's back, 
and the other on its mother's. We 
continued eight- arid -forty hours 
more in our wet cloaths upon the 
fand, without an.V thing to cover 
us : at lafl, we picked up fome fails, 
and next day luckily found the ofli- 
cer's tent that w^s with me. Much 
more' provifionsvv*ere drove upon the 
ifland than e.vpefted ; but the win- 

ter being fo far advanced, did not 
expe6\ to fee a vefTel till May, the 
time fifhermen go upon that coafl, 
therefore proportioned my allow- 
ance of provifions for that time ; 
and all that we feventy perfons had 
to live upon, was four ounces of 
fioura-day for each, with one gill of 
rum, or wine; and four pounds of 
pork between fix, for feven days. 

From this pinching allowance we 
were agreeably relieved by the fight 
of horfes, which we fhot ; and foon 
after we difcovered horned cattle : 
we now got more fails and yards of 
the vcflel, with which we erecled 
ourfelveshoufes, and thatched them 
with a long fedge that grows there. 
Notwithflanding I had given up 
all hopes of relief, we frequently 
faw veflels, who likewife faw us ; 
but it was too dangerous for them 
to attempt any thing for our prefer- 
vation : However, they carried a 
report to Boflon of people's being 
wrecked here ; and fome people 
being mifling from a fiihing-town 
near that place, they fent a fma»l 
veflel in fearch of them, which ar- 
rived the 8th of lanuary : fhe could 
take on board but a few men. She 
returned again to me the i8th, and 
the 20th we all arrived here as 
naked as beggars ; Mrs. Elliot and 
myfelf, and my lieutenant Dalton, all our baggage. 

Cautions to ptrfrn t. going to Scotland 3 
to be tnanied. 
By the law of Scotland, the 
names of the parties intended to 
be married muft be proclaimed in 
the parifn church where the parties 
live, three feveral times. But by 
an aft 21 of afl'embly, anno 1638, 
* Prefbyteries are in fome necefiary 

* A Prefhytery is a' church afTembly, confifting of fix or ftven mjnifteis or el- 
ders, and a moderator chofen from aiuonglt thcmfelves^ 




exigents allowed to difpenfe with 
publication of bans, and the minis- 
ter and f kirk-icuion, upon grave 
and weighty confiderations, are in 
ufe to difpenle with part of the 
law, by proclaiming the parties 
twice in one day, and fometimes 
thrice, and they mult be called by 
their name and Curname. 

Thus itands the law as to mar- 
riages in the kirk of Scotland. 

And by the Ad 10 An. chap, 7. 
for tolerating epifcopal meeting- 
houfes in Scotland, the epifcopal 
miniflers, ordained by a proteltant 
bifhop, are allowed to preac'i, to 
adminirter the facraments, and to 
marry. But it is provided, that no 
epifcopal minifter, or minillers, re- 
fiding within that part of the united 
kingdom called Scotland, prefame 
to, marry any perfon, or perfons, 
but thofe whofe bans have been 
duly publifhed three feveral Lord's 
days in the epifcopal congregation 
which the two parties frequent, and 
in the churches to which they belong 
as parifhioaers, by virtue of their 
refidence, and upon the fame pains 
and punilhments as are already in- 
flidleJ by the laws of Scotland, in 
cafes of clandelline marriaae ; and 
the minifters of the parifli churches 
are thereby obliged to publiili the 
faid bans ; and in cafe of negleft 
or rcfufal, it 111 ail be fufiicient 10 
publifn the faid bans in any epif- 
copal congregation alone. 

From hence it appears, that no 
marriage can be lawfully had in 
the eftablilhed church of Scodand, 
but by publilhing the bans three 
times J and in the epifcopal meet- 
ing-houfes the publication mull: bs 

on three Lord's days, and in the 
epifcopal congregations, which the 
two parties frequent. 

Now moft, if not all, the mar- 
riages had in Scotland, by perfons 
going down from England, to evade 
the marriage-afl, have been cele- 
brated (as I am credibly informed) 
in the epifcopal mecting-houfes, 
and that without the publication of 
the bans on three fiord's days, and 
certainly not between parties fre- 
quenting that epifcopal congrega- 
tion, fo that there can be no doubt 
but thefe marriages are irregular 
and clandelline. And what an un- 
happy fituation muft the parties to 
fuch marriages be in, or their ifTue, 
if, when the validity of thefe mar- 
riages comes to be litigated in Eng- 
land, they Ihould be deemed inva- 
lid, as not being had in purfuance 
of the laws in that country where 
they were celebrated ! 

It is to be hoped, indeed, that 
thefe marriages will be allowed 
good ; as were the Fleet marriages, 
tho* very irregular ones ; but what 
perfons of common prudence would 
run any hazard at all on fuch an 
occafion ? 

Ended the feffions at the g^. 
Old Bailey, at which two 
received fentence of death, one of 
whom was, a few days after, exe- 
cuted ; fixteen received fentence of 
tranfportation for feven years, and 
one for fourteen, who was the fame 
day pardoned by his majelly ; three 
were b-Jirnt in the hand, and one 

As Mr. Taylor, jun. anchor- 
fmith at Limehoufe, was putting 
fome old iron into the fire, the 

f A kuk feffion is the loweft f cclefiaftical court, or pr.rifh confiftory, which: 
is compofed of the miniller, or miiiifters, if more than ore in the parifh, and the 
«lders and deacons, with 3. clerk anJ beadle, 

[F] 2 barrel 


barrel of an old piftol happened to 
be in the parcel, which being load- 
ed, in a little time went ofF, and 
unfortunately fhot him dead. — — . 
We mention accidents of this kind 
from time to time, to put people 
on their guard. 

One of the French king's guards, 
who had given himfelf fevcral 
wounds in the belly, and pretended 
that he had received them from two 
afTaflins, who would have forced 
their pafl'age into the royal pre- 
fence, in hopes of being promoted 
for his zeal and diligence, was 

lately hanged at Paris. It was 

this affair gave rife to a late report, 
concerning a frefh attempt on the 
French king's life. 

A Swede has invented a machine 
for threfliing corn, by which two 
men can do the work of 16 ; a ma- 
chine much wanted in England at 
this jundure. 

, The king went to the 

'9^"* houfe of peers, and made a 
fpeech, on occafion of his majelty's 
having declared war againll Spain : 
which fpeech, with his majelty's 
anfwers to the addrefles of both 
houfes, the reader may fee in our 
lall. Vol. IV. p. [303]. 

E.xtraSi of a letter from Bafque Road, 
dated Dec. 26, 1761. 
*' Three fire-boats, of 50 tons 
each, were lately fet on float, under 
the command of the captain of the 
port's fon, affiftcd by four men of 
war's boats ; but through precipi- 
tation, miftake, or accident, two 
of them blew up, and every foul 
periftied. The explcfion was ter- 
rible ; theyxontinued burning with 
great fury from one till day-light. 
— — — As the wind blew when they 
took fire, they were in the ftream 
of the Priicefs Amelia, an 80 gun 
fiiip, commuaded by capt. Mon- 

GISTER, 1762. 

tague ; but providentially the wind 
fhifted from W. to N. W. and 
drove them clear of the whole 
fquadron. They were chained to- 
gether ; and if they had been ma- 
naged with that coolnefs "and intre- 
pidity, which fuch an enterprize 
requires, they might have done 
fatal execution. The Bieft fqua- 
dron, which has three battalions on 
board, are ready to fail ; and four 
large tranfports are gone from 
Bourdeaux full of troops. 

The prince of Mecklen- , 
burg Strelitz, fecond brother ^ 
to her majefty, arrived in London. 

During the courfe of this month, 
the town was greatly alarmed by 
fome uncommon noifes heard at a 
houfe in Cock-lane, Weft-Smith- 
field ; and as the manner of mak- 
ing thefe noifes has not as yet been 
fufficiently afcertained, though fe- 
veral per fon s have fmarted feverely 
for pretending to affix a meaning 
to them, we think it our duty to 
give the reader a fummary of the 
whole affair. But as it is of fome 
length, we have placed it at the 
end of the Chronicle. 

Mr. Daniel Armftrong, who died 
lately at Bath , has left 500 1. to the 
Foundling and Lying-in hofpitals, 

Mrs. Lawrence, of Bifhopfgate- 
flieet, was lately delivered of three 

Died lately. William Maple, of 
Dublin, Efq; aged 10 1. 

Mr. John Rider, of Greenhill, 
near Dublin, aged no. 

At Gratz in Voigtland, a man 
who had lived to the age of 135, 
without any iilnefs. He had feen 
feven emperors of Germany. 


The parliament of Ire- , 
land having taken under ' 




their confideration, the exceflive 
price of coals in the city of Dublin, 
it was, among other regulations, 
recommended by die committee ap- 
pointed to inquire into the caufes 
of this complaint, that the govern- 
ment fhould appoint perfons to buy 
in a certain quantity of coals, when 
coals are at the cheapeft, and to re- 
tail them out again at a moderate 
profit, to fuch journeymen, tradef- 
men manufadurers, and poor, as 
ihall produce certificates from the 
minifters of their refpeftive parifhes 
of their aflual poverty ; a regula- 
tion that would beofvaft utility to 
this metropolis. 

^ , An old man (landing at 
the fire fide of the 3 per cent. 
office of the Bank, was obferved to 
pick up the coals, and put them in 
his pocket ; and afterwards went to 
the books, and received his dividend 
up n 600 1. flock. He was carried 
before a magiftrate, where the 
coals were taken out of his pocket; 
but by reafon of his age, and his 
extreme penitence, he was releafed. 
An extraordinary inftance of ava- 
rice and peculation has lately been 
difcovered in France. Monf. Fof- 
cue, one of the farmers-general of 
the province of Languedoc, who 
had amafled confiderable wealth by 
grinding the faces of the poor with- 
in his province, and every other 
means, however low, bafe, orcruel, 
by which he rendered himfelf uni- 
verfally hated, was one day ordered 
by the government to raife a con- 
fiderable fum: upon which, as an 
cxcufe for not complying with the 
demand, he pleaded extreme po- 
verty ; but fearing left fome of the 
inhabitants of Languedoc fhould 
give information to the contrary, 
lell his houfc fhould be fearched 

he refolved on hiding his treafure 
in fuch a manner, as to efcape ihe 
moft flrift examination. He dug a 
kind of a cave in his wine-cellar, 
which he made fo large and deep, 
that he ufed to go down to it with 
a ladder; at the entrance of it was a 
door with a fpring lock on it, which 
on fhuttinw would fallen of itfelf. 


Very lately monf. Fofcue was mif- 
fing ; diligent fearch was made 
after him in every place : the ponds 
were drawn, and every method 
which human imagination could 
fuggeft was taken for finding him, 
but all in vain. In a fhort time af- 
ter his houfe was fold, and the pur- 
chafer beginning either to rebuild 
it, or make fome alterations in it, 
the workmen difcovered a door in 
the cellar with a key in the lock, 
which he ordered to be opened, and 
on going down they found monf. 
Fofcue lying dead on the ground, 
with a candleflick near him, but no 
candle in it, which he had eat : and 
on fearching farther they found the 
vail: wealth that he had amalTed. 
It is fuppofed, that when monf. 
Fofcue went into his cave, the 
door by fome accident fhut after 
him ; and being out of the call of 
any perfon, he perithed for want of 
food. He had gnawed the flefh off 
both his arms, as is fuppofed for 
fubfiflence. Thus did this mlfer die 
in the midft of his treafure, to the 
fcandal of himfelf, and to the pre- 
judice of the Hate. 

His maiefly went to the , 
houie oi peers, and gave his 
aflfent, to— An aft for raifing by an- 
nuities, in manner therein men- 
tioned, the fum of twelve millioui, 
to be charged on the finking fund, 
&c. &c. — .An afl for granting to his 
majefty feveral rates and duties ^ 
\F'\ 3 upoa 


upon windows or lights.-— An aft rifhed,indifFerentpartsof the king- 

for enabling his niajelty to raifecer- dom, by a great, fudden, and unu- 

tain fums of money towards paying fual fall ol fnow, which, in fumt 

off and difcharging the debt of the phces, was ten and twelve feet deep, 

navy, Sec. — An ad for charging Near fifty people, who were caught 

certain annuities granted in the in the open fields, roads, plains, 

year 1760, on the finking fund, &c. heaths, and commons, loft their 

&C. — And to two private bills. lives. In the hurricane that ac- 

According to the above ad, every companied it, large trees, coaches, 

houfe containing eight windows or houfes, chimnies, and bams, were, 

lights, will now pny iis. for nine, in many places, levelled with the 

12 s, for ten, 13 s. for eleven, 14 s. ground, and churches damaged; 

for twelve, 1 1. 1 5. for thirteen, 1 1. many fheep and cattL^ likewife pe- 

2 s. 6d. for fourteen, 11.4s. for rilhed. Ic is faid, however, that a 

jifteen, 1 1, 5 s. 6d. for fixteen, 1 1. 
ys. ftr feventeen, 1 1. 8s. 6d. for 
eighteen, 1 1. los. for nineteen, 
1 1. IIS. 6d. and for twenty and 
upwards the fame as before, viz 

farmer at Water-on-the-Woldt, in 
Yoiklhire, recovered ten fheep 
hearty and well out of the fnow, 
after they had Iain there about four 
weeks. In fhort, at land, and on 

IS. 6d. per window, and ^s. the the fea coalls, fuch devaftation is 

lioufe; and all houfes and cottages, not remembered by the prefent 

that have no more than feven win- race in England, 

dows, to pay 3 s. for the hoafe, A litde girl, daughter to Mr. 

unlefs on account of their poverty Giffard, late of Covent-gardcn 

excufed from parifh rates; but no theatre, was lately burnt in a very 

houfes, having more than feven win- ihocking manner, and died in great 

dows, are to be exempted from this agonies. A perfon in the houfe 

lax, upon that account. — As many was fubjeft to fits, and amongft the 

perfons have, and will alter the methods pradifed to recover her, 

number of their windows on ac- it was ufual to burn feathers, rags, 

countof the additional duty, it may papers, &c. under her nofe. — This 

not be improper for them to know, ftriking the child, fhe was fuppofing 

that the aft of parliament direfts, her doll in the like circumltances, 

that no window, or light, will be and burning fometliing under its 

deemed to be flopped up, unlefs it nofe, by which means her own 

be flopped with brick or flone, or cloaths caught fire whilil her mam- 

plailler upon lath, or with the fame ma's back was turned, 

materials of which the outfide of From Faulkner's Dublin Journal, 

the houfe doth chiefly confill:; and Whereas a lady, who called her- 

the furveyors in their refpeftive di- felf a native of Ireland, was in Eng- 

•vilions have exprefs orders from the land in the year 1740, and refidcd 

board of taxes to charge all fome time at a certain village near 

windows that are not Hopped up Bath, where fhe was delivered of a 

according to the direftion of the fon, whom fhe left with a fum of 

aft. money, under the care of a perfon 

„ On this and the follow- in the fame parifh, and promifed to 

ing day, great damage was fetch him at a certain age, but has 

done, and numbers of people pe- not fince been heard of: now this 




j3 to deflre the lady, if living, and 
this fhould be fo fortunate as to be 
feen by her, to fend a letter diredled 
to I. E. to be left at the Chapter 
coffee houfe, St, Paul's church- 
yard, London, wherein llie is de- 
iired to give an account of herfelf, 
and her reafons for concealing this 
affair : or if ihe lady fhould be dead, 
and any perfon is privy to the af- 
fair, they are likev/ifedefired to di- 
re(5l as above.— N, B. this adver- 
tifement is publilhed by the per- 
fon himfelf, not from morives of 
necelTity, nor to court any afTidance 
(he being, by a feries of happy cir- 
cumltances, pofiefled of an eafy and 
independent fortune) but with a 

real defire to know his origin. 

P. S. The llriclert fecrecy may be 
depended on. 

1 In the evening, in the 
midft of a great fhower of 
hail and fnow, with the wind at 
north, four loud claps of thunder 
were heard at \'^alenciennes, in 
France, preceded by very frightful 
lightning, by the violence of 
which the wood-work of St. Grsy's 
church was fet on fire; and fix or 
feven of the workmen fenttocxfin- 
guifh the flames were fo terribly 
fcorched by a fucceeding flafli, that 
it is icarcely polTible they Ihould 

^^ , Ended the felTions at the 
Old Bailey, which proved 
a maiden one, when two perfons 
were branded, and fixteen received 
fentence of tranfportation for feven 

There has lately been fet on foot 
in the diocefe of Peterborough, un- 
der the aufpicesof thebiniop,a fund 
by voluntary fubfcription for the 
relief of the widows and orphans of 
poor clergymen, and for the necef- 
fitous clergy of that diocefe. At a 

meetin;j they agreed, th^it no cler- 
gyman be permitted to fubfcribe 
annually more than on", guinea for 
each benefice he fhall hold, nor lefs 
than fi'.e fhilling?. 

The marine fociety have colleft- 
ed, equipped, and cloathed, for the 
fea fcrvice, 5452 men, 4511 boys, 
in all 9963, Tnis fnews the uulity 
of that noble inflitution. 

The right hon. the ear! of Buck- 
ingham ftiire, for the en cour?gement 
of mairimony, propofes to give an 
annual bountvof tenguineas, to five 
young women, daughters of free- 
men of Norwich, upon their mar- 
riao-e to the fons of freemen, on the 


follov/ing terms : 

Th?y"muft not be above 25, nor 
under 18 years of age. 

The perfons they marry m.uft 
be indurtrious freemen of Norwich, 
refident there, and fons of freemen 
refident, and their age not above 
3 1 , nor under zi. 

No perfons who have received 
collection, or who are deformed in 
their perfons, fubjecfi to fits, in 
general unhealthy, or in whofe fa- 
mily there is any fufpicion of mad- 
nefs, can be entitled to this cha- 

The candidates mud be recom- 
mended by gentlemen and ladies 
of credit, refident in Norwich, who, 
from their own knowledge, v.ill 
vouch for their characters ; and -=ufo 
tharthev have good r^^afon ro believe 
that they neither of them have con- 
tradled any debts, or are liable to 
any of the above objeftions. 

The marriages are to be celebra- 
ted on the firft day of July yearly, 
and to comii»ence upon the ift day 
of July next; upon which day the 
new-married couples are to dine to- 
gether, .ind his lordfhip uill allow 
one guinea for the dinner. It is 

[F] 4 expected 


expeflcd that the couples fixed 
upon will, fome days previous to 
the marriage, figaify to the perfons 
who may recommend them, how 
bell it may be laid out for their ad- 
vantage, except one guinea, which 
will be paid the day after the wed- 

On occafion of two young children 
lately poifoned by taking bears- 
foot for the worms, at Fifherton, 
near Salifbury, the following cau- 
tion has been piiblifhed in the 
St. James's Chronicle. 
To prevent the deflrudtion of 
jnore children, pleafe to inform the 
public there are two kinds of bears- 
foot in England. One is a plant of 
two feet high, with dark leaves, and 
a m ultitude of vvhitifh flowers; fome- 
times a little purpled at the edge. 
This is common in gardens, and is 
now in full flower. It is a poifon, 
and was known as fuch to Tragus, 
DodonsEUs, and all the old writers. 
The other is a low plant, fcarce a 
foot high, with fifli-green leaves, 
and only one or two flowers ; the 
ilowers of this are green. This is 
the true bear 's-foot; which is recom- 
rnended with great jullice again/l 
worms. The otherbeing more com- 
mon, has been ufed by millakc in 
its place, and to this the death of 
thofe infants wasovving. There is 
the more reafon for caution, becaufe 
ihe poifonoiis one is the kind now 
fold in our markets. 

J. Hill. 
They write from Paris, that as 3 
wealthy citizen of Paris was lately 
walking in the Thuillerjes, a per- 
fon came up to him, and bid him 
be upon his gu.;rd, for that night 
he would be n)urdered. The citi- 
zen retired after fupper, as ufual, to 
his bed-chamber, havjnp- furnilhed 
himfelf with lirerarms. At mid- 

night three men aftually entered thff 
room. One of them he fhot dead, 
and with a fecond fhot broke the 
arm of another. The third ran 
away. The perfon killed proved 
to be his own ion, and the wounded 
perfon his nephew, who is now 
in prifon along with the third af- 
fafiin. This, fays the writer, is 
the fecond inftance of the kind 
that has happened at Paris with- 
in thefe three months; to fuch a 
height is licentioufnefs rifeninthat 
capital I 

Thefameletteradds, "Thefieur 
MafTonet, renter of the abbey of 
St. Antony, in the parilh of Mont- 
falcon, in Viennois, has a fon, which 
(though but five months old) is 
actually two feet feven inches and 
a half high: the circumference of 
his waift is two feet three inches 
three lines [a line is the twelfth 
part of an inch] , and over the breaft 
he meafures two feet three inches. 
The circumference of his head, at 
the fore part, is eighteen inches and" 
a half; and that of the calf of his 
leg, eleven inches. His wrift is fix 
inches and a half round, his arm 
eleven inches, and his thigh, fe- 
venteen inches three lines. When 
he came into the world, he was 
of the ufual fize of a new-born 
infant. His bones are not of a fize 
proportionate to his body : thofe 
of liis fingers, feet, and hands, are 
very fmall. His weight is 41 lb. 
mark [equal to our avoirdupois] 
and he begins to walk. After 
fucking at eight in the evening, he 
wants nothing more till eight in 
the morning ; never cries, noroftea 
laughs. The father is thirty- 
five years old, and of a thin 
and meagre form. His -wife i? 
about the fame age, and of the 
fame complexion. They have thre^ 




other children of the common year of his age; till within 12 days 

fize." of his death, he worked as a day 

In confequence of the new duty labourer, 
upon malt liquors taking place, the 

publicans have at lall been, in ge- MARCH- 
neral, quietly permitted to raife 
their porter to three pence half- 
penny a quart. 

Died lateiy. In the parifh of fon? were killed. 

St. Leonard, two old men, bro- Being the day appointed , 

thers, whoa little before lodged in for a general faft and humi- * 

the parifh of Cripplegate, but lived liation, it v^^as ohferved in the ac- 

there in fo miferable a manner, as to cultomed manner. 

By a fall of a houfe near , 
Hollovvay-mnunt, feven per- ^ * 

be difcharged their lodging?. On 
their death it appeared that the in- 
terell of 4C00I. which they had be- 
fore left to Cripplegate parifh, was 
now left to the poor of St. Leonard's 
for ever. A caveat was entered bv 

Copy of a refolution of the Irifh 
parliament, refpecting the reve- 
nue of the lord lieutenant. 

Veneris, 26 Feb. 1762. 
Refolved, neniine cmitradicente. 

That an addrefs be prefented to his 

a third brother againft the will, but excellency the lord lieutenant, that 
we hear it is finally determined in he will repreient to his majefty the 
favour of the poor. fenfe of this houfe, that the enter- 
Mil's Charlotte Mercier, faid to tainments and appointments of the 
be fkilled in painting and enerav- lord lieutenant of Ireland are be- 
ing, and daughter of the late prince come inadequate to the dignity of 
of vValps's librarian, in St. James's th it high office, and to the expencc 

workh "lufe, 

Matthew Fetherllonhaugh, Efq; 
aged 100. 

Babua Solyman, a Turk, in 
Hampfhire, aged 105. 

Thomas Nixon, of the county of 
Cumberland, aged 108. 

with which it is, and ought to be, 
fupported; and that it is the hum- 
ble defire of this houfe, that his 
majeiiy will be gracioufly pleafed to 
grant fuch an augmentation to the 
entertainment of the lord lieute- 
nant for the time being, as, with. 

At Tiefenau, in the neighbour- the prefent allowances, will in the 

hood of Groflenhayn, Gafpard whole amount to the annual fum of 

Balcke, aged 112 years, three fixteen thouiand pounds. And to 

months, and 27 days. He married exprefs that fatisfaftion which we 

two wives, by whom he had fifteen feel at the pleaiing hope, that this 

children. He was 85 when the jufl and neceflary augmentation 

\oungefl child was born. He lived (hould take place during the admi- 

to fee his pofterity to the number niftration of a chief governor, whofe 

of 66. He was confined to his bed many great and amiable qualities, 

only two days. whofe wife and happy adminiflra- 

Catherine Brebner,in Aberdeen- tion in the government of this king- 

(hire, aged 124. dom, have, univerfally endeared 

John Noon, of the county of him to the people of Ireland. 

Galwav, in Ireland, aged 129. E.Sterling, \ r' t\ r 

A peafant in Pclaad in the 157th H. Alcock, J "' "' 



Copy of the anfwer of the lord 
lieutenant to the addrefs of the 
houfe of commons, prefented to 
his excellency purfuant to the 
foregoing refolution. 
** I IhaJl take the liril opportuni- 
ty of laying before his nipjefty the 
fenfe of the houfe of commons con- 
tained in this addrefs. 1 enter ful- 
ly into the truly liberal motive-, 
which have influenced your condaft 
in this unanimous refolution. That 
you are folicitous not only to fup- 
port his majefty's government, but 
to fupport it with becoming gran- 
deur and magnificence, refleds the 
higheft honour on yourfelves ; that 
you have chofen the time of mv ad- 
ininiliration, that you have dilHn- 
guilhed my pprfon as the objeift of 
your favour, reflcfts the highell cre- 
dit on me; and 1 mull ever confider 
this event as one of the moft fortu- 
nate and honourable circumftances 
ot my life. Whatever merit you 
aicribe to me in the government of 
this kingdom, in reality arifes from 
your own conduft, though your 
partiality would transfer it to mine. 
Your unanimity has tirft created 
this merit, and your liberality would 
now reward it. 

I am fenfible of the obligation 
you confer: And I can in no way 
properly demonfirate my fenfe of 
it, but by being, as J am, unalter- 
ably determined to implore his ma- 
jelly, that I may be permitted to 
enjoy it pure and unmixed with the 
lucrative advant.--:ges you propofe 
lliould attend it. This affedionate 
addrefs is intended as an honour to 
me; that intention has on your 
part been fully anfwered ; to make 
jt truly honourable, fomeihing is fci II 
jieceflary on mine. It becomes me 
to vie with the generofity of parlia- 
ment, and to keep up an emulation 
offcntiment. It has been my duty, 

GISTER, 1762. 

in the courfe of this fefiion, to pro- 
pofe large plans of public expence, 
and to piomife an attention to pub- 
lic ceconomy; and I could not with- 
out pain fubmit, that the eftablifh- 
mcnt, already burthened at my re- 
commendation, fnouUi be ftill far- 
ther charged for my own particular 

Bat while I confider myfelf at li- 
berty to facrifice my private inte- 
relb to my private feelings, I muft 
confider myfelf as bound likewife to 
confult, in compliance with your 
enlarged and liberal fentiments, the 
future fupportof the ftation in which 
lam placed, to thedignity of which, 
the emoluments are, as you repre- 
fent them, inadequate. I ihall tranf- 
mit, therefore, the ienfe of the houfe 
of commons, that the augmentation 
which yourgenerofity has {)ropofed, 
may, it his majefty (hall think fit, be 
made to the eftabliihment of my 
fucceflbr, when he fhall enter on. 
the government of this kingdom, 
and yyhen, it is probable, the cir- 
cumliances of this country may be 
better able to fupport fuch addi- 
tional burthen. But while 1 muft 
decline accepting any part of the 
profits, I rejoice to charge myfelf 
with the whole of the obligation : 
abundantly happy, if v/hcn I fhall 
hereafter be removed from this 
high, and, through your favour, 
delirable fituation, I fhould leave 
it, through your liberality, aug- 
mented in its emoluments, and by 
my inability not diminilhed in its 

At fix in the morninp an , , 
.U I c r loth, 

eartnquhke was very fenii- 

b\y felt at Wexford in Ireland. It 

was preceded by a loud rumbling 

noife, and was fudden, and of 

ihort duration. 

At the anniverfarv fermon, „, 

at St. George's, Hanover- 




fquare, and at the fobfequent feaft 
ai Draper's hall, near70ol- wascol- 
ledled for the Magdalen charity. 

On opening the apartments in 
Newgate, John Berry, a prifoner 
in that gaol, was found dead in his 
cloaths, lying by a parcel of ir'jf- 
{ds, the eating of which, it is fup- 
pofed, had occafioned his death : 
(fee our article of Natural Hiftory, 
for this year.) He was o^e of the 
five wretches concerned in inducing 
others to commit robberies, for the 
fake of getting the rewards for ap- 
prehending and convicling robbers, 
and even in accuung innocent men 
of pretended robberies for the fame 
purpofe. The obligation on the 
judges in England to adhere llriftly 
to the letter of the law, when fa- 
vourable to criminals, never ap- 
peared more confpicuous than in the 
cafe of thefe mifcreants; for though 
the above crimes were fully proved 
againft them, they efcaped death 
by the judgment of the twelve 
judges, before whom the affair was 
folemnly argued. One of them 
hovv-evcr was foon after killed in the 
pillory, to which, as for perjury, 
they were condemned, 
Exiradl of a letter from Bratton, in 

the county of Wilts, March 3. 

" Yerterday a very uncommon 
phaenomenon appeared here, about 
half an hour after eight at night : 
on each fide of the moon was a 
bright fpor, rather larger than the 
tnoon, in the fame parallel of ahi- 
tude, one of which was near a Rar 
of the fecond magnitude in the 
fhoulder of Orion, the other near a 
liar of the like magnitude in the 
arm of Perfeus : from each of which 
fpots ifTued a bright femicircular, or 
femielliptical arch over the moon, 
the highell part of the arch near 
Capella, a Har of the firft magni- 

tude; and from each of the faid 
fpots a light circle, parallel to the 
hcrizcn, quite round, palling near 
the ftar in the end of the tail of Urfa 
Jylajor. This bright horizontal cir- 
cle was in sbreadih nearly the dia- 
meter of the moon ; a faint appear- 
ance of it pafTed between the-bright 
fpots (the moon being in the cir- 
curriference of the circle,) and the 
horizon tal al tit ude of the circle eve- 
ry where about 37 degrees. The 
moon's dillance trom each of the 
bright fpots about 50 degrees, on 
the arch of a great circle. The cir- 
cle was nlmoil vanifned by nine 
o'clock : but what time it f.rft ap- 
peared i don't know, as I did not 
fee it before half after eight." 

His majefty went to the , 
houfe of peers, and gave ''■' * 
the roval aflent to the following 
bills, viz. The bill to punilh muti- 
ny and defertion, and for the better 
payment cf the armyand their quar- 
ters. The bill for the better re- 
gulation of his majelty's marine 
forces on (here, The bill for ap- 
pointing commiiiioners to execute 
an aft, intituled. An adt for grant- 
ing an aid to his n'.ajefty by a land- 
tax, for the fervice of the prefent 
year. The bill to prevent vex- 
atious proceedings againll innhold- 
ers, viduallers, and others, for 
raifmg the price of malt liquors in 
proportion to the ta.xes on thcfe nc,. 
cefl'aries.and to prevent frauds com.- 
mitted bv re-huiding of beer and 
ale defigned for exportation.—— 
The bill to enable his grace the 
duke of Bridgewater, to e:::end a 
navigable canal from Longford 
Bridge, in the county palatine of 
Lancaller, into the river Merfey in 
Chelhire. And to feveral road and 
private bills. — Bv the above bill for 
txenipting victuallers and brewers 



from all the penalties to which they 
were hitherto liable for raifing the 
price of beer, a penalty of 50 1, is 
to take place immediately, on every 
perfon mixing ftrong beer with fmall 
beer, or water, for iale. 

Certificates were received at the 
Admiralty-office, figned by gover- 
nor Lyttleton, and the officers of 
the Merlin floop, of the improve- 
ments made by Harrifon's new ma- 
chines towards afcertaining the lon- 
gitude at fea, young Mr. Harrifon 
having juftcompleated a voyage to 
Jamaica for making a frefh trial of 
thefe machines. 

His majeftyhas gracioufly given 
a (hip of 44 guns, to the proprie- 
tors of the late Antigallican pri- 
vateer, for the ufe of them, their 
officers and feamen. 

A propofal for raifing five regi- 
ments of papifts in Ireland, having 
lately been offered by the lords 
Kenmure, Kingfland, Sir Patrick 
Bellew, and fome others of that 
religion, in order to be taken into 
the pay of the king of Portugal for 
ten years ; the parliament of Ire- 
land thought proper to take cogni- 
zance thereof, and the fcheme was 
foon dropt. 

The two gold medals, given an- 
nually by his grace the duke of 
Newcaflle, ch..ncellor of the uni- 
verfity of Cambridge, for the en- 
couragement of claffical learning, 
have been adjudged to Mr. Pem- 
berton and Mr. Whitfield, of Pem- 

New York, Jan. 18. By captain 
Snellen, who arrived here on Fri- 
day lall from Bermudas, in 24 days, 
we learn that between 6 and 700 
negro men and women were on the 
lift as confpirators in a late plot ; 
and that the ifland in general was 
fo fatigued, in taking up and ap- 
prehending the fufpeded, and keep. 

ing guard, as to make but flow 
progrefs in trying them; but all 
that were brought to trial have 
been condemned. 

Tho. Smith, alias Hard- , 
ing, Laur. Tearman, Tho. ^ 
Baldwin, and Rob, Maine, were 
capitally convicted, and received 
fen tence of death, at a feffions of ad- 
miralty, at the Old Bailey, for pi- 
racy, on board the King George pri- 
vateer, of Briftol, in aflaulting and 
confining the captain and officers, 
and running away with the fhip. 

Kingfton, Jamaica, Dec. 19. Laft 
Saturday arrived here the floop 
Sally, Paul Androuin, matter, from 
the Spanifli main, by whom we 
learn, that on the 9th ult. there 
happened at Carthagena a terrible 
ftorm from the fouihvt'ard, which 
was followed byan earthquake, that 
has deftroyed a great part of the 
walls of the town ; many of the 
houfes, and numbers of the inhabi- 
tants were drowned by the floods 
which came down fuddenly from the 
mountains with fuch rapidity as was 
never feen there before; and that 
the floods brought down fuch a pro- 
digious quantityofmud,&c. that the 
entranceofBocha-Chica was entire- 
ly choked up, and that the Spa- 
niards were employed in opening of 
Bocha-Grande ; that two Spanilh 
men of war were drove on fliore, 
and that the caftlesof Santa-Martha 
were entirely deltroyed. 

A French officer, (lately prifoner 
on his parole at Weymouth) writes 
to his acquaintance in Belfaft, dated 
Ian. 29, 1762. " On the loth of 
January I failed from Havre de 
Grace on board his majefty's frigate 
the Zenobie, of 22 guns and 210 
men, commanded by M. de Sage. 
We were attacked, on the 12th, by 
a moft violent ftorm, and finding 
all our ?efilUnce to be in vain, and 



our fufFerings at fea to be infupport- 
able, as the laft effort for our lives, 
we were obliged to run our fiiip on 
ihore on the Peninfula of Portiland ; 
where, with great difficulty, 71 of 
us were faved, and thefe in a me- 
lancholy plight, being almoft all 
wounded and naked ; and to com- 
plete our nifery, the barbarous 
iflanders feeing our helpiefs flate, 
flocked down upon us, and of the 
little coverings the mercilefs fea had 
left us, poor wretches I they with 
more hardened cruelty ftripped e- 
veryfoul : andhad not thegenerofity 
and tendernefs of the f-eur de Tra- 
ver (commander in Portfland)inter- 
pofed, weH-.ould all have undoubt- 
edly perifhed. When we had re- 
covered Ilrength enough to walk 
about, we were removed to this 
town J and then wrote to the lords 
of the admiralty, petitioning their 
lord/liips that, in commiferation of 
our dillrefTes, they would not add 
Captivity to our misfortune. Their 
lordfhips honoured us with an an- 
{v,er, that we were not at all regard- 
ed as prifoners : and farther, that 
our letter had been prefented to the 
king, and that his majefty, in com- 
paflion for our deplorable circum- 
Itances, has ordered that we ihould 
be all immediately clothed at his 
expence ; and whatever we called 
for he would pay.*' 

This humanity and genercHty 
has been attended with the fol- 
lowing good effedt. On the night 
of the dreadful dorm of I'aCw and 
hail, or rather hurricane, the 2 id 
Eir. an Englifh trading veflel was 
drove on fhore at Havre de Grace, 
isnd broke to pieces, but the ciew 
faved; the commandant of the 
town being informed of the affair, 
ordered them to be quartejed at a 

coffee-houfe, allowed the common 
men thirty fous per day while they 
remained there ; and the latter end 
of laft week they arrived fafe ia 

Premiums that have been propofed 
by the Imperial Academy of Sci- 
ences at Peterfburgh. 
For the premium propofed for 

1760, it was required. 

To reduce from experiments the 
refraftion of the rays of light in. 
diffifrent bodies, folids as well as 
fluids ; and from thence to prove 
what degree of fuch refraction is 
owing to the different fpecific gra- 
vity of bodies, and what to the va- 
rious cohefion of their particles, or 
their conilituent principles ; and 
to explain the whole by a theory 
conformable to the feveral expe- 

For the premium propofed for 

1761, it was required. 

To determine the theory of the 
perturbations, which comets fuffer 
in their motions, from the attrac- 
tions of the planets, and to demon- 
ftrate the agreement of fuch theory 
with the obfervations of the comet 
cf 1759. 

For the premium propofed for 

1762, it was required. 

To (liew how far the imperfec- 
tions of telefcopes and microfcopes, 
arifmg from the different refrangi- 
bility of the rays of light, and the 
fpherical figure of the glafies, can 
be correfted or diminifhed by a 
combination of feveral lenfes, and 
to accommodate the theory to 
prafcice, and confirm it by experi- 

As to the firft premium, the aca- 
demy affigned their reafons in 17^1, 
why it could not be beftowed on 
that f;ngle and only differtation 



which was fcnt; and as the like 
reafon ftands againft that for 1 761, 
the academy declares that any one 
is ftill free to fend in differtations 
on thofe fubjefls, for obtaining the 
refpeftive premiums ; and repeats 
the quellion propofed for 1762, 
adding for the next year, 1763, the 
follosving one : 

As it is well known to thofe who 
are well acquainted with the art of 
fluxing ores, that many metalline 
ones require different kinds of ad- 
diilons (Zufhlage,) before they are 
committed to calcination and fu- 
fion ; partly to difpofe them to an 
eafier feparation from the hetero- 
geneous parts, and partly to pre- 
pare metaiiiiie parts to fink down ; 
a method is required whereby any 
metalline parts may be feparated 
from the ore, which will be more 
expeditious and cheaper than thole 
in ufe, and not ftand in need of fo 
many additions ; and that the few 
retained fliall agree with all forts of 
metals. Tlie academy expects fuch 
a folution of the problem as (hall be 
well fuppcrted both by reafon and 

I'he learned and f!;.!H'ul of all na- 
tions are invited to impart their 
fentiments and obfervations con- 
cerning the foregoing fubjefts to 
the academy, fo as that they may 
be prefented at Petcrlburgh any 
time before the ilrll of next June. 
The premium for the bell folu- 
tion of each problem will be 100 
ducats of gold. 

Mr. Dortet, a tallow chandler 
near Spital-iields, who died htely, 
has left to nine difieniing congre- 
gations I cool. each. 

Robert Laurence of GillKirough 
in Yorkfhire, aged 90, was lately 
married to his fourth wi-^'e,, jane 
Ederfon, .nrcc ico. 

The wife of the duke of Rich- 
mond's porter was lately delivered 
of three daughters. 

Died lately, Mrs. Smith, at 
Hipley, Derby (hire, aged in, 


Admiralty-office. His ma- -, 
jefty's Hiip the Barford, com- 
manded by capt. Gambler, is ar- 
rived at Plymouth, with the St. 
Prielt, a French hall India (liip of 
700 tons burthen, and 230 men 
and palTengers, from the ifle of 
Bourbon, bound to L'Orient ; 
which was taken the nth of lall 
month, by his majefly's ihip the 
Valiant, one of the fhips which 
failed from Spithead with Sir 
George Pococke. Her cargo chief- 
ly confills of coffee and pepper. 

At the anniverfary fermon and 
feaft of the fmall - pox hofpitals, 
681 1. 13 s. was colletled for that 

The utility of this eftablifhmetyt 
will appear by confidering, that if 
only one in feven die of the fmall- 
pox in the natural way, and one 
in three hundred and twelve by 
inoculation, as experience fhews, 
then as One million divided by 

7 gives _ -- 142857' 

One million divided by 

3 12 gives 

5- t^• 

I'he lives faved by in- 
oculation upon one 
million muli be — 139652^-^^;^ 
A mod ftirpriiing difference ! 

This is further evinced by the 
following anecdote: The hon. 
John Petre, brother to the lord 
Petre, who died lately, aged 24, is 
laid to be the eighteenth perfon 
of that family that has died of 
the fmall-po\- in 27 years. 

8th. His 



g. His majelty went to the powered to reimburfethemfelves by 

' houfe of peers, and gave a rate on the pariHi, to be made in 

the royal alTent to the following proportion to that for the relief of 

bills : their poor, and the overplus, if 

The bill to explain, amend, and any, to go in aid of the poors rate. 

reduce into one aft, the feveral laws By the faid aft, parilTi officers ar« 

relating to the training and govern- to pay every perfon chofen by lot, 

ing of the militia. and fworn in, or fubftitute, fucli 

The bill for the better enconrage- fum of money, not exceeding five 

ment of feamen, and for the more pounds, as any two deputy-lieute- 

fpeedy and effeftual manning of his nants and ajufticeof the peace fhali 

majerty's navy. adjudge to be one half of the cur- 

The bill for relief of vaffals of rent price then paid for a vclun- 

cftates in Scotland, which are, or teer in the country where fuch per- 

may be annexed to the crown on fon fhall bechofen; which fum ftiall 

account of attainder. be raifed and reimburfed by the faid 

The bill to render more efFeftual parifh officers by a rate to be made 

an aft for allowing a public reward according to the poors rate, as afore- 

for difcovering the longitude at fea, mentioned. 

fo far as it relates to trying and It is alfo enafted, that no perfon 

proving experiments relating to the under the age of i8, or above 41^, 

faid difcovery. articled clerk, apprentice, or poar 

The bill for the better fupplying man with three children born ia 

the cities of London and Weliniin- wedlock, fhall be compelled to 

fter with iifh, to reduce the exorbi- 
tant price of the fame, and for the 
better encouragement of filhermen. 
The bill for the better preferva- 


Aifo that every perfon who fiiall 
contraft, or agree with any other 
(liable to ferve) to infure him from 

tion of the game in that part of ferving in the militia, by providing 
Great Britain called England. a fubftitute, or paying the penalty 

The bill for naturalizing foreign often pounds, fhalJ, for fo doing. 

proteftants that have ferved, or mav 
ferve a limited time as officers, en- 
gineers, or foldiers in America. 

And alfo to feveral bills to inclofe 
lands, repair roads, improve and 
preferve the navigation of rivers, 
and private bills. 

pay the penalty of one hundred 
pounds, one half to the profe- 
cutor, the other to the poor of the 

The faid aft takes place from the 
paffing thereof, and is to continue 
in force for thefpacc of feven years. 

By the above militia aft, perfons and from thence to the end of the 

liable to ferve in the faid militia then next felTion of parliament, and 

may be chofen by ballot, as before; no longer. 

or otherwife the parifh officers, with And nothing in faid aft is to ex- 

the confent of the inhabitants may tend to prevent perfons of the fame 

provide volunteers, to be approved parifh, town, or place, from enter- 

of by two deputy-lieutenants and iugintofubfcriptions amorgft therr. 

one julliceof the peace; and what^ felves, for paying jointly, for any 

foeyer expence they are at for pro- fubliitureor fublVitutes, who m.iv be 

viding fuch volunteers, they are im- provided for one or more of the' 



fubfcribers, who may happen to be 
chofen by lot. 

By this wife and wholefome alte- 
ration in the militia laws, which 
obliges, and very juftly, every man 
to pay his quota, all parifhes have 
it in their power to keep their good 
and ufeful hands at home, and by 
a fmall and equitable tax, to be 
raifed only twice in feven years, to 
fend the idle and diffolute to ferve 
their king and country for three 
years in the militia. 

By the act for providing a reward 
for difcovering the longitude atfea, 
thecommiffioners appointed areim- 
powered to hear and receive pro- 
pofals for difcovering the longitude 
at fea ; and being fo far fatisfied of 
the probability of any fuch propo- 
fal, as to think proper to make ex- 
periment thereof, they thall certify 
the fame, with the authors names, 
to the commlffioners of the navy, 
who fnaJl make out bills thereupon 
for any fum not exceeding 2000 I. 
as fhall be thought necefTary, to be 
paid by the treafurer of the navy 
out of any money in his hands un- 
applied. This makes 6000!. 

granted for this laudable purpofe. 
By the act for the better prefer- 
vation of the game, after the ift of 
June, 17&2, no perfon, under any 
pretence whatfoever, (hall takt^, 
kill, buy, or fell, or have in his 
cuftody, anypartridge, between the 
1 2th of February and the I'A of Sep- 
tember; or any phealant, between 
the itl of February and the lit 
of October; or any heath -fowl, 
commonly called black game, be- 
tween the I ft of January and the 
20th of Auguft : orany groufe, com- 
monly called rec game, between the 
lit of December and the 25th of 
July in any year. 

This act Hull not extend to phea- 

fants taken in the proper feafoftp 
and kept in mews or breeding 

Nor fliall it extend to Scotland. 
Perfotis offending in any of the 
cafes aforefaid fhall forfeit 5I. pef 
bird to the profecutor, to be reco- 
vered, with full cofts, in any of 
the courts at Weftminfter. 

And as by the former afts a moi- 
ety of the pecuniary penalties in- 
flicted upon perfons who deftroy the 
game is directed to be applied for 
the ufe of the poor of the parilh 
where the offence is committed, 
which difqualified the inhabitants 
from giving evidence ; from the 
pafling of this aft, the whole of fuch 
pecuniary penalties may be fued for 
and recovered to the fole ufe of the 
profecutor with double cofts ; and 
no part thereof fhall go to the ufe 
of the poor of the parifn. 

Profecutions fhall commence 
within fix months after the faft is 

A little before eight in the , 
evening, a terrible fubterra- " * 
neous noife was heard at the forges 
of Barnau, near the gold and lil- 
ver mines of Koliwanowofrefenkoy; 
which was loon after followed by a 
fhock of an earthquake, that lafted 
for three or four minutes. All the 
houfes were fhaken by it, the beds 
ftrongly agitated, and the move- 
ables thrown about. On the 12th, 
about noon, happened a fecond, 
fomewhat lefs violent, but of the 
fame duration as the former. The 
weather, during this lafl, was 
cold, and remarkably ferene ; dur- 
ing the other, calm and very 

Captain Crabb, of Ab- . 

Ill • r l4tn. 

church-lane, getting out of ^ 

bed in his fleep, opened the fafh, 
and threw himfelf out of the win- 

C H R O N I C L 


[8 1 


dow. He was greatly hurt, but is 
in a fair way of recovery. 

At the anniverfary fer- 
mon and feaft of the London 
Hcfpiral, 1103I. 16 s. yd. was 
coUecled for that charity. 

Two perfons lately tried at the 
Surry aili-^es for defrauding their 
creditors, in taking the benent ot 
the famous compulhve claufe in the 
laft aft of irsfolvency, had the good 
fortune to efcape, by an unaccount- 
ablemiftskein penningthe fn\d acl, 
the word iu^"f^tn:nt beino- inferred 
mftead of the word iidiclinent. 

Cambridge, April 9. The fub- 
jeft for Mr. Seaton's prize poem 
this year is Repentance. 

The fubjefts for the twopriz-'sof 
fifteen guineas .each, given by the 
hon. Mr. Finch, and the hon. Mr. 
Townfhend, for the beft excrcifes 
in Latin profe, are this year: For 
the fenior bachelors ; Num. cred':bile 
indeatur populum Romanum magis Jub 
Pompeio quavi fub Ca/are miciore 
fore liberum'f [Is it probable, that 
had Pompey prevailed, the people 
of Rome would have been mere 
free than they were under Csef'rr] 
For the middle bachelor? ; Utrum 
fir t us magis in rebus /ectindis 
an in adverjts F [Is virtue moft 
confpicuous in profperity, or in 
ad vera ty ?] 

1 Ended th? fefli'^ns at the 
•* ' Old Bailey, at which one, for 
a highway robbery, one for facri- 
lege, and one far a private robbery, 
receivedfentence ofde:.t'T ; (the two 
iirft have been fince tranfported :) 
1 8 to be tranfported for feven years, 
one to be pilloried, two branded, 
and tour to be privately whipped. 

At the afflzes at Kingfton, four 
criminals were capitally convifled ; 
at Warwick, two ; atStalFord, one; 
at Rocherter, feven ; at Shrewfbury, 

VCL. V. 

five ; at Chel.msford, feven. Moil 
of them were reprieved, and, in. 
general, received the king's free 
pardon, on condition of ierving 
as foldiers in America. 

Report of the flate of the city hof- 

pitals for the p-eceding year : 

St. BarthoiOmew's. 

Cured and difcharged from 7 ^ 

this hofpital , p'^^5 

TrufTes given by aprivatehandto 10 
TruflTes given by thehofpital to 24 

Buriei this year 351 

Remaining under cure — — 521 

in all 6769^ 
Sr. Thomas's Hofpital. 
Cured and difchareed from 7 o 

tnis hofpital j '^ 

Buried this year 408 

P.emaining under cure 474 

Out-paiients — ^— . 201 

Total 85 1 1 

Chrlft's Hofpital. 

Children put forth apprentices, and 

difcharged out of this hofpital 

laft year, 10 whereof were in- 

ftruded in the mathematics 179 

Buried the laft yer/r ■ 13 

B.emaining in this hofpital 942 

Bridewell Hofpital. 
Vagrants, Sec. relieved and 1 
difcharged — — 3 

Maintained in feveral trades, kc. 70 

Bfthlem Hofpital. 
Admitted into this hofpital 
Cured • ■ . ■ 

Remaining under cure — » 




MelT. Mafon and Dixon, fent 
out by the R.oyal Society to obferve 
the late tranfit of Venus over the 
fun, are returned from the Cape of 
Good Hope, and have brought with 
them a moil circumftantial, excel- 
lent, and fatisfac'torv obfervation, 

[G] ' for 


for which they have received the 
thanks of that learned body. 

His majefly's pardon is granted 
to Mr. Macdonald, of Barrifdale, 
condemned for the late rebellion, 
and ever fince a prifoner in Edin- 
burgh caftle. 

The king of Naples has prefent- 
ed to the univerfiiies of Oxford and 
Cambridge, a third volume of an 
account of the antiquities difco. 
vered at Herculaneum. 

A party of Gage's rangers, who 
fetout from Montreal, lall fummer, 
to reconnoitre the country and the 
great lakes of Canada, and to take 
pr fTeiTion of the remoteiT; parts com- 
prifed within the limits of that pro- 
vince, according to the capitulation, 
returned to Philadelphia, at the be- 
ginning of February, after travel- 
ling by land and water 1800 miles. 

, At the anniverfary meet- 

' ' ing of the Middlefex Hof- 
pital, 400 1. was collefted towards 
the fupport of that charity. To 
fhew the ufefulnefscf this r.nd other 
charities of the fame kind, efpeci- 
zily in great towns, we iniert the 
following Hit of perfons fent to it 
for relief in a very fe v days : 

Saturday night a chairman fal- 
ling down with his chair in Carna- 
by-maket, fprained his Irg in a vio- 
lent manner. Sunday John Carc- 
wright, a labouring man, was ter- 
ribly bruifed and^cut in the h'iad. 
Tuefday Robert Mitchel, a farmer's 
fervant atKentifh Town, was kick- 
ed by a horfe, and miferably bruif- 
ed ;^ and the fame day a fervant fall- 
ing from behind a pou-chaife, hung 
on the fpikes, v.hereby his legs 
were terribly torn. Wednsfday a 
.coachman ftij off the box, and was 
greatly bruifed ; and the fame day 
John Kelly, a labouring man, be- 
ing fiiot at with powder by a fol- 


dier, had his face terribly burnt. 
Thurfday Samuel Jackfon, a car- 
man, driving his cart loaded with 
coals, fell down, and the wheel 
going over his foot, crulhed it in a 
miferable manner ; and the fame 
day Philip Clarke, a poor man, 
who fome time ago had his thigh 
broke, and was juft come out of 
the Middlefex Hofpital cured, fell 
down in Leicefter- fields, and broke 
it again. Thev "ere all carried to 
the Middlefex Hofpital. and ad- 

Rejol-ved, by the houfe of Com- 
mons in Ireland, That the fuggef- 
tions confidently propagated, that 
the heads of a bill, " for limiting 
the duration of parliaments, and 
afcertaining the qualifications of 
members to {tt\t in parliament," 
if they had returned from Eng- 
land, would have been rejecled 
by this houfe, though in nowife 
materially altered, are without 

Numbers of people have been 
laiely afTccled by colds, which at- 
tacked them x/vh. violent pains in 
the xlomach, head, and bones ; it is 
the opinion of the facuhy, that it is 
in the air, the diftempcr being fo 

This dillemper is faid to have 
reached Ireland, there being fcarce 
a family in Dublin without it. 

The following eminent ^ y 
perfonages kiffed the king's 
hand at St. James's on being crea- 
ted EngliAi peers ; 

Sir William Courtenay, Bart» 

George Fox Lane, Efq; 

George Venablts Vernon, Efq; 

Earl of Egmont in Ireland. 

Lord Milton of Ireland. 

Duke of Newcaftle, a barony, 
with the remainder to Thomas 
Pelham, Efq. 




Peerefies. Duchefs dowager of concealed in the water: they pier 
Manchefter, wife to Sir Edward ced the prominent part, and after 

Montague, a baronefs, with the 
remainder to her heirs male. 

Lady Caroline Fox, a baronefs • 
with the remainder to her heirs 

A gentleman at Grin ftead Green, 
in Kent, having loft a pointer, in 
nine weeks after it was difcovered 
at the bottom of a chalk-pit, up- 
wards of 60 feet in depth, and was 

having digged a hole a foot deep, 
a great torrent of blood ifTued 
forth ; upon which they withdrew 
at a diflance, and foon after the 
boat had pafied (as the water was 
deep enough over his tail) he ftruck 
the ground with fuch force, as to 
caft up ftdnes and mire a great 
height in the air : if lie had ftruck 
while the boat v/as over his tail. 

taken up alive, but almoft entirely doubtlefs he would have fplit it to 
emaciated ; the animal had nothing pieces. They waited about three 
but chalk to fubiift on, yet by pro- quarters of an hour, and then he 

per care was preferved. 

A poor labouring family, near 
Biddefton in Norfolk, have been 
lately affliiSted by a terrible dif- 
order ; the limbs of feveral of 
them having rotted off, though 
without any injury to their health. 

expired with the moft horrible 
groans ; after which they faftened 
a rope to his body, and on the turn 
of the tide towed him up the river 
to Greenland-dock, where innu- 
merable crowds flocked to fee fo 
great a curiofity, even after the 

or the other parts of the body. But ftench iiluing fromfogreat amafs of 

as the cafe is fo extraordinary, we putrefaction had infefted the air to 

thought proper to give it a place a confiderable diftance. They took 

in our article of Natural Hiftory. out of his head eight puncheons of 

Within thefe four months, about fpermaceti, which lay between the 

fourteen male whales have been eye and the blow-hole, in different 

driven out of their element on the 
Englilh and neighbouring coafts, 
moft ot which yielded great quanti- 
ties of blubber and fpermaceti, and 
would have yielded much greater, 
had they fallen into feiiful hands. 

One of thefe whales was dif- 
covered in the month of February, 
floating on the water, by fome 
filhermen going through the Hope. 
They at firft took it for the maft 
of a iliip ; but as they drew 
nearer, difcovered it to be a large 
fifti ; and upon feeing it caft up 
a great quantity of water from its 
mouth, fufpefted it was a whale ; 
they then chafed him below the 
Hope Point, aad went off to him in 
their boats; he feemed a motion- 
lefs lurapj his head .ind tail being- 

cells of the braid, and which, along 
with the blubber, fold for 122I. 

The dimenllonsof this enormous 
.inimal were as follows ; extreme 
length, 54. feet; breadth, 14 ditto; 
lower jaw, 10 ditto ; length cf the 
penis, 8 ditto ; length of the tail, 
15 ditto. — The frit knowledge of 
the drugcalled fpermaceti (accord- 
ing to Watfon in his Animal World 
Difplayed) was owing to accident. 
One of thefe whales had been hurt, 
and died ; as the carcafe fell to 
pieces, the oil of the head floated 
upon the water, and the weather 
bleached it, and it hardened into 
that flaky matter. It was found 
that the oil of this whale's head 
would make the drug, and foon af- 
ter they found the way of doin^it 

[G] a by 


by art, they made other oil ferve ; 
and at prefent it is made from that 
of any kind of whale. 

Died lately. Mary Mitten, cf 
Birmingham, whofe coffin was iix 
feet feven inches long, three feet 
deep, and three feet fix inches over 
the breaft. 

Mr. Jofeph E.ogers of the ifie 
of Man, aged 103. 

Eliz. Pearcy, of Elell, in Lanca- 
fhire, aged 104, and Eliz. Story, of 
the parifh of Garftang, aged 103. 

Mary Burch, at Perfliore, aged 

Mr. Robertfon, in Petty France, 
aged 107. 

The. Nixon/ at Newlands, in 
Cumberland, ag.:d 108. 


M A Y. 

The riots and diHurbances 
lately raifed in the fouthern 
parts of Ireland, by a fet of people 
called Levellers, are entirely put a 
llop to by the vigilance and activity 
of the earl of Halifax. It appear?, 
that ihe authors of thefe diRurban- 
ces have confided, indifcriminate- 
ly, of perfons of different perfunfi- 
ons ; and that no marks of difaf- 
fedion to his majel^y's perfon or 
government have been difcovered, 
upon this occafion, in any ciafs cf 
people. London Gazette. 

The above rioters were called 
Levellers, from their levelling fuch 
hedges, &c. as they thought in- 
croached upon commons, the chief 
fupport of the poor in the country 
of Ireland ; where there is not til- 
lage or manufafture enough, as in 
England, to employ them ; and the 
land, befides, comes to them thro' 
three or fofar hands perhaps, who 
all have a pj-ofit out of it. They 
were Ukewif« called White Boys, 

from their wearing fhirts over their 
other cloaths, the better to diflin- 
guifli each other by night, the time 
when they generally aiJembled. 

In fuppreillng thefe rioters, the 
civil and militcry powers were fo 
combined, thro' the great wifdom 
and goodnefs of the government, 
that due refpeft v.'as fecured to the 
former, and all rnnecefiary rigours 
prevented on the part of the latter. 

Not above eight or nine, and 
thefe chiefly ringleaders, fuifered 
death on this occafion, which, tho' 
more than could be wiftied, was but 
a fmall number, confidering how 
many were engaged in thofe riotous 

The colleftion at the re- ^ , 
hearfal, and at the annual 
feait of the fons of the clergy, 
amounted to 801 1. 15 s. gd. and 
Sampfon Gideon, Elq; gave one 
hundred pounds. 

By a table of benefndions fet up 
in the parifh church of Bedford, it 
appears that Sir William Harper by 
deed, April 22, 5 Elizabeth, gave 
to the mayor, bailiffs, and their 
fucceffors, a meflbage called the 
Free School, in that town ; alfo 
thirteen acres and a rood of mea- 
dow, &c. in the late Red-Licn- 
Fields, London, (now built upon, 
and con tain ing Bed ford- ftreet, Bed- 
ford-row, &c.Princes-ftreet, Theo- 
bald's - road. North - lireet, Eaft- 
ilreet, Lam.b's - conduit - ftreet, 
Green-ftreet, and part of Eagle- 
ftreet, with feveral courts thereto 
belonging, all in the parifh of St. 
Andrew's, Holborn) for the main- 
tenance of a mailer and ufherof the 
faid fchool, for the marriage of 
poor maids, and the remainder to 
be dillributed to the poor of faid 
town on St. Thomas's day, at the 
difcretion cf the body corporate. 




Prom all which the corporation did 
not receive as a ground-rent above 
150I. per ann. But as the leafes 
expired in 1760, and new ones are 
granted, and are now granting, it 
33 imagined this ettrae will bring 
in a monflrous fum annually, fome 
fay 8000 1. per annum, and anfwer 
every intention of the donor, and 
be the making of the ancientcorpo- 
ration of Bedford, if rightly and 
properly applied. 

By fome experiments lately made 
at Toulon, it appears that (hips fail 
much fuRer by night than day, ow- 
ing probably to the ex'raordinary 
humidity, and confeqiiently vv'eight 
of the night air, and the extraor- 
dinary compaclncfs which the fails 
derive therefrom. 

A monument erected to the me- 
mory of James Thon^won, author of 
the Seafons, &c. was this day open- 
ed in Weftminller Abbey. It is fi- 
tuated between Shakefpeare's and 
Rowe's. There is a figure of IVIr. 
Thomfon fitting, who leans his left 
arm upon a pedellal, and holds a 
book with the cap of liberty in his 
other hand. Upon the pedellal is 
carved a bas relief of the Seafons, 
to which a boy points, offering him 
a laurel crown, as the reward of his 
genius. At the feet of this figure 
is a tragic malk and ancient hurp. 
The whole is fupported by a pro- 
jecting pedeilal; and in a pannel is 
the following infcriotion :■ 


.'Etatis 48. Obiit z-j Aug. 164.8. 

Tutor'd by thee, fweet poetry 'Exalts 

Her voice to ages; and informs the 

With niufic, image, fcntiment, and 

N-:vcr to die I 
Thismonumentwaserededin 1762. 

The colledllon for the ge- , , 
neral hofpital at Bath, a- ^ ^' ' 
mounted to 165 1. 14s. lod. 

A filh, refembling a whale, 
about II feet long, and thick in 
proportion, with 88 ivory teeth, 
and three fins, two near the head, 
and one in the middle of the back, 
came afhore lately, about a league 
from Schevening in Holland. It 
weighed about 600 weight. It had 
the colour and nearly the tafle of 
falmon. When taken, it was fol- 
lowed by one of its young ones. 
On prefiing its fides, there iffued a 
kind of milk in great plenty. \i 
was brought on ihore alive; but 
died in a few houri. 

Tiiere being reafon to fear two 
poor perfons, who within thefe fev/ 
days died fuddenlyat Illington, pe- 
rilhed by deadly nigh tfh.ide, the fol- 
lowing caution, by doctor Hill, has 
been inferted in the public papers. 

This plant is now a quarter of a 
yard high, and has an afpeft fo in- 
viting, that one almnil wonders na- 
ture gave to it a poifon. It has in- 
vited many to boil it; and death 
was always in the pot. Ray men- 
tions its growing in a ditch at the 
end of Gofwell-rtrect, in the road 
to Iflington. It has been thought 
lofr in that place; bu: I fear thefe 
unhappy perfons have found it. 

Came on at Guildhall, a , 
trial wherein a captain of a ° * 
trading ihip was plaintiff, anda lieu- 
tenant of a man of v.'ar defendant : 
the a^iilion was laid for 500 1, by the 
piaintiif, for impreliing him out of 
bis own ihip, knowing him to be 
the captain, and confining him 48 
hours on bo:.rd a tender. The trial 
laited an hour, when the jury 
gave a verdicl for the plainiifF, with 
200 1. damages and colts. 

[G] 3 At 

86] ANNUAL R E G I S T E R,^ 176-2. 

n At a meeting of the fociety 
Oi'" polite arts, the premium of 
CO guineas was given to Mr. Jofeph 
Nollekens, pupil of Mr. Schee- 
maker, for a marble bas-relief, the 
fubjeft Timoclea conducled before 

At the fame time a difcovcry was 
providentially made, that the great 
beam, which fupports the fociety*s 
roof was broken in two, and the 
walls of the room and the cupola 
confiderably damaged, occafioned, 
as fuppofed, by the foundation giv- 
ing way. li the room had been 
full, the company would probably 
have been buried in the ruins. 

And at a prior meeting were pro- 
duced fome fpecimens of a new in- 
vention for the ladies, viz. painted 
gawfe. It is done with fuch exadt- 
nefs, as to imitate all the various 
Hitches of which Drefden work is 
compofed; and, at the fame time, 
with fuch ingenuity, as far to fur- 
pafs, to the eye, the fineft perform- 
ance with the needle. The fpeci- 
mens confifted of a cap, made up of 
a red filk caul, one piece framed 
and glazed, and a piece for a long 
apron. The ingenious inventrefs 
values the apron at two guineas, 
which was declared, by fome judges 
there, to be worth, if of righcDrcf- 
dren, fifty pounds. 

The linen manufarturein Ireland, 
by the wife management of ihe truf- 
tees, has this year been increafed 
upwards of 80,000 1. and it is 
thought it is capable of being in- 
creafed ftill farther, even to the ex- 
tent of three millions yearly. 

, Was held a chapter of the 

g3rter, when his majefty in- 
yelled his royal highnefs prince Wil- 
liam with his late majefty's blue 
ribband, and the earl of Bute with 
the ribband of the late duke of 

At a peneral court at Chrift's 
Hofpital, the treafurer reported his 
receipt of a legacy of 300I. and of 
another contingent one of 500 pa- 
godas, both given out of a fortune 
of 1200I. only, by John Palmer, in 
grateful return for his education in 
that houfe, whence he was fent to 
the Eaft- Indies in 1745. 

The following melancholy acci- 
dent lately happened at a limekiln 
in Dublin. The kiln not having 
fire in it for fome time, produced 
a fuffocating damp ; and a man 
going to give it vent, was imme- 
ciately ftruck dead: another man 
feeing him fall, and not knowing 
the confequence, went down to his 
affiftance, and unfortunately fhared. 
the fame fate; and three others, 
who happened to be by, endea- 
vouring to fave them, were all fuf- 
focated. A poor woman, wife to 
the laft man that went down, over- 
reaching herfelf to the afiillance of 
her hufband, was fo much over- 
come, that, had fhe not been im- 
mediately brought into the air, and 
got proper remedies, {he would 
likewife have periflied. 

A butcher, at Wandfworth, lately 
walked 44. miles iii 7 hours 57 mi- 
nutes, for a wager. 

Frince Erneft, third bro- „ . 
ther of the queen, and the 
count of Lippe-Buckebotirg, arriv- 
ed from Germany. 

The right hon. George Gren- 
ville, Efq; was appointed one, of 
his majefty's principal fccretaries of 

I'he feflions ended at the Old 
Heiley, which proved a maiden one ; 
nine received feutenceof tranfporta- 
tion, three to be whipped, and one 
branded. At this feflions a gentle- 
woman was tried for the fuppofed 
murder of hiT hulband, and after a 



trial of nine hours, honourably ac- be tried. Upon enquirv, it was 
quitted. The principal evidence found, that the gaols within the 
againlt her was committed for per- three fhires of Aberdeen, Eamf, and 
jury, and fince convicled, but re- Kincardine, were errpty, havinp- 
ceived his majcllv's pardon. no one in them either for crime or 

They have lately printed at the debt, 
univerfity of Mofcow, Cornelius A comet was difccvered from the 

Nepos, in the original; which is, marine obfervatory in France. It 
perhaps, the firit claiTical book that appeared in the conftellaiion of 
ever came from a Ruffian prefs. Caraelopardalus, about 15 degrees 

His Majcfty has granted to the from the pole, 
widow and daughter of the late in- A water quake was felt at Bergen 

genious Thomas Simpfon, F. R. S. in Norway, the fea ebbing and 
a handfome penuon for their joint flowing preternaturally with great 
and feparate lives. violence. On the 1 2th of December 

Bofton, Feb. 15. I-aft week a an earthquake was f-rlt at Oby in Si- 
furvey of the number of dwellings beria, ?. phenomenon that was never 
in this city was taken by proper per- known to happen there before, 
fons, when, on clofing the liits, F<tra£l of a letter from Rome, 
there appeared to be 2757. " The late pope Benedict Xf\'. 

They write from Naples, that and cardinal Paffionel iirftfet on foot 
Mr. Strange meets with all the ho- the very ufeful projed of printing 
nours and encouragements there, an exaft and methodical catalogue 
which his beft friends could wifli, of all the manufcriptsin the \''atican 
and fjch as he has already received library ; the execution of which has 
in other parts of Italy. On his ar- been committed to the care of the 
rival at Naples, he applied, by the learned meflieurs Affemani. The 
Britifh envoy, for leave to a whole work will be dillributed into 
drawing from a celebrated piclure three parts, each of which will take 
by Skedoni: but this method of up feveral volumes. In the firil 
application not proving fuccefsful, will appear the Hebrew, Samaritan, 
Mr Strange's works were iliewed ChaldeanorSyriac, Arabic, Copti , 
to the king's governor (prince St. Abyilinian, Perfian, Turkifh, Ar- 
Ailicandre), and then liberty was menian, and other oriental lan- 
immediately granted him, not only guages. The fecond is to be ap- 
to make a drawing from that pi^ure, propriated to the Greek manu- 
but from as many others of the fa- fcripts. The third will contain the 
mous Parma collection as he fnould Latin, Italian, French, and other 
chufe; and an apartment in the occidental languages. Three vo- 
palace was ordered to be fitted up lumes of this grand work have al- 
for him directly, with every accom- ready been publifhed: They con- 
modation. tain an biftorical and critical fur- 

^1 The king was pleafed to vey of the Hebrew, Samaritan, and 
' appoint the right hon. John 'Chaldean manufcripts. Before the 
earl of Bute firil lord of the trea- firit volume there is a general pre- 
fury. face, fetting forth the occafion of 

The Jufticiary Court, or Court of the work, and the method fixed 
Aflize, was opened at Aberdeen, upon for carrying it on j the origin^ , 
when not one prifoner appeared to progrefs, and increale of the Vati- 

[^] i can 


can library ; and, finally, a chro- 
tjological liit of the librarians, with 
the prefsnc form of its adminiftra- 

Theprinter fives notice, that the 
foUowino- volumes will forthwith be 
prints.., with the fame care, and in 
the like form as thofe publifhed, viz^ 
in folio, on the large paper, called 
t?//<rz rectle. The price of each vo- 
lume will continue the fame to 
fubfcribers, namely, four RonTan 
crowns; and the bookfeller, Funfto 
Amideo, will deliver them upon 
producing the receipts. Non-fub- 
fcribers muft pay live crowns a vo- 
lume. A"d, 

Ac Mauri J, is lately publifhed, 
by the a'.:thority and at the expence 
of his Catholic majefty, in grand 
folio, the v\t'\ volume of all the 
Arabic man ufcripts (many of whole 
authors were inhabitants of Spain) 
in the library of the Efcurial ; with 
fome account of each, bv Michael 
Cafiri, a Syro-Maronite prieft, doc- 
tor in theology, and the king's li- 
brarian, and interpreter of the ori- 
ental languages. The whole col- 
ledlion is faid to amount to two 

^ V, His royal highnefs 'the 
•^° ' * duke of York hoilted his flag 
on board the Princefs Amelia, at 
Spichead, and the next day returned 
to London. 

Mrs. Cole, wife of a carpenter 
in Spiral- fields, waa lately delivered 
of three boys. 

Died lately. The only fon of the 
late Andrew Highilreet, of Weft- 
miniter, Efq; by whofe deceafe, 6 
or 700I. per annum, comes to 
the Weflminiler-infirmary, and St. 
Luke's hofpital. 

Mr?, Barrow, of Liverpool, of a 
dropfy, for which (he had been tap- 
ped 41 times, and had 200 gallons of 
water taken from her in three years. 

Mrs. Knights, of Norwich, aged 

A man and woman, of Limoge?, 
in France, the former aged ill, 
and the latter 103. 

Agnes Chrillie,of Aberdeenlhirc, 
aged 104. 

A peafant, in the diocefe of Ev- 
reux, in France, aged 104. 

A man at Madrid, aged above 

J U N E. 

His majefty went to the 1 
houi'e of peers, and, after 
giving the royal aflent to the fol- 
lowing bills, made a mofl: gracious 
fpeech from the throne ; and both 
houfes were then prorogued to the 
16th of July. 

The bill to fettle and fecure a 
certain annuity, for the ufe of Ar- 
thur Onflow, Efq; late fpeaker of 
the houle of commons. 

— to defray the charge of the mi- 
litia when unembodied, and cloath- 
ing the militia now unembodied. 

— — to naturalize fuch foreign 
protertants as have ferved, or may 
hereafter ferve, as officers or engi- 
neers in America. 

to prevent thefts and rob- 
beries on the river Thames, by per- 
fons in boats, commonly called 

— — to widen the north-eafl ave- 
nue leading to London-bridge. 

. to make perpetual an atl 

for the better regulation and go- 
vernment of feamen in the mer- 
chants fervice. 

for granting to his m.ajefty 

a certain fum of money out of the 
finking fund. 

for the better payment of 

the judges falaries. 

for paving, cleanfing, and 

lighting the ilreets and lanes of 




Ths bill for veiling certain mcf- 
fuages, &c. on the fea-ccait, in the 
county of Kent, SufTex, and South- 

— — for enlarging the harbour 
of Liverpool. 

I for the enrolment of deeds 
and wills n:3de by pnpiib, and for 
the relief of proteltant purchafers, 

for the more eafy and 

fpeedy recovery of fmall debts 
within the town and county of 
Kingfton upon Hull. 

for importing fait from Eu- 
rope, into the colony of Nova Sco- 
tia in America. 

for repairing the harbour of 

Whitehaven, town and county, for 
regulating the carmen there, and 
for fup plying the fame with water. 

Anjd to feveral other public and 
private bills. 

At the anclion at Sir Harry 
Parker's, at Talton, in Worcefter- 
{hire, the SeafonTTby Titian, fold 
for 200 1. For this painting 500 1. 
had been fome time fince refuied. 
At the fame fale, fome of old 
Hemficirk's pieces were fold for 
ccnfiderable fums. 

, Being his majcfty's birth 

^ ■ day, who then entered into 
the 25th year of his age, the fame 
was obferved with the ufual de- 
moa'.trations of joy. In the morn- 
ing the famous new bells at Bow- 
Church, the fineft in England, 
were rung for the firit time. The 
weight of thefe bells is as follows : 

Firft bell, eight hundred 3-4ths, 
and 7 lb. 

2d. Nine hundred and 2lb. 

3d. Ten hundred i-4th, and 41b. 

4:h. Twelve hundred and jib. 

5th. Thirteen hundred and 241b. 

6th. Seventeen hundred and 

7th. Twenty hundred and half, 
and 261b. 

8th. Twenty four hundred and 
half, and 41b. 

9th. Thirty- four hundred and 
half, and 6 lb. 

loth. Fifcy-three hundred, 22lb. 

There has been lately found in a 
vault near Cafan, the buit of the 
widow of Julius Csfar, extremely 
well executed. This ferves to fh^w 
that the kingdom of Cafan was oi^ce 
under thedominion of the Romans. 

Died. The right hon. the ,- , 
lord An Ton, firft lord of the " 

Admiralty, &c. 

On the 2d of May laft, a whirl- 
wind happened on Port Royal 
liland in South Carolina, of the 
fame nature as the great ftorm 
which did fo much damage laft 
year at Charles Town. Tni* phse- 
nomenon was feen in the form of a 
column, 400 yards diameter; it 
had a circular whirling motion, 
and proceeded with great violence 
from the N. W. to the S. E. It 
tore up trees, and carried away 
hcufes and bridges : it forced the 
water in Broad river out of its chan- 
nel, and threw it up to a great 
height. [See our laft vol. page 93.] 

A caufe was tried at Guild- , 
hall, before the right hon. lord 
chief Juftice Mansfieli, wherein 
Mr. Kaac Renoux was plaintifr", 
and Mr. Ferres, mafter of Jona- 
than's cofFee-houfe, cef^ndant, for 
an affault, by pulbing the plaintiff 
out of his houfr*. It being proved 
upon trial, that that houfe had been 
a market (rime out of mind) for 
buying and felling government fe- 
curities, the jury brought in their 
verdift for the plaintiff, with one 
Ihilling damage. 

A meteor was feen at Sy- , 

denham, rcfembling a ball 
of fire, which took its direftion to- 
wards the fouth, where meeting 
with a dark black cloud, it imme- 

9o] ANNUAL R E G I S T E R, 1762. 



diately barft with a noife like 
thunder, and difperfed into innu- 
iTierable littie ftars, with w hich the 
whole atmolphere vyas perfeflly il- 

One hundred guineas was 
paid Mr. Read by the fo- 
ciety of arts for the firft premium 
in fculpture. 

A remarkable caiife came on jn 
the court of King's-bench, upon 
indictments againll an eminent 
L)uiluer and a mafter bricklayer, 
employed by him, for a nuifance 
in leaving a heap of rubbiili in the 
flreet, lall October, no watch or 
light being fet up in order to pre- 
vent accidents ; the confequencc of 
which was, that a coach with fome 
ladies and children in it was over- 
turned, moft of whom were greatly 
bruiled, but one of the ladies re- 
ceived fo much hurt, that fne never 
Ipoke again, and her death (as was 
fully proved) which happened in 
two or three days after, was en- 
tirely owing to this accident. The 
builder allcdged, that he commit- 
ted the care of removing this rub- 
bifh 10 the bricklayer, whofe proper 
province it was to fee it done ; and 
the bricklayer laid the blame on 
the carter. But the builder was 
confidered as culpable, it being his 
bufmefs not only to take care to em- 
ploy proper people under him, but 
alfo to fee that they do their duty, 
and he was therefore fined lool. 
which he paid in court ; and the 
bricklayer's fentence was twelve 
months imprifonment in the 
King's. Bench. 
^ , At a court of common 

'^ * council, it was ordered that 
Lady-fair, in the borough of South- 
wark, fiiall not be held for the 
future, a'nd that (hews, inter- 
ludes, and other unlawful paftimes, 
fhall not be faiiered at Barthoio- 

The king was this day 
pleafed to conftitute and ap« 
point George Dunk, earl of Hali- 
fax, firll: lord of the admiralty. 

His royal highnefs the duke , 
of York having hoilled his ' * 
flag on board the Princefs Amelia 
at Spithead, went on board, and 
the whole fleet under Sir Edward 
Hawke, of feven fhips of the line 
and two frigates, fell down to St. 

There is now blowing at the earl 
ofPortfmouth's, ^t Billingbearncar 
Reading, two narrovz-leaved Ame- 
rican aloes, with anumberof flowers. 

An appeal came on lately before 
the court of delegates, between the 
dean and chapter of Wellminller, 
and the parifhioners of St. Marga- 
ret's, concerning the painted win- 
dow in the church ; the bill was 
ordered to be difmifred, and each 
to pay their own coft. 

At the fale, at St. Paul's coffee- 
houfe, of Mr. Gill's collection of 
coins, medals and curiofities, the 
following lots fold as under : 
1 Penny of Henry I. jT. z z o 
I ditto of Edward I. 190 

1 Groat of Henry VTiT. 120 
1 Crown, half-crown,! 

Ibilling, and fix- V- 3 18 o 
p'^nceQ^Elizabeth j 
1 Plalf-crown and three J 

pence of Charles I. J ^ 

A gold ring with an i 

ancient Runic in-Vi5 o o 

fcription J 

A letter upon a very fingular fub- 
jetl has been laieiyprinted atLyons, 
and reprinted at Amilerdam ; the 
fubjed is, the ** Advantages and 
origin of the gaiety that prevails 
among the French. " This gaiety, 
indeed, is a peculiarity in their na* 
tional character ; and, what is ex- 
tremely remarkable, nothing can 
overcome. it; nothing can deje*^ 
that light and airy people. Let 



them be loaded with taxes, let their difpofition of the peat to kindle by 

trade be ruined, their fleets funk, inflammable exhalacions, through 

theirarmie5defeated;al' this makes the late exceflive heat and drynefs 

little alteration in their demeanour, of the weather. 
They don't fing a fong the lefs, or In Scotland, the woods of Ro- 

iook a whit the graver on this ac- thimurchus, and the fine forells of 

count. Nay more, a Frenchman is Glenmere and Glenfiddick, have 

immediately comforted under the been in great danger from the fame 

lofs of a town, a province, or a caufe. The woods of Abernethy 

battle, if he be allowed to level an have fuiFered prodjorioufly, and the 

epigram at the head of a minilier neighbouring inhabitantshavebeen 

or general to whofe charge thefe employed night and day in divert- 

misfortunes are laid. A joke dif- ing the courfe of the flames. Se- 

pels the gloom of affliction, and a veral woods in North America are 

^0;/ ;>;?!;/ ditfufeschearfulneh through faid to have fhared the fame fate, 

a fad heart. A jack- pudding in a and from the fame caafe. 
French ihip is the beil prefervative An elm-tree of an uncommon 

againft the fcurvy ; and it is well fize, in the clofe at Saliibury, giving 

known, that when the famous Lou- a moft violent crafli, fell down fo 

vois heard of a fpirit of defertion fuddenly as to alarm many hun- 

having got into a ftrong garrifon, dreds who were prefent, it being the 

he always fent a Merry Andrew to fair time. Twelve or fourteen per- 

retain the foldiers in their duty, fons were beat down by the boughs^ 

The author of the letter now be- a boy had eight ribs and back 

fore us imputes the French gaiety broke, and died in about an hour, 

to the following caufes : ill. To two men had each a leg broke, and. 

their climate, zdly. To the nature much more mifchief was done. 
of their government, which ex- A curious diiTertation has lately 

empts them from all influence or appeared in Holland, to reccmmend. 

fliare in public affairs, the tranfaft- fugar, inltead of fait, for prcferving 

ing of which renders men naturally animal as well as vegetable provi- 

grave and ferious. jdl}'. To that fions, as itpreferves the virtues and 

vanity, which gives the French a flavour in the latter, as much as fait 

fond and pleaflng notion of their deflrojs both in the former, 
fuperiority over all other nations. Liverpool, fune 18. Anne the 

And, 4thly, To their fociability. daughter of Jonathan Walih, of 

A moor at Solefberryin Bucking- Harrogate, in YorkHiire, aged 12 

harafhire ; another great one near years, laft ChrKlmas was a twelve- 

Pately-bridge in Yorkfliire ; the month, entirely loll her appetite ; 

high moors near Sheffield ; and the ihe has not eat of any kind of folid 

moor or heath on Bloreme-hill in vicliuals fince that time: her fup- 

Monmouthlhire, are all on Are ; port is nothing but a pint of wine 

that on Bloreme-hill, near fix feet and water, which ferves her three 

deep, and thofe near Sheffield for days; notwitbftanding fo fmall a 

thircymilestogetherinfomeplaces; quantity, (heenjoys a good ftate of 

owing, it is probable, confidering health, and looks as well as <*ver. 
in how many and diftant places the A melancholy account ^^ , 

tire broke out;, not to malice orcare- was received from New " 

leflheu, but to the extraordinary York of the lofs of a cartel-fhip 



that failed from thence in Novem- 
ber, and was foon after caft away, 
and out of 120 fouls on board, fix 
only were faved, among whom were 
the captain, and M. St. Luke; the 
latter loft a brother, two fons, two 
nephe-.vs, and feveral other relations 
and friends. There were on board 
14 ofiicers, 10 ladies, and 54 young 
gentlemen of faOiion, and fcarce a 
perfon in New York but has loit a 
relation or friend. 

Dif'd lately, Mr. Thomas Bsker, 
of Bethnal-green, aged 101. 


, Came on at Guildhall the 

5 * grand caufe (which has been 
fo ofifn argued, and To long de- 
pending) between the city and dif- 
fenters, in regard to the ferving the 
office of flieriff, before lord chief 
baron Parker, Mr. jufiice Fcfter, 
Mr. juftice\ViImot,and Mr. ju (lice 
Bathurft ; when, after feveral learn- 
ed ple?.dirg% the judges were all 
of opinion, that the diiTenters were 
not liable to ferve the faid office, 
&c. But the city has fince appealed 
from this decree to the houfe of 

Laft week Dr. Wilfon's prise, at 
Oxford, of ten guineas, for the bell 
effay in Englifli, on the advantages 
of a fafe, honourable, and lalling 
peace, was adjudged to Mr. Elli- 
fon, probationer fellow of Merton 

And theclaffical prizes at Cam- 
bridge of 15 guineas each, given 
annually by the bon. Mr. Finch, 
and the hon. Mr. Townlhend, wore 
adjudged to Mr. Rofenhagen,of St.. 
John's college ; and to Mr. Eyre, 
of Peter-hc>uf?, fenior bachelors. 
And to Mr. Maddifon, of Sidney, 
and to Mr. Zouch, of Trinity col- 
lege, middle bachelors. ' 

GISTER, 1762. 

In the Gazette of this day ^ , 
is the following intelligence 
from the Hague. 

*' The Hermione, a Spanifh re- 
gifter fhip, which left Lima the 6th 
of January, bound for Cadiz, was 
"taken the 2 id of May off Cape St. 
Vincent, by three Englifh frigates, 
and carried into Gibraltar. Her 
cargo is faid toconfiftof near twelve 
millions of money regillered, and 
the unregiftered to be likewife very 
confiderable, befides 2000 ferons of 
cocoa, and a great deal of other 
valuable merchandize." 

An account of her cargo frcm 
other papers. 

5243 arobes of cocoa. 

1 193 quintals of tin. 

2,276,715 dollars in filver and 
gold coined. 

25 arobes of Ajpaca wool. 

6 quintals of Virginia wool. 

Two boxes with letters, which 
were thrown overboard from the 
Hermione, have been taken up at 
fea, near Faro in Portugal. 

A committee of the fociety , 
for the encv.>uragement of arts, '^ * 
made an experiment of an en- 
gine invented by a Swifs, for root- 
ing up trees. The engine anfwer- 
ed the intentions, but broke in the 
operation. It is a very fimple ma- 
chine, and capable of great 

Tliree Cherokee chiefs, „ , 
lately arrived from South 
Carolina in order to fettle a lafting 
peace with the Englifh, had their 
firft audience of his majefty. The 
head chief called Outacite or Man- 
killer, on account of his many gal- 
lant adions, was introduced by Ld. 
Eglington, and conduced by Sir 
Cle.Tient Cotterell, mailer of the 
ceremonies. They were upwards of 
an hour and a half with his majelty, 
who received them with great good- 




refs, and they behaved in his pre- about London, where they con- 
fence with remarkable decency and llantly drew after them innumer- 
mildnefs. The man who affiled as able crowds of fpettators, to the no 
interpreter on this cccalion, inftead fni:ill emolument of the owners of 
of one who fet out with them, but thele places, fome of which raifed 
died on his paifage, was fo confufed their prices to make the moll of 
that the king could~afk but few fucli unufual gueils. Here they be- 
queftions. haved in general with great fami- 
Thefe chiefs are well-made men, liarity, fhaking hands very fre-ely 
near fix feet high, their faces and with all thofe who thought proper 
necks coarfely painted of a copper to accept that honour. They car- 
colour, and they feem to have no ried home with them articles of 
hair on their heads. They came peace between his majefty and their 
over in the drefs of their country, nation, with a handfome prefent 
confifting of a fljirt, trowzers, and of warlike inftruments, and fuch 
mantle, their heads covered with other things as they feemed to place 
fkull caps, and adorned with iheils, the greatsll: value on. 

A dew of honey fell in , 
the neighbourhood of Ra- ° 
thiermuc in Ireland, which loaded 
the trees and long grafs in fuch a 
manner, that quantities of it were 
favcd by fcoops, a method ufed of 

feachers,ear-rings,and other trifling 
ornaments. On their arrival in 
London they were concluded to a 
hoafe taken for them in SufFolk- 
ftreet, and habited more in the 
Englifh manner. When introdu- 
ced to his majelly, the head chief faving water in fome parts of the 
wore a blue mantle covered with Welt Indies. [Something of this 
lace, and had his head richly orna- fort, but not in any quantity, may, 
mented. On his bVeail hung a hi- at this time, be obferved on the 
ver gorget with his majelly's arms leaves of oaks, bat whether an ex- 
cngraved. The two orher chiefs fudation, or a dew, we do not pre- 
were in fcarlet richly adorned with tend to ■determine.] 
gold lacCj and gorgets of plate on A young gentleman, near Or- 
their brealls. mond-ltreef, ihot a fervant maid of 
During their flay in England, of the family, on her refunng to marry 
about two months, they were in- him, in a very dangerous manner, 
vited to the tables of feveral cf the However, fhe foon recovered ; and 
nobility, and were (hewn bv a gen- on his being tried for it, as an af- 
tleman, appointed for that purpofe, fault, gave fuch evidence, as made 
the lower, the campj, and every it appear he was cut of his fenfes; 
thing elfe that could ierve to infpire upon which he Vv^as committed to a 
them with proper ideas of the mad-houfe. 

power and grandeur of the nation ; Was opened in Weftmin- , 

but it is hard to fay what imprellion Her Abbey, near the Poets 

thefe fights made on them, as they Corner, a monument in memory 

had no other wayof communicating of the late George Frederick Han- 

their fentiments but by their gef- del, Efq. He is reprefented pcint- 

tures. They v.'ere likewife con- ing to the bsck of the monu« 

dufted every day to one or another ment, wkere David is playing ca 

of the places of amufement, in and th» 


tbeharp. In Mr. Handel's right mory of the late gallant lord Howe> 

hand is a pen, writing part of the was opened in Weftminfter Abbey.. 

Meffiah. On the top is a trophy of arms in 

"I know that my Redeemer jiveth, whitemarble; and on aflat pyramid 

&c." and the following infcription, of black marble, highly poliihed. 


DELi Efq; 

Born February 23. 1684; 

Died April 14. 1759 

are his lordfhip's arms, coroner, and 
creft: in white marble, on the top 
hf the monument, fits a beautiful 
figure of a woman in a melancholy 

At lord Peterborough's, pofition, inimitably well executed, 
^^ atParfon'sGreen, juftas the reprefenting the province of MafTa- 
gardeners had lefc work to go to chufet's Bay, and underneath the 
dinner, a whirlwind came, and took following infcription : 
up feven of the bell-glafies inco the " The piovinceof Maflachufet's 
air above twenty feet: one of them Bay, in New England, by an order 
wentover the garden w?ll into the of thegreat and general court, bear- 
King's road, and had like to have ing date Feb. i, 1759, caufed this 
fell on a man's head going along ; monument to be eredled to the 
three others were blown upon i he memory of George Augullus, lord 
hot-houfe, and broke a great quan- vifcount Howe, brigadier-general 
tity of the lights ; the houfe Vv-as of his majelty's forces in America, 
about twenty yards diilance : and who was ilain July 6, 1758, on his 
what is very remarkable, there were march to Ticonderoga, in the 34th 

two rows of glafies, and the feven 
were the firft row that was blown 
up, and in the other row there was 
not one ftirred. 

A curious collection of above 
30,000 tra£ls wi thfome man u Jcripts, 
formerly collefled and bound up in 
volumes for the ufeof king Charles I. 

year of his age, in teftimony of the 
fenfe they had of his fervices and 
military virtues, and of the aiFeftioa 
their officers and foldiers bore to his 

He lived refpecled and beloved | 
the public regretted his lofs; to his 
family it is irreparable." 

but which fell into private hands. Was laid before thegover- |^ 

and for manv years palt have been nors of the city of London ■> 
in the pofteirion of a lady, were lying-in hofpital for married wo- 

lately purchafed bv order of his ma- 
jefty, and prefented to the truikes 
of the Britifh Mufeum. 

The harbour of Rye in 
^'^ ' Safiex was opened, purfuant 
to an aft of parliament pafied the 
laft feffion, by letting the fea and 
tides into the new cut up to Win- 
chelfea wall, where velfels of 300 
tons burthen, and upwards, can 
ri<3e with the grpateft fafety. 

men, in Alderfgate-ftreet, a Itate of 
the hofpital, by which it appeared, 
thatfrom the inftitution of it to that 
day, there had been 5655 women 
delivered in the hofpital, 45 of 
whom had twins, and one was deli- 
vered of three children : 3702 chil- 
dren were born ; males 1896, fe- 
males 1806: that there had been 
received from the inftitution to the 
14th inilant 12,2401. 5s. 8d. and 

A molV beautiful monument, de- expended to the lame day 9,749'* 
figned by IVjr. Stuart, and e^sccuted 14 s. all the tradefmens bills being 
by iVlr. Scheemakcr. to the me- paid up to Midfummer laft. 

A cen. 


A centinel, on duty at Chatham, 
was ftfuclcwithlightning, the upper 
leather of the fhoe on his left foot 
was fnattered, and his foot vvoundc J, 
a hole was made through the blade 
of his fword, and about two inches 
of the edge melted ; the hilt was 
melted and foldered to his bayonet, 
as was one of the locks of his muf- 
ket to the iron ramrod ; his face was 
fcorched,andhe lay an hour fpeech- 
lefs, but has ilnce recovered. 

The feffions ended at the Old 
Bailey, when eight perfons received 
fentence of death ; John Placket, 
for robbing, wounding, and leaving 
fordeadMr. Faye, a Daniih gentle- 
man, whom he had decoyed late at 
night into Iflingtoa fields, on a pre- 
tence of conducting him to his 1 edg- 
ings near the Tower; James Flar- 
dy and Richard Mitchell for a high- 
way robbery; two gentlemen and 
a fsrvant of theirs, for ravilliing a 
womaQ whom one of them picked 
up in the Park, and carried to his 
lodgings ; and Sarah Meryard, a..d 
Sarah ^Jorgan Metyard her daugh. 
ter, for wilfully and maliciouily mur- 
dering Anne Nailer, a poor parifh 
girl her apprentice, about four years 
fince, by beating, bruin ng, and ty- 
ing her up to a door in a garret, 
and with-holding from her vidluals, 
and other neceilarie:, and thereby 
ftarving her to death. The trial 
lafted feven hours, and the jury, 
withoutgoing out of court, brought 
them in both guilty. The reader 
will find an account of ihis horrid 
affair at the end of the Chronicle. 
Phcket, Hardy, and the two Met- 
yards fufrered according to their fen- 
tence ; the other four capitally con- 
vi6led have been tranfported,or feet 
to ferve as foldiers in Jamaica. 
^^L -The fociety of arts paid 
Mr. Boult, of Staines, 'zc I, 


for the firil premium of the four- 
wheeled machine for the convey- 
ance of fiih; and 14I. for the firll 
premium of the two-wheeled ma- 
chine for the fame purpofe. 

James Coitard, tried for kill- „ 
ing his mother, by firing a^ 
gun at her, and Sufannah Harris, 
for the murder of her baftard child, 
were both found guilty, and exe- 
cuted purfuant to their fentence at 
theaffizes at Oxford, theday b-fore. 
Coftard faid, he was not in his 
fenfes when he committed the facl ; 
but it appeared that his frenzy was 
only the eiFedt of drunkennsfs. 

A fire broke o'Jt at the _ , 
Bull-head inn at Wareham, ^ " '* 
which, in a few hours, reduced 
near three parts of that town to 
ames. The meeting-houfe, and 
'.\lr, Kain's at the polt-otiice, are 
burned ; but neither of thechurches 
nor the town-hall. The corpora- 
tion of Blandford immediately fent 
to Wareham two cart loads of pro- 
vLlons, and two more were like- 
wife fent from Pool. 

An ingenious artift has now ia 
his pofTeilion the identical mourn- 
ing ring which king Charles U. 
wore in memory of the murder of 
his father, whofe pidlure is on the 
top inimitably done in enamel, and, 
in a focket under it, fome of that 
mona-ch's real hair. Within-fide 
is engraved on the gold as under, 

Cir. rsx 

Remem — Ohiii — her 

30 Ja7i, 164S. 

Rsmemher was the laft word that 
king Charles fpoke to biftiop f uxon 
before his martyrdcmc An-a iike- 
wlTe a tooth-pick C'.fe curioudy 
oraair.ented with ''illver, made of 
the piece of the cak which king 


Charles 11. cut from the tree while 
fecreted there from the purfuit of 
his enemies ; on the top is engraved 
a crown, and the words Royal Oak. 
His majelly wore it in his pocket 
for 20 years. They will fliortly be 
prefentcd to the univerfity of Cam- 

The king has granted a pcnfion 
of 300 1. per ann. to Mr. Samuel 
Johnfon, a gentleman well known 
in the literary world. 

The right honourable the earl 
Temple has lately dedicated a moft 
magnificent building at Stowe, of 
the Ionic order, Concordia's et 


In the pediment of the portico is 
a fine alto relievo, reprefenting the 
four quarters of the world bringing 
gifts to Britain. In the portico, or 
an ti- tern pie, two medal lions, Cpffrcr- 
^ia foedcratorum, concordia civium. 
Over the door, ^0 temper e falus 
eorum in ultimas angujlias dediiSla 
vullu?n ambit ioni locum relinquebat. 
In the inner temple, in a niche 
facing the entrance, the ftatue of 
Britannia ; over which in a ta- 
blet, Candidis autem animis ---jclupta- 
tu7n prahiicrint in ccnfpiciinpnjita, qvts 
cuiqi'.e mngnifca nierito contigermit. 
On the walls, fourteen medallions, 
reprefenting the taking of Quebec, 
Martinico, &c. Lou ifbourg, Guade- 
loupe, &c. Montreal, &c. Pondi- 
cherry,&c. Naval viftory off Belle- 
ifle, naval vidory off Lagos, Cre- 
velt, and Mindcn, Felllnghaufen, 
Senegal and Gcree, Niagara and 
Crown-point, Beau Sejour and Fort 
du Quefne, Cherburg and Belleifle. 
On a hill at a diflance, in a diago- 
nal line, runs an cbelifk above an 
hundred feet, infcribed. 

To Major-general Wolfe. 
OJlendunt Tevris hwic taalum Fata, 

Mr. Meerman, fyndic of the city 

of Rotterdam, who has diflinguifh. 
ed himfelf by his afliduous inqui- 
ries into the origin of the art of 
Printing, has now turned his views 
to the difcovery of the time in which 
the paper we now v.k was lirft em- 
ployed, and which he fuppofes was 
between the years 1270 and 1302; 
but to afcertain this, he promifes a 
premium of 25 ducats to the perfon 
who (hail produce the earlielt pub- 
lic in ftru men t written on paper made 
of rags. 

Died lately. Mr. Stephens, at 
Moulfey, Surry, aged 102. 


This morning, at half ah . 
hour pall fever, the queen *■ ' 
was happily delivered of a prince. 
Her royal highnefs the princefs 
dowager of Wales, feveral lords of 
his majelly's moft honourable privy 
council, and the ladies of her ma- 
jefty's bed-chamber, being pre- 

This great and important news 
was immediately made known to 
the town, by firing of the Tower 
guns-, and the privy council being 
afiembled as foon as poffible there- 
upon, it WHS ordered, that a form 
of thankfgiving, for the queen's 
fafe delivery of a prince, fliould be 
prepared by his grace the archbi- 
fhop of Canterbury, to be ufed 
within the bills of mortality on 
Sunday next, and throughout the 
king's dominions the Sunday af- 
ter the refpeftive minifters fhall 
receive the fame. It was like- 
wife ordered, that in every part of 
the public feivice where the royal 
family is appointed to be particu- 
larly prayed for, the following 
form fhall be obferved : ** Our 
gracious queen Charlotte, his royal 



iiighncA the prince, her royal high- 
nefs the princefs do\v?.ger of Wales, 
and all the royal family." 

The queen was brought to-bed 
at 24 minutes after feven, after be- 
ing in labour fomewhat above two 
hours. Her majefty found h-irfelf 
not well at two o'clock, and about 
three notice was fent to the princefs 
of Wales, that the queen was not 
well; upon which her royal high- 
nefs haltened to St. James's, and 
was there by four o'clock. About 
five, orders were fent to the great 
officers of ftate to attend; and there 
were prefent the archbifhop of Can- 
terbury, the Duke of Devon fnire, 
the duke of Rutland, the lords 
Hardwicke, Huntingdon, Talbot, 
Halifax, Bute, Mafham, and Can- 
talupe, and all the ladies of the 
bed-chamber, and the maids of ho- 
nour. The queen was delivered by 
Mrs. Draper: Dr. Hunter was in 
waiting, in cafe of his help being 
wanted. The archbifiiop was in the 
room; and the lords in a rocru ad- 
joining, with a door open into the 
queen's apartment. The perfon that 
waited on the king with the news 
of her majelly's being delivered of 
a prince, received a preient of a 
500 I. bank bill. 

Juft after her majefty was fafeiy 
in her bed, the waggons with the 
treafure of the Hermione entered 
,St. James's ftreet : on which his 
majefty and the nobility went to 
the windows over the palace-gate to 
fee them, and joined their acclama- 
tions on two fuch joyful occafions. 
From hence the proceffion proceed- 
ed to the Tower in the following 
order : 

A company of light horfe attend- 
ed with kettle drums, French h&rns, 
trumpets, and hautboys. 

Vol. V. 

A covred waggon decorated with 
an Engli.'h jack, and a Spaniih 
flag underneath, hanging behind 
the waggon. 

Two more covered waggons. 

Seven waggons uncovered. 

And laftly, a covered v/aggon, 
decorated with an Englifh jack, and 
a Spanifh flag. 

Jn the whole twenty waggons. 

The procefiion was concluded 
with an ofncer on horfeback, carry- 
ing an Englifh enfign, attended 
by another holding a drawn cut- 

The efcort to each waggon con- 
fifted of four marines, with their 
bayonets fixed. 

The whole cavalcade was falu- 
ted by the people with acclama- 
tions of joy. 

On fir!t opening fome of the 
chefts at the Bank, they were agree- 
ably furprized to find a bag full of 
gold inllead of filver ; in one of 
them feveral were afterwards found 
of the kind, which made a 
very confiderable difference to the' 
captors. A vaft deal of private pro- 
perty has likewife been difcovered. 
In ihcrt, this is, probably, the 
richeft prizeever brought into Eng- 
land, every private man's (hare 
amounting to about 900 1, It is 
fomewhat remarkf^ble, that this 
Hermione is the very fhip that de- 
tained the Antigallican and her 
prize in Cadiz bay at the begin- 
ning of the French war. 

The following anthem compofed 
by Dr. Na-res was performed before 
his majefty at the chapel royal, iii 
thankfgiving for her majefty's {3.fe 
delivery of a prince. 

" O clap your hands together, 
all ye people. 


O fing 


O fing with the voice of melody. 

O fing praiies, ling praifes, unto 
our God ! O ling praifes unto our 

Lo, children, and the fruit of 
the womb, are an heritage and gift 
that coaieth of the Lord. 

Like as the arrows in the hand 
of the giant, even lo are the young 

Happy is the man that hath his 
quiver full of them. He (hall not 
be afhamed when he fpeaketh with 
his enemies in the gate. 

Lo, thus (hall the man be blefled 
that feareth the Lord. 


On the feventeenth the king was 
pleafed to order letters patent to 
pafs under the feal of Great Bri- 
tain, for creating his royal highnefs 
the prince of Great Britain (elec- 
toral prince of Brunfwick-Lunen- 
burg, duke of Cornwall and Roth- 
fay, ear! of Carrick, baron of Ren- 
frew, lord of the ides, and great 
lleward of Scotland) prince of 
Wales, and earl of Cheller. And 

On the 1 8th of September thece- 
remony of the chriilening his royal 
highnefs was performed in the 
great council-chamber of his ma- 
jetty's palace, by hi? grace the arch- 
bilhop of Canterburv. His royal 
highnefs the duke of Cumberland, 
his mod ferine highnefs the reign- 
ing duke of Mecklen burgh -Strelitz, 
(reprefented by the duke of Devon- 
fhire, lord chamberlain of his ma- 
jelly's houfehold) beinggodfathers ; 
and her royMl iiighiiefs the princefs 
dowagerof Wales being godmother. 

The young prince was named 
George Auguiiui Frederick. 

Attendants on his royal highnefs 
the prince of Wales. 

Governefs, lady Charlotte Finch. 

Deputy governefs, 
Mrs. Henrietta Coultfworth. 
Wet nurfc, Mrs. Scott. 
Dry nurfe, Mrs. Chapman. 
Necfiary woman, Mrs. Dodfon. 
Rockers, Jane Simpfon, and 
Catharine johnlon. 

The right honourable the lord 
mayor, alderman, and commons of 
the cify of London, the two univer- 
fittes, &c. preiented addrelTes to his 
majelly on this jovful occafion : 
that of the city of London was as 

M:Ji gracious fo<vere'ign, 

" We your majelly't ever dutiful 
and loyal fubjedls, the lord mayor, 
aldermen, and commons of your 
city of London, in common coun- 
cil afiembled, humbly beg leave to 
embrace this earliell opportunity of 
congratulating your majelly upon 
the lafe and happy delivery of the 
queen, and the aufpicious birth of a 

So important an event, and upon 
a day evtr facred to liberty, and 
thele kingd< ms, fills us with the 
moll grateful ieiuiment* of the di- 
vine goodnefs, that had thus early 
crowned your majefty's domeftic 
happinels, and opened to your peo- 
p'e the agreeable profped of per- 
manence and liability to the bief- 
fings they derive from the wifdom 
and lleadinefs of your majefty's vjc* 
torinus rt-ign. 

May the fame gracious Provi- 
dence loon reAore your majefly's 
mod arriable and beloved con fort, 
and give perfed health, and length 
of days, to the royal infant t 

Long, very I'^'ng, may your ma- 
jedy Jive, the guardian and protec- 



lor, the ornament and delight, of 
Great Britain; and, by your in- 
ftrurtions and example, fcrm the 
mind of your royal fan to the go- 
vernment of a free, brave, and ge- 
nerous people; and in the fulnefs 
of time may that fon fucceed to the 
virrues, as well as to the throne, of 
his royal father; and preferve, for 
a long fucceffion of years, the glorv, 
happinefs, and profperity of his 
country !" 

To which addrefs his majefty was 

pleafed to return the following 

moft gracious anfwer ; 

/ receive, 'zvitb the gnateji pha. 
/ure, thefe "jery affedionate exprejjions 
of your duty and attachment to me, 
and to my fatnily ; and thank you for 
your congratulations upon an e-ucnt fo 
interejiing to me, and to the future 
Kijelfare of' my people, ivitb n.vhich my 
e^^un happinefs, upon this and every 
ather occafeon, is inj.parably connected, 
^lye city of London may aUcays depend 
upon my conjiant fwvour and p ra- 
ted ion. 

Some time ago a farmer at Chil- 
mark in Wilts, having laid feme 
pieces of bread and butter in the 
pantry, with arfenic fpread upon 
them for the deftrudion of /ats, 
poiloned two of his men, who, com- 
ing in from hibour, eat the bread 
and butter, and expired in great 
agonies. — A neceilary caution to 
prevent fuch praftices. 

Worceller, Aug. 11. A dreadful 
accident has juil now happened at 
Mr. Ruftbrd's, by the blovfing up 
of fome gunpowder b.'-ought trom 
London by his waggon, by which his 
warehoufe was entirely deitroyed, 
and'-'--i'i.. damage was done 
to his dwelling lo'jfe, and toother 
houfes adjoinin_, and oppofue to it. 

Several perfons who were going 
along the ftreet at the time, were 
thrown down and terriblv burnt, 
fix of whom were fent to the infir- 
mary, where two of them have fince 
died. The quantity of powder 
blown up, it is faid, was near 300 
weight, the exploiion of which was 
heard feveral miles off. 

At the anniverfary feafl; of , 
St. Luke's hofpiral 266 1. ^^^^• 
was collefted for that charity. 

According to the gaolers kalen- 
dars throughout England, only 22 
perfons have received fentence of 
death, four of whom, for murder, 
have been executed. 

V/as held a board of Ion- ^ , 
gitude at the admiralty, at ^^ • 
v/hich a great number of perfons 
of ciiftiniftion were prefent, when 
5C0I. was ordered to be given to 
Mr. Irwin, for hi^ invention of a 
marine chair, with which fome far- 
ther experiments are ordered to be 
made. Mr. Harrifon and fon at- 
tended likewife, and laid before 
the board the improvements made 
in their time-piece, and the obfer- 
vations made in a late voyage to the 
Weil Indies, and received 1500I. 

In a piece lately publifhed by Mr. 
Ha«way, entitled. Serious Conji- 
deratlons on the Jalutary defign of 
the Aci of Parliament , for a regular 
uniform Rcgifer of the parijh poor 
infants, there is the following 
calculation, by which not only 
the ultfuinefs of the regula- 
tions propcfed by the faid aft, 
but likewife o'~ the Foundling 
Hofpital, feems to be fully 

" The precautions intended by 

thi<; bill, granting fome parifhes to 

\H'\ 2 , have 

ico] ANNUAL R EG 1ST ER, 1762. 

have done their duty, may, I think, 
fave annnaily to the Rate, on a low 
computation, 500 fubjeds. I I'jp- 
pofe the number of infants under 
J 2 to 18 months old, being fuch as 
are in the inoft imminent d;'.nger of 
their lives, to be nsar 1500: that, 
upon the whole, a very imall pro- 
portion of thcfe has, for time 
immemorial, been preferved : that 
taking into the account all contin- 
gencies, I in 3 may be ealily k'^pt 
alive: and I conclude, that fome 
parilhes will hereafter preferve 1 in 
2, or 3 in 5. Notwithltanding the 
moral impoiubility of finding pro- 
per nurfes for 4C00 infants annual- 
ly crowded, in tiie wildeft manner, 
upon the Foundling Hofpital, the 
jnanagers of that hofpital have pre- 
ferved I in 3, pral the dangerous 
part of life." 

There is in Berlin, and in every 
great town in the Pruiiian domi- 
nions, a certain edifice, properly 
furnilhed, and properly attended, to 
which any young woman, who has 
the misfortune of being vviih child, 
may repair, before her iliame be- 
comes public. The utmoll fecrccy 
is preferved ; fhe is treated with all 
pcfTible care and induln;ence ; and 
a month after her lying-in dif- 
charcred; with 50 crowns in her 
pocket, if Ihe hus had a fon ; and 
.10 crowns if Ihe has had a daughter. 
By this means the murder of baftard 
children is effeiftually prevented, by 
removing every temptation to it. 
The children are preferved to the 
ftate, and fuch children only as are 
proper objefts of its care. The 
unhappy women are covered from 
jhame, and leturn again into fociety 
without fcandal. All this is fo far 
from encouraging proilituiion, that 

it has the very contrary efre£l ; for 
every fnamelefs common woman is 
fevercly punifhed ; and thofe only 
that are unhappily feduced receive 
the benefit of thi? benevolent cha- 
rity. — An infiitution of the like 
kind i? to be met with in the city of 

This day died the right -, 

hon. lady Mary Wortley ^* * 
Montague, mother of the countefs 
of Bute: fhe was daughter of the 
firlt duke of Kingfton, and was the 
introducer of inoculation for the 
fmall-pox into this kingdom, the 
ufefulnefs of which method, and 
confequently tiie obligations of the 
nation to her ladyfhip, will appear 
by turning to page 78. 

About ten at night a moft , 
dreadful ftorm of thunder • * 
and lightning began at London, 
which greatly alarmed the inhabi- 
tants ; about eleve,n it was accom- 
panied by a heavy rain, which, with 
fome intermilfion, continued till 
near four the next morning. The 
fiaflies of lightning were particular- 
ly pale : thefe flaihes were very fre- 
quent, and fom.etimes there were fix 
or feven of them fucceflively, almoft 
without iniermiffion. They cail 
fuch a light that objeds in the adja- 
cent parts of this metropolis were 
plainly dillinguiflied at two or three 
miles diilance. 

His royal highnefs the ^^ , 
duke of York arrived in ^^ 
town from Sir Edward Hawke's 
fleet, which is returned to England. 

The Britifh herring filhery off 
Shetland has been very fuccefbful 
this feafon under Mr. GeorgeTyme- 
well, the fuperiatendant ; the Bri^ 
tifh jaggers having got the firft mar- 
ket boih at Hamburgh, and Bremen, 




thou2;li the Dutch employed (as 
uiual) a great number of veflels on 
the above f;{hery, and the Englilh 
but few. 

At the affizes at Winchefter, 5 
criminals received fentenceof deaih ; 
at Worceller i, for the murder of 
his daughter; at Norwich i ; at 
Durham 2, one of them for mur- 
der ; at Miiidltone 2; at V/arwick 
2, one for murder ; at Bury 2 ; at 
Chelmsford 2; at Exeter i; at 
Briagewater 4. — Bodmyn, Giou- 
celler, Dorfet, Abingdon, Salif- 
burv, Stafford, ShreuTbury, Cam- 
bridge, Huntingdon, Bedford, 
Guildford, Hertford, York, North- 
ampton, and for Sufiex and Nor- 
thumberland, proved maiden af- 

Oxford, Aug. 7. The fubjefls 
appointed for the current year, for 
two orations to be fpcken in ocr 
theatre, for the prizes of four five- 
guinea pieces, given by the Rev. 
Dr. Thomas Wilfon, preben^jf 
of Weftminfter, are. 

For the Latin Oration, 

■ Niinqua??! Libertas gratior 

extat, quam fub Rege Pio ? 

For the Englilh Oration, 

^^-<e Domus ta?n Jiabilis, qitee tarn 
Jirma Ci'vitas eji, qua non Od'iis at- 
que DiJJidiis funditus p'JJtt e^erti ? 

The following is a lift of the 
fhips, and the fuccefs of the whale 

fifhery : The Dutch fleet of 154. 

fhips have taken 43 fifh. London 
fhips: Young Eagle 2, Duke of 
Bedford i. Providence i, Reading 
I, Adriatic \, ParnaiTus i, Britan- 
nia II very fniall. Two Hull fhips 
both clean; four Ne.vcallle fiiips 
I, two Liverpool fliips i, one Exe- 
ter (hip II very f.-nall ; four Leith 
fhips I ; Brjrrowitownnefs fnips 
clean. Anftruther Ihips, Hawke 

loH:, clenn ; Dundee 
(hips. Grand Tally, 2 very fmall. 
Dundee clean ; three Dunbar Ihips 
I each; Aberdeen one fhip I. 

This day the following , 
letter was received by the ^ 
right hon. the lord mayor. 

To the right hon. the lord mayor, 
*♦ My lord, 

" I have the earl of Egremont's 
diredions to zcquaintyourlordfhip, 
that, in confequence of his moil 
chriftian m£Je:ty's nomination of the 
cuke de Nivern'^i? to come here to 
treat of peace, the king has oeeii 
pleafed to name the duke of Bed- 
ford to go to Pari- f jr the fame pur- 
pofe; and his grace's appointment 
will be declared on Wednefday next, 
the iir.1 of September, IVIy lord 
Egremont thinks it may be of ufe 
to make this public in the city as 
foon as polGble. 

I am, with the greatefl refpect. 
My lord. 

Your lordfhip's moll obedient, 
humble fervant, 

R. WooD.*» 

A Dutch man of war, ^ 
with four merchantmen un- ^ 
der her convoy, failed lately from 
Amfterdam, but were (eparated in 
a trale of wind. Soon after one of 
them was brought to by one of our 
frigates from the Downs, and was 
found to be laden with Ihip timber, 
fuppofed to be for the French ; 
upon which the commodore in the 
Downs ord-red two frigates to 
cruize off Goree, who reli in vvith 
the mjn of war and tlie other three 
Jh;ps,ariddemanJedioiearch them, 
vvh ch the captain of the Dutch, 
man of war having refused, fome 
broadfides were exc.i^nged between 
them, in which leven Dutchmea 
weri killed j after which they 

\n\ I itruck 

102] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

ilruck their colours, and were all 
brought into the Downs for farther 

About 700 old Roman coins 
were lately found in a ford in the 
river Pettarel near Carlifle. They 
appear to be of eleven different 
reigns, fome very frefli, and fome 
1650 years old. Many are as large 
as crown-pieces, and fome no big- 
ger than a fanhing; of a bafe me- 
tal, but fold at a high price to the 

A letter from a Jefuit miflionary 
in China, dated Odober 20, 1761, 
gives an account, that, in the pre- 
ceding fummer, they had in that 
country fuch prodigious rains, as to 
caufe the waters to rife, and over- 
flow whole provinces, by which 
fome millions of people were 

Extra<ft of a letter from Paris. 
*' Monfieurde Voltaire, the prince 
of our poets in this age, is pre- 
paring for prefs a new edition of 
the works of the great Corneille, 
the prince of French poets in the 
laft age, with notes. This under- 
taking is the more laudable, as the 
profits of it are to be applied for 
the benefit of a girl of eighteen 
or nineteen, the heirefs of the name 
of Corneille, whom M. de Voltaire 
has generoufly taken into his houfe, 
and treats as his own child. Her 
fdther, defcended from one Peier 
Corneille, uncle to the great poec, 
is a very honeft man, but very 
iimple, and has at prefent a pretty 
good place belonging to thehofpital 
of the French army. The work is 
printing at Geneva in 12 or 13 vo- 
lumes in ciflavo, price tv/o Louis 
d'ors. Voltair?' ftnds his remarks 
from time to time to the French 
academy. The king of France has 
fubfcribed for 200 CTpies ; other 
fubfciibers are the infant duke of 

Parma, a'moft all the princes of 
the blood, the duke de Choifeul, 
madame Pompadour, moft of the 
i^.araiite Immorteh of the French 
academy, and many other perfons 
of dillindion. The duchefs of 
Grammont is moll induftrious ia 
promoting this work. M. de la- 
Borde, banker to the court, hath 
got above an hundred fubfcribers to 
it. M de Voltaire hath generoufly 
fubfcribed for a hundred copies. In 
the lilt of the fubfcribers there are 
alfo the names of feveral Englifh 
and German noblemen. 

Died lately. Mrs. Eafton, of Mi- 
tre-court, Fleet-ftreet, who under- 
ftood nine languages. 

Mr. Leggatt, cornfador, at 
Hemnal, Norfolk, aged 100. 

At P>irr, in Ireland, Mr. Timo- 
thy O'Mara, aged 100. 

Relia of the Rev. Mr, Pope, ai 
Burftc'ck, Dorfetfhire, aged 106. 

At Bremen, Mrs. Jane Barlow, 
ag^id 109. 


V/a.« opened in Wefrminfter » 
AHbey^ a lin.^ new monument, 
ereded by Mr. John Wilton, fta- 
tuary to his majelly, at the expence 
of the princefs dowager of Wales, 
to ilie memory of Stephen Hales, 
D. D. and F. R. S. clerk of the 
clofct to the princefs dowager, mi- 
nilter of Teddington in Middlefex, 
and redor of Farringdon in Plants ; 
grandfon of Sir Robert Hales, of 
Breakfournein Kent, bart. and uncle 
to the prcfeht Sir Thomas Hales. 
He died in January 1761, aged 82 
years. See our lalt vol. p. 46. 

At the annivcrfary meetingof the 
fons of the clergy, held at New- 
caftle, the colledion amounted to 
upwards of 288 1. 




, An experiment was tried 

^ ■ before feveralgeRtlemen in :he 
neighbourhood ofEdinburgh, with 
a new invented engine for cutting 
down corn, when the inventor, in 
the fpace of an hour and twenty 
minutes, cut down a full quarter of 
an :-.cre of barley. An acre in Scot- 
land i? the French arpent, about a 
5 th more than an acre in England. 

, The duke of Bedford fet 
5 ■ out for France to negotiate a 

^, A fire broke out, at two in 
^' * the morning, in the Prefs-yard 
in Newgate, which caufed great 
conlternation in theneighbourhood. 
It r.ged for two hours and an half, 
and ,-ieltroyed abuilding next to the 
c. liege of Phyucian?. Capt Ogle, 
a lunatic, confined for a murder 
committed fome years fince, and 
one Smith, confined for robbingthe 
ftabies of Aid. Mafters, perillied 
in thi flames. Noneof the prifon- 
ers efcaped in the contufion. 

The following melancholy acci- 
dent happened lately fn the parilh 
of Aberlour, in Bamf/ihire : A fer- 
vant lad, fond of a little boy of his 
mailer's, took the child in his arms 
to dandle him; unfortunately palf- 
ing by a boiling ca'.:]dron, the child, 
by afudden fpring, leaped out of his 
arms, and fell into the boiling li- 
quor ; and before it could be got 
out by the unh :ppy and almolt dif- 
tracted lad, was fcalded to death. 

. At the triennial meeting at 

" ■ Hereford, for the benefit of 
the widows and orphans of the poor 
clergy of the three diocefes of Wor- 
ceiter, Glouceller, and Hereford, 
the collection amounted to 257 1. 

^, Two little bovs, one five, 

I 1 tn. ^1 I ' ' r 

trie other tnree years of age, 
fons to a gentleman in Pilgrim- 
ftreet, Newcaflle, being tempted by 
the beautiful appearance of the 

fruit of the deadly night-fhade, as 
it grew in the garden, eat ot it. 
The eldeft died the right after, 
and the youngert, after continuing 
16 hours in convalfions, by taking 
oil, was hrippily recovered. (See 
before, p. [85.) A German phy- 
fician gives the following fpecific : 
Take two ounces of lavender vi- 
negar, and two ounces of water, 
mi-xr, and drink them at one 
drau"-ht ; repeat the dofc if there 
be occaiion. 

A fea-monfter was caft afliore at 
Newhaven near Leith. It is fup- 
pofed to be of the ihark kind ; is 
about 15 or 16 feet long, rtas 3 rows 
of very ttrong teeth, an extenfive 
mouth, and fcrprifingly wide 
throat. It has alfo 5 rows of an af- 
tonifhing hard and rough fkin, on 
each fide, which feeais to ferve as a 
coat of mail for its defence. 

'A fine bronze bull: of the E. of 
Halifax, is put up at the Senegal 
and Goree cofiee-houfe in Corn- 
hill, on which is the following in- 
fer! ption : 

Halifax, under whofe moft aufpi- 
cious patronage the plan for con- 
quering the French fettlemcnts cf 
Senegal and Goree, on 'he cn-^H of 
Africa, was happilycarried inroex- 
ecuiion in the year MDCCLVIII, 

Tivoli, Auguil II. Some days 
ago, as workmen were digging the 
foundation for a houfe on the emi- 
nence of Saracineio, they found a 
fubterraneous edifice, confitling of 
ten chambers, paved with beautiful 
marble ; and in one of the chambers 
three ftatues fix feet high, one re- 
prefenting Antotlinus Caracalla, 
the other Julia his flepmother, and 
the third Geta his brother. On 
the firll was this infcription ; ^afo- 
ninus imperator Romanorum dectis. 
On the fecond ; 'Julta in honejiate 

[//J 4 ex eel tens. 

104] ANNUAL, REGISTER, 176a. 


excellent. And on the third ; 5/f 
Get a dfuu! diivi non fit ^jluus. They 
are boughi by M. P. Archinto, to 
be made .1 prefent of to the general 
marquis Clerici. 

The duke de Nivernois, 
with the charaifler of am- 
bafTador and plenipotentiary from 
the court of France, arrived at 
London to treat of peace. 

The firft nipht after his excel- 
lency arrii^ed in England, he lay at 
Can terbyry, when the inn-kefpfr's 
bill in the morning was as follows : 
/. s. d. 
Tea. coffee, and choco- 

la:e - -.--140 
Supp'ir for felf and fer- 

vants - ----15100 
Bread and beer - - 3 o o 
Fruit - .---2150 
Wine and punch - - 10 8 8 
Wax candles and char- 
coal - - - -300 
Broken glafs and china 2100 
Lodging ----170 
Tea, C(.fFde, and choco- 
late -.- --200 
Chnife i.nd horfes for 

next iLige - - -2160 
The whole company, confiding 
pf twelve perfons, drank moiily 
port wine ; according to the quan- 
tity, it comes to 1 1 s. per bottle, 
and punch the fame. One of the 
fecretaries of ftate, being informed 
of this treatment by an English 
gentleman who accompanied his 
excellency, made an apology to his 
excellency for fo flagranfan impo- 
iition, and fo great a breach of the 
laws of hofpitaliry ; telling his ex- 
cellency at the fame lime, that or- 
ders (hould be given for profecuting 
the offender. But his excellfncy 
very generoufly interpofed in his 
behalf. It is imagined, however, 
ihat he has fince paid dearly for his 

offence, as the other inn-keepers in 
Canterbury loft no time in inform- 
ing the public, that it was not at 
their houfes the duke put up. 

His excellency, finding, on his 
arrival in London, that fomc French 
goods, intended for fale, had been 
introduced, duty-free, as part of his 
excellency's, immediately 
or'^ered them to the cuftom-houfe, 
nobly difdaining to proftitute the 
nane of a greac nation to cover fo 
bafe a fraud. 

Monfieur Anquetel du Perron, a 
French gentleman, having lately 
laid before the Royal academy of 
Sciences at Paris, an account of a 
voy?,ge mad^ by him to the Eaft- 
L.des, in order 10 obtain the books 
of Z .roaller, legiflator of the an- 
cient Perfians, we thought it our 
duty to give our readers fo valuable 
a piece, and have accordingly in- 
ferted it among our Antiquities. 

The king has made a prefent of 
400 1. to King's college in New 
York, and 200I. to the colleges in 
Philadelphia, &c. 

There have been tliis feafoti 
brought to the filature in Georgia, 
upwards of 15,0001b. weight of 
cocoons, which is three thoufand 
pounds more than were ever pro- 
duced therein any former year. A 
convincing proof that the culture 
of filk in that province is neither a 
job nor a chimerical projed. 

Ended the felfions at the _ , 
Old Bailey, when John Kel- ^^'"•• 
lo, for forging a draught of loool, 
[Kello's forgery is fo remarkable, 
that we fhall give our readers an 
account of itat the end of the Chro- 
nicle] and James Collins and James 
Whem, for robberies near Pancras, 
received fentenceofdeath : 18 were 
to be tranfported for feven years, 
and one for 14 years; one was burnt 



C H R O N I C L E. 

in the hand, and one privately 

^j A man who went to fee the 

Tower, impra jendy putting 
his hand through the grate to take 
a fheep's head from one of the lions, 
loft a finger bv his folly, the iion 
fnapping it off in an inftant. — A 
caution, we hope, to others. 
^ J His royal highnefs prince 

'-' ' William, and the earl of 
Bute, were inftalled knights of the 
Garter, at Windfor, with great 
magnificence ; the king as fove- 
reign, and the reft of the royal fa- 
mily, being prefent. 

I Their majifties, on their 

■* ' return from Windfor, ho- 
noured Eton college with their pre- 
fence, being attended by die lords 
and ladies of the court. 

They were waited on by the pro- 
voft and fellows at the great gates 
of the college, and conduced into 
the fchool, where the mafters were 
prepared to receive them, with the 
fcholars ftanding in their places, to 
the number of 500. 

Their majefties pafTed between 
them to their chairs at the upper 
end of the fchool ; and being feaied, 
the company ftanding behind their 
chairs, one of the fcholars advanced 
fiom his place in:o the middle of 
the fchool, and addrefled the king 
in a fpeech in Englilh ; which was 
gracioufiy received by his majefty. 
Their majefties had then the 
condefcenfion to look into the long 
chamber or dormitory. In the in- 
terim the fcholars and mafters went 
into the chapel, and took their 
places there. On their majefties 
coming into the chapel, a foleain 
piece of muftc was performed on 
the organ, accompanied with many 
Qther inftruments. 


Their majefties walked the whole 
length of the chapel to the rails of 
the communion-table, viewing the 
fcholars on each fide, and expreiTed 
very great fatisfaftion in the fight. 
From thence their m-ijeftics went 
to the hall,;and to the library, where 
many ot the young noblemen were 
prefer, ted to them ; and the valua- 
ble colleftion of drawings. Sec. be- 
longing to the college, being car- 
ried into the election chambe-, a 
room adjoining, they were pleafed 
to Ipend a confiderable time in ex- 
amining what was worthy of notice. 

On their going down from the 
Provoft's Lodge into the quadran- 
gle, the whole fchool was drawn 
up in feveral lines to receive their 
majefties, and faluted them as they 
went into their chaife, with a joy- 
ful cry of, Fi'uaf Rex & Regina. 

My lord chamberlain, by his ma. 
jefty's order, left a very noble pre- 
lenc, amounting to 230 1. to be dif- 
pofed of as the provoft andjmafters 
of the fchool /hould think beft. 

The Thames rofe on a , 

fudden in a furprifing man- ^7'"* 
ner, (though it was a dead calm), 
as if agitated by fome violent gait 
of wind. The {hips lying at forae 
of the wharfs were driven againft 
each other with great fury. This 
commotion is i'uppofed to be owing 
to an earthquake in fome diftanc 
quarter of the globe. 

The duke of Vcrk arrived „, 
at Portimouth, and on the ^ath. 
30th failed from be. Helen's, with 
the rrincefs Amelia, Magnanime, 
Elfex, and Pearl frigate, in quell 
of a French fquadion. 

The king has granted a penlioa 
to the learned Dr. Kennicott. 

At the clergy's foES feaft at Brif- 
tol above B32 1. was collected. 


io6] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

An officer of exclfe at Falmouth 
lately feized there, from on board a 
fhip, 27,529 pounds weight of tea, 
and 900c gallons of brandy, with 
the fhip, for the ufe of his majefty's 
cuftoms. The officer by thib gets 
at leaft 3000 1. It is the grcateft 
feizure of tea ever known. 
Extract of a letter from on board 
the Hampden packet, of eight 
carriage guns and thirty men, 
capt. John Broad, ft.uioned be- 
tween Fa' and Gibraltar, dated 
at Gibr..ltar, Aug. 2. 

" When we came off TenerifF, 
we had a profpecl of eleven priva- 
teers, all coming down in order of 
battle ; the commodore was a barco- 
longo of eight guns and fixty men ; 
his fecond was a xebeque, of he 
fame number of guns and men ; 
thefe two led the van ; five others of 
a lefTer fize came a little aftern of the 
commodore, the other four, of 25 
or 30 men each, with one gun in 
the prow, brought up the rear : the 
engagement began at 1 1 o'clock, 
and at half paft one they hauled 
their wind, and returned from 
whence they came, and left us to 
proceed to Gibraltar, where we ar- 
rived about 3 o'clock, without one 
man either killed or hurt. 

Our fails and rigging are greatly 
damaged. The foldiers on the 
quarter-deck behaved extremely 
well, and fired 16 rounds each, 
which did greatexecution, as they 
took aim, and never difcharged in 

No perfons could behave better 
on our fide, nor worfe on the part 
of the Spaniards ; wf were fo near 
Gibraltar, that lome of the inhabi- 
tants were fpeftators all the time, 
and at cur coming alhorc carcfled 

us greatly, and the men of war fent 
their furgeons to afiill; us j but, hap- 
pily for us, their fervices then were 
not wanted. By a Spsnilh boat, 
that arrived here after the engage- 
ment, I hear they had four men 
killed, and eight wounded ; the 
commodore is fhot through the 
right a*:m." 

The celebrated Dr. Storck, au- 
thor of the Treatife on the Medi- 
cinal Virtues of Hemlock, hath 
lately pubiilhed a fmall treatife, 
proving from experiments made on 
liimfelf, that the thorn apple, (pnm- 
T/ie epineu'e,) nenbane, and wolf- 
bane, which have hitherto been 
conudered as poifons, may be 
taken inwardly with fafety and 

Died lately. Signior Francifco 
Geniiniani, the famous performer 
on the vji>Iin, aged 96. 

Mrs. Hill, of Feiier-lane, aged 

Donald M' Donald, at Aix-la- 
Chapeile, aged 1 10. 


A terrible ftorm did great , 
damage to the fliipping on ^ ' 
the fea-coafts of this iiland, parti- 
cular'y at Yarmoutli, where the 
fifliery fuiiered irreparably. 

The earl of Litchfield, , 

lately eleftcd chancellor of ^ * 
the univeifity of Oxford, was in- 
ftalled at his lordihip's feat at 
Ditchley in that county, at which 
ceremony the vice - chancellor, 
heads of colleges, proftors, the 
public orator, and other proper 
officers attended. This ceremony- 
has been ufually performed in the 
univerfity, but difpenfed with in 
honour of his lordfhip, though not 
without precedent. 



The following letter was be tr.ken with children, with re- 
^^"- fent to the lord-mayor. fpeft to cloathing, food, and exer- 

" My Lord, ci^^". from their binh to the age of 

«' I have the commands of the puberty, in order to a long life, and 
lords commiffioners of the admiral- the prelervation of health ? 
ty to acquaini your lordfhip, that H. How to turn or low lands 
they received an account this to the belt advantage, each accord- 
morning of St. John's in the iOand ing to its nature. . , 
ofNewfcundland being taken, by Many woods caught nre in tne 
his maiefty'^ (hips and troops under late very dry feafon, in New Eng- 
the command of lord Colville and land, and did feme damage to the 
colonel Arah:, ft: the French gar- neighbouring fettlementi. 
rifon, conliamg of eight hunored The diet of PV.^na having affem- 
men, being made priloners of war ; bled on the 4th inlfant on extra- 
but their Ihips of war efcaped by ordinary affair?, a motion was niade 
means of a fog. for the eleftion of a new m^arflial, 
I have the honour to congratulate buton fomeobjcdims being uarted, 
vour lordlhip on this great event, the affembly was adjourned to the 
ihich mv lord, hooe you will make next day. On that oav the mouoa 
publicly known. ' was again renewed; and it bei^g 
I am', with very great refpeft, propr.ied to cl-ar the houfe of iaca 
My Lord, members who had no right to vote. 
Your molt obedient, and young count Bruhl being par- 
AndmoR humble Servant, ticularly objeded to, who, it was 
J. Clevland." faid, being no Polander, either by 
The earl of Halifsx was birth or naturalization, could not 
H-^' fworn one of his majeftv's pciribiy be admitted; in an inlbnt 
principal fecretaries of ftale. T^bres were drawn, and all fell 
This evening there was into confaiion. On thefe occahons 
2^^- great li<rhtning without any the motion of any one member to 
thunder, the liaibes were white, break up the diet, is, if not fooa 
and very luminous, and the wea- withorawn, fufhcient for that pur- 
ther changed from extreme cold to pofe. 
unufual heat. The waters in the feveral ,^^ 

A bill of indiament was latelv partsof England, particular- 
found bvthe grp.nd jury at the ge- iy in the low grounds to the eaft of 
neral quarter-feffions held at Weft- Londrn, began to rife w'lth great 
minfter, againft a famous print- fury, and continued fo doing tor 
feller, for vending in his fliop di- twoor three days, in confequence of 
vers wicked and cbfcene piilure?, heavyrains, and ftrong north winds, 
tending to the corruption of youth, which hindered feveral of the rivers 
and the common nuifance. from fiowinga^ fait as uiual into the 

The king has bellowed on Mr. fea. In feme places the inundation 
Sheridan a penficn of 20cl. per be^an fuddenly in the dead time of 
annum. the night, and role twelve teet m 

The "prize quePaons of the Haer- four or five hours. At Norwich aU 
lem academy of fciences for this the lower parts of the city, and 
year are: ' between tv.o and three thouland 

I. What are the beft methods to hoafes, were under water for two 


io8] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

or three days. Several perfons ioft one of his majefly's meflengers haj 

their lives on this occafion ; many this moment brought an account of 

houfes and b idges, with all the the duke orBedford'" Jiaving figned 

cattle, hav, linens on the printing the preliminary ariicles of peace 

and bleaching grounds, &c. that with France and Spain, at Fontain- 

lay in the ^■.;iy of the floods, were bleau, on the 3d inftant. The fe- 

fwept away by th.'^m, to tbe amount cretary of ftate's intention, in mak- 

of feveral thoufand pounds. ing this immediate communication 

The fleet under Sir Cha. to your lord !hip, of the firft account 

Hardy, and the duke of relative to the fignature of the pre- 

York, arrived at Plymouth from liminaries, which has been tranf- 

the Bay. mitted to his office by the king's 

Died lately, Mr. Sampfon Gi- miniiler at Paris, is, in order to 

deon, who has left, among other have it publicly known in the 

legacies, 1000 1. to the London city, without lofs of time. Your 

hofpital ; 2000 1. to the corpora- lordfhip will, no doubt, take fuch 

tion of the ions of the clergy; and. Heps as are moll proper to anfwer 

loool. to the Jewifli Syn^igogue, that purpofe. 


on condftion that he fhould be in- 
terred in the Jews burying-ground, 
and prayed fcr in the Jewifh fer- 
vice, as a Jew and a married man : 
>vhich was done accordingly. 

Aldfrxan Newton, of Leicpder, 
aged 79 ; who dying worth 14,000!. 
left the greater part of it to edu- 
cate poor children. At Leicefter 
35 ; at Alhby de la Zouch 35 ; 
at Ear) Shihon 20; at Northamp- 
ton, St. Niots, Hertford, Hun- 
tingdon, Bedford, and Bucking- 
ham, 25 each. 

Mr. Barnard, in Great Wild- 
flreet, aged 102. 


A violent fhock of an earth- 
quake was felt at Aquila in 
Spain, which threw down feveral 

I am, with the greateft refped. 
My lord. 

Your lordfliip's 

Mod obedient humble fervant, 
Robert Wood." 

Soon after this, pafl'es for (hips, 
&c. were interchanged by the courts 
of London and Verfailles. On the 
22d the ratification of thefe prelimi- 
naries were interchanged at Ver- 
failles. On the firft of December 
the ceffation of arms was proclaimed 
in London, and leave given to go 
out of the kingdom on board the 
packet-boats, without taking pafTes 
from the fecretary of Hate's office. 
The fubftance of the declaration 
was, that to prevent all occa/ions 
of complaints and difpiues which 
might arife upon account of fhips, 
merchandizes, and other effeds 
houfes, and cracked the walls of which might be taken at fea, it had 


the church from top to bottom. In 
J 703 more than 2000 perfons loft 
their lives by a like accident. 

The following letter was )^ceived 
by the right hon. the lord-mriyor. 

, Clevland-Row, Monday, 

^'^' Nov. 8, 1762. 

" My lord, 

I am diretfied by my lord Egre- 
jnoni to acquaint your lordfhip, Uiat 

heen mutually agreed. That the 
fhips, merchandizes, and efFefts, 
which fhould be taken in the chan- 
nel, and in the north feas, after the 
fpaceof 12 days, to be computed 
from the ratification of the preli- 
minary articles j and that all fhip&, 
merchandizes, and eifeds, which 
fhould be taken after fix weeks from 
the faid r-atification, beyond ihs 
channel , 



rfiannel. the Britifh feas, and the 
north Teas, as far as the Canary 
iflands inclufively, whether in the 
ocean or Mediterranean ; and for 
the fpace of three months from the 
faid Canary iflands to the equinoc- 
tial line or equator; and for the 
fpace of fix months beyond the faid 
equinodial line or equator, and in 
all other places of the world ; 
lliould be reftored on both fides. 

, Some hours before day- 

* break, there was feen in the 
air, in the fouthern parts of France, 
a globe of fire, a little lefs than the 
moon, which was then in her full, 
but much more luminous. Accord- 
ing to fome letters, this meteor ap- 
peared at half an hour after two in 
the morning, and its direftion was 
from S.W. Others fay, that it was 
perceived between four and five, and 
that its direftion was from N. to E. 
It drew after it a long and brilliant 
tail, and vanifhed in about three 
minutes, dividing itfelf into three 
parts, with an e^iplofion that fhook 
the windows in many houies. 

General Lally, governor of Pon- 
dicherry,was lately arreiled atFoii- 
tainbleau, by order of the French 
king, and fent to the EalUis. Soon 

the right honourable the lord vlf- 
count Townfliend, who loft his life 
in July, 1759, in North America. 

This monument was erefted by a dif- 
conl'ohte parent. 
The lady vilcountels To\vnfhend, 
To the memory of her fifth fon, 
The honour3hle lieutenant-colonel Ro- 
ger Townfliend, who was killed by 
a cannon-ball, on the 25th of July, 
1759, in the aSth year of his age, 
As he was rtconnoitring the French lines 

At Ticcnderoga in North America. 

From the parent, the brother, and the 


His focial and a!T,iubIe manners, 

Kis enterpiizing bravery. 

And the integrity of his heart. 

May claim the tribute of affliflion. 

Yet, ftranger, wrap not : 
For, though piemature his death. 
His life was glorious ; 
Enrolling him with the names of tho(e 
immortal ftatefmen and commanders. 
Whole wifdcm and intrepidity. 
In the courff of tliis compithenfive and 
fuccefsfui war. 
Have extended the commerce, 
Enlarged the don)inion, 
And upheld the majefty of thcfe king- 
Beyond the idea of any former age. 

Eleven h/hermen have been killed 

and 17 wounded atCarpoon.afmall 

after the officers of the garrifon of ifland at the entrance of the ftraits 

Pondicherry, to the number of fix- of Belleifle, by the Efcimaux Indi- 

ty, tranfmitted nine articles of ira- 
peachment againft him, for embez- 
zlement and mifbehaviour. It is 
faid that no lefs than 12 officers 
have been, in a few days, privately 
put to death in that ftate prifon for 

j^]^ The fleet under the duke 
''■ * of York, and Sir Charles 
Hardy, failed to the wcftward from 

The following in fcription is on the 
monument (now creeling in Weft 
minfter-abbey) of the honourable 

ans. (See our laft vol. p. [182.) 
His majclly went this day , 

to the houfe of Peers, and ^S*"* 
opened the feffion ofparliament with 
a moft gracious fpeech. 

His majeily went in a new (late 
co2ch, of which the following is a 
def'Tiption : 

The carriage is compofed of four 
Tritdns, who (appon the body by 
cables fallened to the roots of their 
fins : the two placed on the front of 
the carriage, bear thedriveron their 
flioulders, and are reprelented in 

KogerTownlhend,Efq; fifth lonof the aftiou of founding ihells to 



announce the approach of the mo- 
narchs of thefe;i ; and thofe on the 
back part carry the imperial fafces, 
topt with tridents inileadof the an- 
cient fa fceF. The driver's foot-board 
is a large fcollop-lhe]!,fupportec by 
branches of reeds, and other marine 
plants. The pole reprefents a bun- 
dle of lances, and the wheels are 
imitated from thofe of the ancient 
triumphant chariots. The body of 
the coach is compofed of eight 
palm-treesj which, branchingoutat 
the top, furtain the roof. The four 
angular trees are loaded with tro- 
phies, allufive to the vidories ob- 
tained by Britain during thecourfe 
of the prefent glorious war. On 
the centre of the roof Hand thiee 
boys, reprefenting the Genii of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
liipporting with their heads the im- 
perial crown, and holding in their 
hands the fceptre, the fword of 
ftate, and enfigns of knighthood : 
their bodies aie adorned with fvf- 
toons of laurel, which fall from 
thence towards the four corners of 
the roof. The intervals between 
the palm-trees which form the body 
of the coach, are filled in the upper 
parts with plates of glafs, and be- 
low the pannels adorned with paint- 
ings. On the front pannel is re- 
prefented Britannia ieated on a 
throne, holding in her hand a ftait 
of liberty, attended by religion, juf- 
tice, wifdom, valour, fortitude, and 
viftory, prefenting hfrwith a gar- 
land of laurel : on the back pannel, 
Neptune ifluing from his -palace, 
drawn by fea horfes, attended by 
the winds, rivers, Tritons, Naiads, 
&c, brineino; the tribute of the 
world to the Britifh fhore. On one 
of the doors are reprefented Mars, 
Minerva, and IV]ercurv,fupporting 
the imperial crown of Britain ; and 
on the other, indullry and integrity 

giving a cornucopia to the Genius 
of England. The other four pan- 
nels reprefent the liberal arts and 
fciences prote<?led ; hillory record- 
ing the reports of fame ; and peace 
burning the implements of war. 
The infide of the coach is lined 
with crimfon velvet, richly embroi- 
dered with gold. All the wood 
work is triple gilt, and all the paint- 
ings highly varnillied. The har- 
nefs is of crimfon velvet, adorned 
with buckles and other embellifh- 
ments of filver gilt ; and the faddle 
cloths are of blue velvet, embroi- 
dered and fringed with gold. 
The following proclamation was 
fome time ago publiHied by the 
Pruilian governor of Freyberg. 
• Whereas I have been informed 
that fome of the in habitants of Frey- 
berg, and particularly certain mer- 
chants, have taken it into their 
heads to forge, and publilh for true, 
reports to the difadvantage of the 
arms of PrufTia ; I declare by thefe 
prefen*ts, that the lirfl who ft all 
dare to utter one fentence, either 
to the difadvantage or the advan- 
tage of the Pruflian arms, fhall be 
taken up and puniihed as a fpy. 

' It is an indecency not to be 
fufferedjfor burghers to prefume to 
talk of Itate affairs, in which fuch 
pitiful creatures can doneithergood 
nor harm : they only expofe their 
ill intentions : butl fhall certainly 
employ rigorous methods to make 
an example :n terrorem. Every 
burgher, who favours the defertion 
of any of my men, fhall be treated 
as a defcrter himfelf. The ma- 
giftrates will take care to curb the 
burghers with more vigilance than 
hitherto : otherwife I fhall make 
them anfwerable for all the malevo- 
lent reports that may be publifhed, 
becaufe it is their bufineJs to watch 
over the co.ndud of the merchants 




as well as the other citizens. It an eafy and expeditious manner of 

belongs not to fuch as they are to talcing off all forts of plants on 

intern-ieddle in the affairs of war paper, — Take a fiat culhion of 

or peace, and much lefs in the about fix inches fquare, covered 

good or bad fuccefs of the bellige- v/ith leather, and another of a round 

rent powers.' kind, bound up fo as to form A 

, Mr. Seaton's poetical prize, handle to it; lav on the flat one 

"' at Cambridge, is adjudged to 
the Rev. Mr. Scott of Trinity col- 
Extradl of a letter from Berne, 

dated Oct. 20. 
* The engine for eradicating trees 
is brought to fuch a degree of per- 
fection in this country, that the 

fome priming ink, and level it 
with the round one ; lay any leaf 
between them, and prefs it gently, 
that the ink may be equally divided 
at each fide, then put it between 
two white papers, and prefs it v/ita 
the pnim of your hand, and theim- 
preflion will remain. The printing 
peafant, who invented it, has en- ink is made of three parts drying 

gaged to tear up 2000 oaks with 
it, within a fortnight, at nine- 
pence fieri, for each oak. He has 
pulled up upwards of 300 in one 
day, with two engines and five men 
for both only. Our focietv has or- 

linfeed oil, one part turpentine 
oil, brought to a proper coniillency 
v/ith lamp-black. 

As fome labourers were lately 
trenching near Polefvvorth in \V?.r- 
wickfhire, they found a large eaith- 

dered a model to be made of it, to en pot full of fmall copper coins, 

be fent to your fociety for promot- motl pnrt of which appear to bear a 

ing arts and commerce, which will beautiful imageofConflantine, with 

be more complete than the rude the name of Ccw/i'a/?/'/?;^/ round it ; 

draught after which theirs was on the other fide are two armed fi- 

made lall fumraer.' gures defending Roman emblems of 

A large fum has been fubfcribed various forts, and round them the 

for carrying into execution the far- words Gloria exerciius. Some few 

ther laudable and public-fpirited among them have an armed head on 

views of the marine fociety. Mr. one fide, with Urbs Roma round 

Hicks, a merchant, who died late- it, and Romulus and Remus fitting 

ly at Hamburgh, has left them his 
whole fortune, amounting to up- 
wards of twenty thoufand pounds. 
All which, it feems, that ufeful fo- 
ciety intend to apply towards pro- 
curing employment, and, rill that 
can be had , relief for the boys who 
may he difchjirged from the navy 
in confequence of a peace, the wa- 
ges of the faid boys being too fmall 
to enable them to lay by any pare 
of it. 

The following receipt was lately 
communicated to the Dublin fo- 
ciety, by Mr. Wil. Newby, jun. of 

unJer a wolf on the reverfe fide ; 
others have an armed head on one 
fide, with the word ConJlant:t:oJ.'olis 
round it, and Pallas on "he reverfe : 
fome have a chariot and four horfes 
on the reverfed fide ; others variety 
of fingle figures, fomething like 
Britannia with her (hield ; oihers a 
woman with a child in her arms. 
The workman fliip of all the heads 
appears to be of a much more cu 
nous ftyle than that of man v coins 
of a later date : fome are fo oblite- 
rated, that the infcripiions can't be 
underltood ; it is certain :hev are 

Kendal, in WeftmDreland, being very old, fince the hefhcli of th^m 


112] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

fcem to be thofe of Conflantine, 
the firft Chriftian emperor. 

The following are the dimen- 
Cons of an ox lately flaughlered 
at Cowbridge, in the county of 
Glamorgan, in which county he 
was alfo bred. The four quarters 
of this beafl-, which for fize rright, 
with much greater propriety, 
have been fuppofed to have be- 
longed to an elephant, weighed 
16421b. his hide i6i, tallow 148. 
Kis height was fix feet three 
inches, his length from head to 
tail feventcen feet feven inches. 
He fold on the fpot for twenty 

Extraft of a letter from a gentle- 
man at Rome, Oft. 16, 1762. 
** Nothing gives me more fatif- 
fadion than to find fo many fine 
things pnrchafed for his fnajcliy 
[the king of Great Britain] of Ijite, 
in Italy. He is now mafter of the 
bed: collection of drawings in the 
world, having purchafcd two or 
three capital collections in Rome ; 
the laft, belonging to cardinal Al- 
bani, for 14,300 crowns, confifiing 
of 300 large volumes, one third of 
which are original drawings of the 
firft mailers ; the others, colledions 
of the moft capital engraving?. — 
And lately there has been purchafed 
for his majefty, all the mufeum of 
Mr. Smith, at Venice, confifting 
of his library, prints, drawings, 
defigns, &c. — I think it is highly 
probable, that the arts and fciences 
will Houri^i in Great Britain, under 
the protection and encouragement 
of a monarch, who is himfelf an 
excellent judge of merit and tafte 
in the vertu. 

And we have at prefent in Rome, 
of our own country, many ingeni- 
ous and excellent artifts in the dif- 
ferent branches ofpainting, fculp- 

ture, and architefture. In this laft 
an ingenious gentleman, Mr.Byres, 
obtained a prize in the firft clafs ; 
and has, greatly to his honour, got 
two medals from the academy of 
St. Luke. 

The grand gallery at Florence 
lately ran a rifk of being entirely 
con fumed by fire ; however, very 
happily, only a few things were 
loll, and fome damaged. The noble 
group of the Laocoon, and his 
fons, an excellent copy by Bandi- 
nelli, from the original, in the 
Belvidere, is quite deftroyed." 
Tranflation of part of an intercept- 
ed letter from the king of P 

to count Finckenftein, handed 
about in Holland. 
•* So the poor emperor of RuC 
fia is dethroned by his wife : this 
was expefted. The emprefs has a 
great deal of wit, no religion, and 
the difpofition of the deceafed em- 
prefs ; but, at the fame time, pre- 
tends to be very devout. This is 
the counterpart of Zeno the Greek 
emperor, his fpoufe Ariadne, and 
Mary of Medicis. TlYe late chan- 
cellor C — was the great favourite 
of this princefs ; and, as he had a 
flrong liking to Englilh guineas, I 
am in hopes that the prefent con- 
neflions will continue. The poor 
emperor wanted to imitate Peter I. 
but had not his genius." 

A number of people fur- - , 
rounded the houfe of John ^^^"* 
Pritchers, of Weft Langdon in 
Kent, and, under a notion of her 
bewitching one Ladd, a boy o 13 
years old, dragged out his v/ife by 
violence, and compelled her to go 
to the faid Ladd's father's houfe, 
about a mile from her own, where 
they forced her into the room where 
the boy was, fcratched her arms 
and face in a moft cruel manner, to 




draw blocd, as they faiJ, of the 
witch, and then threatened to fvvim 
her ; but feme people of condition 
interpofing, the poor woman's life 
was happily preferved ; and the 
perfons concerned ia carrying on 
the impofture, particularly one 
Beard, and Ladd's wife, being car- 
ried before a magiftrate, and com- 
pelled to make fati-fa<ftion to the 
Mnhappy injured woman, the mob 
difperfed, and the country that was 
every where in tumult is again 
quieted. The boy pretended to 
void needles and pins from his 
body, and his father and mother 
upheld the deceit, and coliefled 
large fums of money of thofe whofe 
compafTion was excited by lo me- 
lancholy a fituation. 

The fociety for the encourage 
fneot of arts have aJjadged a nr'ii 
premium of 15 guineas, to Mr, 
Jonatha n Soil /bury, of RuiTel- court, 
portrait painter, hr a mezzotinto 
plate of the earl of CarKfle, done 
by him from a painting of Mr. 

, Peter Annett was, by 

' ' judgment of the court of 
King's Bench, committed to New- 
gate for one month. He was alfo 
ordered to ftand on the pillory 
twice, within that time, and after- 
wards to be kept to hard labour in 
Bridewell, for a year, &c. for wri- 
ting a piece called The Free £n- 

As three French men of war, 
viz. the Conter te of g^ guns, 
and two frigates, the Pleiade and 
the Minerve, were lately chafing 
his majelly's (hip the Shecrnefs 
into Villa Franca, the Minerve, by 
the ill management of the crew, 
flruck upon a rock, and in lefs than 
two hours afterwards was entirely 
loft. The fea ran fo very high, that 


no boats would venture out froiu 
the l"hore to the affiftance of the 
peopk'on the wreck. In this fitua- 
tion, capt. Clarke fent his people 
to their relief, who exerted them- 
felves fo efFeftually, as to bring 
them all off, except about 25, who 
were carried away by the violence 
of the furf. The French commo- 
dore waited afterwards upon the 
Britiih captain, to thank him for 
his timely affiftance, and to exprefs 
the great fenle he entertained of 
fuch benevolence and generofity, 

Thev write from Paris, that one 
of their ableft mathematicians is 
going to give public ledlures in one 
of the colleges of the univerfity, oa 
fhip-building and navigation. 

Though the war between th« 
Corficans and the Genoefe is not 
generally intereiling, yet the fol- 
lowing circumllance cannot be o- 
mitted. A nephew of Gian Carlo, 
one of Paoli's principal officers, 
having been taken prifoner, was 
generoufly iec at liberty by gen, 
Marra. The youth, on his return 
to Paoli, was made governor of the 
fort of Cofcia, buijt by the rebels to 
cut off the commu'ucation of the 
Genoefe with Macinaggio. Asfooa 
as he had taken poffefiion of hi» 
new command, to teftify his grati- 
tude to Matra, he delivered up to 
him the fort with v/hich he had 
been entrufted by Paoli, and which 
is fo ftrong, that it canno'" be eafily 
re-taken The po.^eiTiOn of iC 
makes the Genoefe mafters of all 
Cape Corfe. 

A premium of five guineas v/as 
lately given by the Dublin fociety 
for the fdlowing receipt to kill 
rats. One quart of oatmeal, four 
drops of rhoiiam, one grain of 
raolk, tv/o nuts of nux vomica, the 
whole made very nne, and placed 

[/] wh«i« 

114] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

where the rats frequent, and con- 
tinued while they eat it. 

A button-maker's wife, near Bir- 
mingham, was. lately delivered of 
three children. 

A farmer's wife, at Whitftable, 
in Kent, of two girls and a boy. 

A farmer's wife, :itAfhwellthorpe, 
near Nor»vich, of four children. 

Died lately. The chevalier de 
St. Croix, at St. Domingo, thebrave 
defender of the citadel of Eelleifle. 

Mr. Evans, clerk to a lime wharf 
near Gravefend ; he weighed when 
alive 40 ftone. 

Mr. Barnard, an upholfterer, in 
Great Wild-lireet, aged 102. 

Mr. Thomas Shorthall, an Iriih- 
man, at Landreci in Flanders, aged 
104. He had been lieut. col. in 
the Irifli Brigades, in the French 

Madame Alexandrina Fatio, of 
Geneva, aged 104. 

Eady Hannum, in St. Chrido- 
pher'o wcrkhoufe, near the Bank, 
aged 1 14. 


^ 1 A ca'. c was tried at the 

^^"- Con:pon Pleas, Weilmin- 
fter, wherein a merchant of Lon- 
dor plaintiff, and a baronet de- 
fendant : the action was brought 
Egainft the defendant, for winnirn 
a fum of money of the plaintiff at 
gaming, and a verdli^i; given for the 
plaintiff, for yco I. damages, be- 
£des cofts of fuit. 

Biddeford, Dec. 5. Laft night, 
happening to be walking about a 
quarter before nine, I in'tantly faw 
the Areet fo illuminated, as could 
not bcequjilled by a meridian fun. 
limmediaielycallmy eyes upwards, 
and, to my very great furprife, faw 
fulling a luminous body, qx flaming 

meteor, equal in magnitude to the 
moon. This meteor, when it firft 
appeared tome, was in a right line 
with the bright ftar in Hircus ; 
which I imagine was near the place 
of its commencement, fince the 
fudden blazing, which it occafion- 
ed, muft inAantaneoufly attradl an 
amazed eve. It performed its dc- 
fcent gradually, fo as to fall about 
ten degrees in four or five feconds, 
leaving behind it a long tail, or 
feeming liquid flame, which fub- 
tended, from one extreme to the 
other, an angle of about ten de- 
grees ; that part of the tail next to 
the body feemed to blaze like the 
meteor itfelf; but the other ex- 
treme .turned blue and fmoky. 
The body diminiflied or burnt out 
by degrees to fupport the tail, 
whofe extremity continued to vanilh 
into fmoke, til! the whole body was 
difTolved, which happened to be in 
a line with the bright flar in Orion's 
fh ouider, from whence the diredion 
of its path is known. The tail 
continued to burn bright for about 
a minute afterwards, and the lire 
feemed to vanifh laft of all at that 
end, where it firft had its begin- 
ning ; but the brightnefs and fer- 
pentine form continued for five or 
fix minutes, though only as a bright 
cl^jd. The atmofphere, at the be- 
ginning of this extraordinary phe- 
nomenon, was extremely clear, and 
inclinable to freeze; but after the 
body was diffolved, a thick fmoke 
defcended from its path to the ho- 
rizon ; which difappeared in about 
a quarter of an hour. This meteor, 
which was, I believe, by far the 
greateft feen for half a century paft, 
muft have kindled very near the 
earth's furface, otherwife the blaz- 
ing would not be great enough to 
dazzle the flrongell eye. 


I Immediately went to a very in- 
genious philofopher of this town, 
who applied a large telefcope to the 
place of its diffolution, but by that 
time the lire was incorporated, and 
almoft vanifhed. 

Mal. Hitchin-s. 

A fea-coal meter's place of this 
city lately fold for no lefs thaa 
5210 1. 

Since the beginning of this year, 
the fcheme for bringing freili filh 
by land-carriage to London, has 
fucceeded beyond the expectation 
of moft people ; and therefore we 
give, in the appendix to the Chro- 
nicle, the prefent ftate of it at 
length, as publilhed by the in- 
fpeftor, captain Blake. 

, Was the moft numerous 

^ * houfe of commons that has 
been known this year, in order to 
take into confideration the prelimi- 
nary articles of peace ; when they 
were approved of by a great ma- 
jority. Mr. Pitt was prefent, tho' 
unable to ft-and, and was, by the 
indulgence of the houfe, permitted 
to fpeak fitting. The addrefTes 
prefented on this occafion to his 
majefty by both houfes, are arriong 
our State Papers. 
Tranflation of a letter from theem- 

prefsof Ruffia toM.d'Alembert, 

at Paris, whom fhe had invited 

into Ruffia to educate her fon. 
Mr. d'Alembert, 

** 1 have ju ft received the an fwer 
you wrote to Mr. Odar, in which 
you refufe to tranfplant yourfelf to 
affift in the education of my fon. I 
ealily conceive that it cofts a philo- 
fopher, like you, nothing to defpife 
what the world calls grandeur and 
honour : thefe, in your eyes, are 
very little j and I can readily agree 
that they are fo. Confidering 
things in this light, there would be 

nothing great in the behaviour of 
queen Chrlftina [of Sweden] which 
hath been To highly extolled ; and 
often cenfured with more juftice. 
But to be born and called to con- 
tribute to the hapfinefs, and evert 
the inftruclion of a whole nation, 
and yet decline it, is in my opi- 
nion, rcf^'Ting to do that good which 
you wiih to do. Your philofophy is 
founded in a love to mankind : 
permit me then to tell you, tnat to 
refufe to ferve mankind, whilft it is 
in your power, is to mifs your aim. 
I know you too well to be a good 
man, to afcribe your refufal to va- 
nity. I know that the fole motive 
of it is the love of eafe, and leifure 
to cultivate letters and the friend- 
fhipof thofe you efteem. Bat what 
is there in this cbjec"lion ? Come, 
with all your friends ; I promife 
both them and you, evzry conve- 
niency and advantage that depends 
upon me; and perhaps you will 
find more liberty and eafe here, 
than in your native country. You 
refufed the invitation of the king 
of Pruffia, notwirhftanding your 
obligations to him ; but that prince 
has no fon. I own to you, that I 
have the education of my fon ^o 
much at heart, and I think you fo 
neceiTary to it, that perhaps I prefs 
you with too much earneftnefs. 
Excufe my indifcretion for the fake 
of the occafion of it ; and be af- 
fured that it is my efteem for you 
that makes me (o urgent. 



Nov. 3, 1762. 

In this whole letter I have argued 
only from what I have found ia 
your writings : you would not con- 
tradict yourfelf." 

The prize-queftion for the year 
1764, propofed to the literati of all 
nations by the Berlin academy 

[/] 2 o£ 

ii6] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

of fciences and belles lettres, is 
*' When the fovereigntyof the Gre- 
cian emperors at Rome totally ceaf- 
cd, what was then the government 
of the Romans ? And at what time 
was the papal fovereignty efta- 
bliihed ?*'— I'he prize is a gold me- 
dal of 60 ducats weight : the efl'ays 
to be tranfmitted before the ift of 
January, i764,dite£led toMr. For- 
mey, fecretary to the academy : a 
motto to be put to them, and in- 
clofcd a fealed note, containing the 
motto, the author's nam?, and place 
of abode. The academy's judg- 
ment will be declared at the public 
meeting of the 3 ilt of May, 1764. 

The academy farther gives no- 
tice, that the author of a fatisfac- 
tory memoir on the following fub- 
je^l, which was to have been de- 
termined this year, is, at whatever 
time it fhall be fenl, entitled to the 
prize: " An explanation of hear- 
ing, relatively to the manner in 
which the perception of found is 
produced, in virtue of the inward 
texture of the ear." 

The feflions ended at the 
Old Bailey, when three re- 
ceived fentence of death ; 26 re- 
ceived fentenceof tranfpcrtationfor 
feven years ; three to be branded 
in the hand; 34 acquitted ; 12 dif- 
charged by proclamation, and three 
remanded back to take their trials 
at the affixes for Surry and Radnor. 
Two for the murder of their baf- 
tard children, were acquitted, cir- 
cumftances being favourablein both 

Among the felons for tranfporta- 
tion was one Derbin, a houfe- 
breaker, againll whom feveral in- 
<ii£lmentb were laid ; but there ap- 
peared no evidence againft him 
flrong enough to afFed his life. 
This man carried on his bufinefs 
fyilematically^not felling his Holen 


goods till he had fufficient reafon t* 
believe that nobody thought any 
more of them, and keeping them in 
the mean time in a houfe at a con- 
fiderablediftance from that in which 
he lived, fothat in cafe this happen- 
ed to be difcovered, nobody could 
prove they were in his cuftody. 

A profecution was lately com- 
menced in Ireland, agaioft Mr, 
Foote, for introducing the charac- 
ter of Mr. George Faulkner, prin- 
ter of the Dublin Jnirtial, a man of 
property and charafter, upon the 
public ftage. After a long hear- 
ing, a verdift was given in favour 
of Mr. Faulkner, and Mr. Foote 
was feverely fined. 

The following is the receipt 
againft the diilemper amongft the 
horned cattle, which rages with 
great fury in Thuringia, Erfurth, 
and other parts of Saxony, as it wa« 
prefcribed and publifhed by the 
war and domaine chamber at Mag- 
deburg, and which has been admi- 
niileredwith great fuccefs. 

** Take eight pound of allum, 
cightpound ofcoriander feed, eight 
pouncf of an herb called chamselion, 
or carlina, one pound of black cu- 
min feeds, and one pound of chim- 
ney foct. After all thefe ingredi- 
ents are reduced to a powder, mix 
with it two meafures of fait, and 
give to a full-grown beaft a fpoon- 
ful at a time, with fonie four leaven 
dough, and fomething luke-warm. 
You muft not give them any thing 
cold to drink, nor cold greens to 
eat, and muft keep the cattle warm, 
and feparate the diftempered from 
the found. Give them no ftrong 
liquors; for it has beea remarked 
that it makes them worfe. 

Paris, Dec. i, 1762. 

*' The fate of the Jefuits in this 
kingdom is at laft determined ; at 
leaft fo much as our parliaments 




ean determine It. In fpite of their Odlobcr, 1762, at fix o'clock in the 
remonftrances againft the fairnefs evening, came on a moft violent 
of the quotations made from fome gale of wind at fouth, with thun- 
of their writers, and their abfolute der and lightning, the fea running 
renunciation of the doctrines con- very high, when the fhip fprung a 
tained in fome others : in fpite of leak, and we were obliged to Ho 
their appeal to the king, and of his to under bare poles; the water 
majefty's endeavours to put a flop gained on us, with both pumps con- 
to the proceedings of parliament ; itantly working. At ten, P. M, 
nay, in fpite of the interpofition of endeavoured to put the Ihip before 
tke nobility, clergy, and burghers the wind to no purpofe. At twelve 
of feveral places where they had the fand ballaft having choked our 

fettlements ; they have been turned 
out of their houfes, forbid, under 
the fevereft penalties, to wear the 
Jefuits habit, hold any correfpon- 
dencc with their general, or afl'em- 
ble above four or five in a body. 
Many of their books have been 
publicly burnt, and what may re- 

pumps, and there being feven feet 
water in the hold, all the caflcs 
afloat, and the ballaft (hifted to lee- 
ward, cut away the rigging of the 
main and mizen mafts, both which 
went inftantly elofe by the deck, 
and immediately after the fore mall 
was carried away about 20 feet 

main of their effedls, after fatisfying above. Hove overboard all our 

the intention of the donors, and guns, upon which the fhip righted 

the creditors of the order, and a a little. We were then under a 

fmall allowance to fuch among neceffityof letting all our flaves out 

them as may be fuppofed incapable of irons, to aflilt in pumping and 

of otherwife providing for them- baling. 

felves, confifcated to the king. It Thurfday morning being mode- 
is faid, indeed, that fome parlia- rate, having gained about three 
xnents have come into thefe mea- feet on the fhip, we found eveTj 
fures, merely to avoid difputes with cafk in the hold ftove to pieces, fo 
other parliaments, who claim a ju- that we only faved a barrel of flour, 
rifdidlion over them. Thofe fa- 10 lb. of bread, 25 gallons of wine, 
thers, however, are not without beer, and flirub, and 25 gallons of 
friends ; For prince Charles of Lo- fpirits. The feamen and flaves 
raine, and feveral corporations in were employed all this day ia 
the Auftrian Netherlands, have pumping and baling ; the pumps 
given fuch as thought proper to were frequently choked, and 
take flielter among them, a favour- brought up great quantities of 
able reception." fand. We were obliged to hoifl 
Extraft of a letter from Philadel- one of the pumps up, and put it 
phia, dated Nov. 11. being an down the quarter deck hatchway, 
account of the melancholy dif- A fhip this day bore down upon us, 
after that befel the Phoenix, capt. and, though very near, and we 
M'Gacher, in lat. 37 N. and making every fignal of diftrefs, 
long. 72. W. from London, bound Ihe would not fpeak to us. 
to Potowmack, in Maryland, On Friday the men flaves being 
from the coaft of Africa, with very fallen and unruly, having had 
332 flaves on board. no fulVenance of any kind for 48 
•' On Wednefday tke 20th of hours, except a dram, we put one 

ii8] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

half of the Ilrongeft of them in 

On Satuiday and Sunday all 
hands, night and day, could fcarce 
keep the lliip clear, and were con- 
Itantly under arms. 

On Monday morning many of 
the Haves had got out of irons, and 
^ve^e attempting to break up the 
gratings ; and the Teamen not dar- 
ing to go down the hold to clear 
our pumps, we were obliged, for 
the prefcrvation of our own lives, 
to klli (ifty of the ringleaders, and 
iloutcflcf them. 

It is impoflible to defcribe the mi- 
fery the poor flaves underwent, hav- 
ing had no freih water for five days. 
Their difmal cries and fhrieks, and 
moll: frightful looks, added a great 
deal to our misfortunes : four of 
them were found dead, and one 
<lrowned herlelf in the hold. This 
evening the water gained on us, 
and thiee feamen dropt dov/n with 
fatigue and thirft, which could not 
he quenched, though, wine, rum, 
and fhrub were given them alter- 
nately. On Thurfday morning the 
Ihip had gained, during the night, 
above a foot of water, and the 
feamen quite wore out, and many 
cf them in defpair. About ten in 
the forenoon we faw a fail ; about 
two fhe difcovered us, and bore 
down upon us ; at five fpoke to us, 
being the King George, of Lon- 
donderry, James Mackey, mailer ; 
he immediately promifed to take us 
on board, and hoifttd out his yawl, 
it then blowirig very frefh. The 
gale incrcafing, pre\ en ted him from 
laving any thing but the white 
people's lives, (which were 36 in 
nuinber), not even any of our 
cloaths, or one flave, the boat 
-^being fcarce able to live in the fea 
the Tall trip ihe made. Capt, 

Mackey, and feme gentlemen, paf- 
fengers he had on board, treated' 
us with great kindnefs and huma- 

The king went to the « 

houfe of peers, and was 1' 

pleafed to give the royal aflent 

An a6l for granting an aid to his 
majefty by a land tax to be raifed in 
Great Britain, for the ferviceof the 
year one thoufand feven hundred 
and fixty-three. 

An adl for continuing and grant- 
ing to his majefty certain duties up- 
on malt, mum, cyder, and perry, 
for the ferviceof the year one thou- 
fand feven hundredandfixty-three. 

An art to continue and render 
more elfeftual two afts of parlia- 
ment for repairing and widening 
the road leading from the Black 
Bull inn in U unliable, in the coun- 
ty of Bedford, to the way turning 
out of the faid road up to ShafFord 
houfe, in the county cf Hertford, 

An aft to continue and render 
more elFeftual two ads of parlia- 
ment for repairing the roads from 
Lemsford Mill through Welvvyn 
and Stevenage, and by Cory's Mill 
to Hitchin, and from Welwyn 
through Coldicot to Hitchin, in 
the county of Hertford. 

And to five private bills. 

The queen has gracioufly given 
lool. towards enlarging the chapel 
of the Afylum. 

At a meeting of the fociety of 
arts, a gold medal was adji^dged to 
the earl of Plymouth, for having 
planted the greateil number of the 
fmall leaved Englifh elm, for raif- 
ing timber, and for efFeftually fen- 
cing and preferving the fame. His 
lordihip planted, on this occafiona 
6100 elrns. 

And at a former meeting of the 



fociety" of arts, a gold medal was 
adjudged to John Freeman, Efq; of 
Ciiute Lodge, for fowing the great- 
eft number of Spanifli chefnut- 
trees, which was about 100^000. 

At a late trial on the ftatute a- 
gainft ufury, a verdidl was given 
for the plaintiff, with 900 1. dama- 
ges, and treble cofts of fuit. 

Two men lately working in a 
crane at the cuftomhoufe, one of 
them, without any previous notice, 
jumped out of the wheel, which 
went round with fuch velocity 
that his companion was dallied to 

The earl of Bute has prefented 
to Winchofter College a bronze 
ftatue of the founder William of 
Wykeham, fuppofed to have been 
done in the fourteenth century. It 
is a full length figure, in the epif- 
copal habit, fixteen inches high, 
and executed with remarkable ele- 

A legacy of 800 I. was paid by 
the executrixes of Mrs. Ifabella 
Smithfon, for the ufeof the county 
hofpital at York. 

Letters from Spain take notice, 
that the king has fettled a penfion 
of 300 crowns on the widow of 
Don Velafco, who fo bravely de- 
fended Fort Moro; created his fon 
a peer of Caftile, by the title of 
marquis de Fort Moro, and had or- 
dered that one fliip of the Spanifh 
navy fhould always bear the name 
of Velafco. The governor of the 
Havannah, and the admiral who 
commanded the fleet at that place, 
have been ordered to repair to Ma» 
drid, and an enquiry into their 
condaft is already begun. 

Beinga high feftival, their 

25 th. 

majefties, preceded by the 

keralds, &c. went to the chapel 

royal, and with others of the royal 
family received the facrament from 
the hands of the bifhop of London, 
and afterwards made their offerings 
at the altar, for the benefit of the 
poor, in feveral purfes.'^The king's 
is a byzant, or wedge of gold, value 

A moft intenfe froft fet in with a 
north- eallerly wind, and continued 
with very little intermiflion to the 
29th of January, when it broke up 
by a gentle thaw. Befides the ge- 
neral appearance of nacure, fome 
experiments, tried during the courfe 
ofit, proved, that it was fome days 
no lefs fevere, than that of 1740. 
Particularly, on the 3 ift of Decem- 
ber a glafs of water placed upon a 
table in the open air, in fix minutes 
froze fo hard as to bear five fliil- 
lings upon it; a glafs of red port 
wine, placed upon the fame table, 
froze in lefs than two hours; and a ' 
glafs of brandy in fix, both with 
hard ice. By the 2d of January 
the river Thames was completely 
frozen over at Richmond ; as was 
the Severn in feveral places ; fo that 
in many places, carriages pafl'ed 
over the ice, and booths were ereft- 
ed and fairs held ; the ice being in 
fome parts fix feet thick. 

Below bridge, the river afforded, 
a molt melancholy profpecl ; the 
ice, floating up and down wiih the 
tide, cut the cables of the (hipping, 
and fet whole tiers adrifr, many of 
which were driven on fhore, and, 
with their cargoes, damaged to a 
great amount. One (hip was driven 
with fuch violence ao-ainll Lon- 


don bridge, that her bowfprit beat 
down upwards of twenty feet of the 
new ftone balullers. Sea - gulls 
came up as high as London-bridge, 
and birds were driven from their 
[/] 4 ufual 

i2o] - ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

ofual haunts, and were feen, in 
great numbers, in the ftreets of 

This fevere froft put a flop to fe- 
veral handicraft trade?, and to all 
manner of hufbandry and inland 
navigation, fo that numbers of the 
poor, who depended upon fuch oc- 
cupations, were obliged to have re- 
courfe to the compaffion of the pub- 
lic, and went about the ftreets driv- 
ing ploughs, or carrying boats on 
their (houlders to excite it. At the 
fame time neceffaries of all kinds, 
except flefh - meat, (the graziers 
pouring their cattle into London for 
want of fodder) rofetofuch a price, 
as to diftrefs thofe who before ufed 
to be more at their eafe. Collec- 
tions therefore were fet on foot in 
TOoft parifhes, and all ranks of peo- 
ple, that could afford it, contributed 
chearfully to them. His majefty 
feut a thoufand pound bank note 
to the bifhop of London for that 
purpofe ; and the dukes of New- 
caflle and Bedford, and Lord Bute, 
gave between four and five hundrLd 
pounds each. Another nobleman, 
then in the country, is faid to have 
provided cloathing, and all other 
necelTaries for the poor, not only 
of his own, but of feveral adjacent 
parifhes. At laft the evil produced 
in fome degree its own remedy. As 
the water in the leaden pipes froze, 
and there was a greater call for that 
clement than ufual, on account of 
the great number of fires, which 
"broke out during this froft ; wood- 
«n pipes were inferted into the 
wains in alnioft evf^ry ftreet, and 
thefe wooden pipes being often left 
open, the ice accumulated to fuch a 
cegree,thatat length it becamedan- 
gerous to walk the ftreets, fo that 
ihste was ^'neccftity for employing 

a great number of hands to clear 

But though by th^fe means fewp 
perifhed for want of food, feveral 
perfons were frozen to death in the 
ftreets and on the rivers, fome of the 
latter by the ice, on which they 
ventured, breaking off with them. 

This fr^ft has been proporiiona- 
bly intenfe, and feems to have fet in 
much fooner, in France, Holland, 
and all the other north-eaft coun- 
tries of Europe ; whereas in Corn- 
wall, Wales, and Ireland, the wea- 
ther was milder than ufual. 

It is very remarkable, that 
though great numbers of cattle of 
all kinds periftied in the open fieldf, 
during this froft, feveral fheep, 
which happened to be buried in the 
fnow, fallen in fome parts to a great 
depth, continued well and alive 
under it five or fix weeks. It wai 
even aft'ured in the foreign papers, 
that the fervant of an officer, tra- 
velling in Germany in an open 
fledge, having been left behind on 
the road, as, in all appearance, 
frozen to death, recovered his vital 
heat, by a fall of fnow which foon 
covered him, fo thoroughly and 
fpeedily, that in three days time 
he was able to join his mafter. 

Though the fires, which broke 
out during the froft, were very nu- 
merous, fcarce a day pafTing with- 
out one, few of them, except one 
that happened in the Strand, near 
Somerfet houfe, were permitted to 
get a-head. This, befides greatly 
damaging the back part of the faid 
palace, confumed eight or nine 
houfes ; and a poor lady, aged 103, 
in whofe apartment it broke out, 
while left by herfelf, unhappily pe- 
rifhed in the flames. 

A fire likewife broke out in th^ 



vaults of St. James's church, and 
many bodies were burnt before it 
could be perfeftly extinguifhed, 
which proved a work of great dif- 
ficulty. It was attributed to the 
carelefTnefs of fome undertaker's 
fervants, in leaving a link burning, 
or flicking it againfl fomething, 
during an interment there a {ev^ 
days before. 

Hints by the late Bi/hop Berkeley , of 
the kingdom of Ireland concerning 

*' Whether tiles and plaifter may 
not fupply the place of Norway fir, 
for flooring and wain fcot ? Whether 
plaifler be not warmer, as well as 
more fecure, than deal? And whe- 
ther a modern fafhionable houfe, 
lined with fir, daubed over wich oil 
and paint, be nor like a firefhip, 
ready to be lighted up by all acci- 
dents ?" 

Method offaving li'ves at dangerous 
** Into the upper part of a win- 
dow-frame drive a ftaple, or fcrew 
in an iron bolt with an eye. Pro- 
vide two blocks with two or three 
pullies in each, (which maybe had 
cheap, at any thip block-maker's) 
pafs a rope through each pulley of a 
' length fafKcient to reach the ground 
from the top of the window. Pro- 
vide alfo a flrong bag or fack, of 
about four feet d-ep, and eighteen 
inches wide, with a wooden bottom, 
and a few hoops to keep the fack 
open, as in a hoop petticoat. When 
an unhappy occafion r°quires the 
♦ ufeofihefe, let the hook of the up- 
per block be hung in the ilaple ; 
then the party mud lUnd on the 
wooden bottom, and draw the fack 
up about them, and hang the ftring 
of the fack on the hook of the under 
block, when any one perfon may, 
with the greatell eafe and fafety. 

let them down to the ftreet; and 
drawing up the fack again may, ia 
like manner, let down a whole fa- 
mily, women, children, fick, old, 
and infirm ; and, at laft, lower 
himfelf down, by only holding the 
fame rope in his own hand. 

The moft tender and timorous 
mull be convinced of the cafe and 
fafety of this operation, by recol- 
lecling that it is the very fame with 
that, by which the moft delicate la- 
dies, when they make a vifit oa 
board large fhips, without any dan- 
ger, are hoifled up in a chair from 
their boat, and replaced there 

Copy of a letter from New York, 
Nov. 30, 1762. 

*' Since I wrote to you, one of 
oar privateers has fent in a prize 
here, taken out of a fleet of French- 
men, bound from Cape Francois to 
'France : this fleet connfled of about 
25 fail of merchant vefTels under 
convoy of three king's frigates, and 
a merchant frigate of 18 guns. 
Three privateers belonging to this 
place, and four Well India priva- 
teers cruifing together, firil fell in 
with them. In the night they 
took five vefTels out of the fleet; 
and next day Commodore Keppei, 
who was cruizing there with feven 
men of war, appeared in fight of 
the French fleet, and with the 
privateers, has taken every one. of 
them. Commodore Keppei has 
carried the four frigates and eigh- 
teen merchantmen to Jamaica; 
they are all richly laden with fugar, 
coffee, and indigo. Three more 
are ordered here, and expefted 
every hour." 

In the courfe of the war we have 
taken from the French 18 fhips of 
the line, and 36 frigates, and de- 
llroyed 14 fhips and 13 frigates, 


ill] ANNUAL REGISTER/ 1762. 

and they have loft by accidents 5 
jhips and 6 frigates ; (o that on the 
whole their navy has been deprived 
of 37 capital fhips, and 55 frigates. 
From the Spaniards we have taken 
J 2 Ihips and four frigates. Ourlofs 
has been only 2 frigates taken, and 
3 deftroyed, and 13 fhips and 14 
frigates loft by accident. 

That we may lofe no time In 
exciting the gratitude of the pub- 
lic towards that brave body, which 
fo efFedtually contributed to put a 
fpeedy and glorious end to the war, 
by the ever-memorable reduftion 
of the Havannah, we give our rea- 
ders the following fpecimen, of the 
unparalleled hardftiips they were 
now fufFering in their return to 
Europe, though fome of the fads 
mentioned in it properly belong to 
the year 1763. 

On the 3d of November, admiral 
Pocock fet fail with the tranfports 
(in all about 60) from the Havan- 
nah. For three weeks they had a 
fine pafiage, and were within 200 
leagues of the Land*s-end, when 
the wind coming about to theeaft, 
and blowing a ftorm, they were dif- 
perfedanddrivenoutof theircourfe, 
many of them leaky and ill provid- 
ed, and unable either to make land , 
-or keep the fea ; in this wretched 
condition feveral periftied ; the 
Marlborough bore away in the ut- 
moft diftreis for Lifbon, and provi. 
dentially wasdifcovered by the An- 
telope from Newfoundland, juft as 
the iliip was ready to founder, fifty 
men at the pumps having worked 
night and day inceflantly, till the 
whole crew was fpent with fatigue, 
and unable to have fublillcd one 
night longer ; the Temple man of 
war went to the bottom, but her 
crew were preferved ; the Devon- 
ihire ftiared the fame fate ! the 

Culloden, if not periftied, has fuf- 
fered the utmoft diftrefs ; 12 of the 
tranfports went to the bottom, and 
the fufTerings of thofe who rode it 
out, are not to be conceived ; re- 
duced by famine, and wafted by fa- 
tigue, the men appeared like fkele- 
tons, and more than half of them 
died of thirft, ficknefs, and fatigue. 
Many of the fliips beat the feas for 
near a month after they had made 
the land ;i and being leaky and 
worm-eaten when they left the Ha- 
vannah, the continual apprehen- 
fions of death were as terrible to 
many as death itfelf. The admiral 
himfelf did not reach land till the 
13th of January, when he arrived 
at Portfmouth. It is computed that, 
befides what periftied in the paftage 
home, the conqueft of the Havan- 
nah has coft the nation upwards of 
ten thoufand men. 

Some tirtie ago a man having 
ftolen a ftieep at Mitcham in Surry, 
tied its hind legs together, and put 
them over his forehead to carry it 
away ; but in getting over a gate, 
the ftieep, it is thought, ftruggled, 
and by a fudden fpring, flipped its 
feet down to his throat ; for they 
were found in that pofture, the 
ftieep hanging on one fide of the gate, 
snd the man dead on the other. 

There is now living in York 
Ihire, one Robert Oglebie, a tin- 
ker, who at tliis time travels the 
country for a livelihood, who was 
born Nov. 6, 1647, as appears by 
the regiRer book in the parifti of 
Rippon, In Yorkftiire. Heisatali, 
upright, thin man, and fays, he 
was married to his wife feventy- 
thrce years, by whom he had twelve 
boys, and thirteen girls, and that 
fhe lived to the age of 106. He 
can hear, and fee to work, as well 
as ever he did in his life. 




Died lately Mrs. BafTet at Hal- 
dane-houie, near Exeter; who, it 
is faid, has left to the hol'pitals of 
Bath and Exeter 500). each, and 
400 1. to the poor of four parifhes 
in Cornwall and Devonfhire. 

Mr. Evan Owens, at Denbigh, 
aged 100. 

Mrs. Efch, at Agnes-Burton, 
Yorkfhire, aged 100. 

At Dijon in France, Touiffant 
Maratrai, aged 112; at the age of 
75, he married his fecond wife, by 
whom he had children. He was a 
labouring man, and always enjoyed 
a good ftate of health. 

A genera! bill of the chrlflenings 
and burials in London, from De- 
cember 15. 1761, to December 
14. 1762, 

Chriftened Burled 

Males 7859 Males 


Females 7492 Fem; 





Increafed in the burials this year 


Died under 2 years of age 


Between 2 and 



5 and 



10 and 



20 and 



30 and 



40 and 



50 and 



60 and 



70 and 



80 and 



90 and 










In the courfe of this year were 
chriftened at Norwich, Males 525. 
Females 570. Incre.-i''d 4. Buried, 
Males 566. Females 570. Increaf- 
ed 91. 

At Liverpool, chrill. Males 438. 
Females 403. Increafed 51. Buried, 
Malt-s 564. Females 562. In- 
creafed 375. Marriages 375. De- 
creafed 17. 

At Dublin, chriftened, Malss 
1043. Females 1447. Increafed 
281. Buried, Males 1273. Fe- 
males 1217. Increafed 198. 

Harlem in Holland, Born, 751. 
Died 1674. I creafed 31. 

Amlleruam, chriftened in the re- 
formed and Lutheran churches 4320. 
Married 3316. Buried 8412. 

Newcaltic, chriftened 522, In- 
creafed 101. Buried 532. Increaf- 
ed 131. 

AtManchefter, chriftened Males 
373. Females ^16. Decreafed 86. 
Buried, Males 274. Females jco. 
Increafed 46. Married 351. In- 
creafed II. 

Tranjlation of a letter -wrote hy prince 
Ferdinand to General Sporcken, on 
rejigning to him the command of tkt 
allied army in Germany ; containing 
his feretie highnefs*s thanks to the 
faid armyy and likeixife his tnaje- 
fiy''s letter cf thanks to his ferene 

S I R, 

HAvinghad the honour, on my 
arrival at Neuhaus, to write to 
the rcing to congratulate him on the 
peace he had made with France and 
Sp^in, and at the fame time to afk 
his permifficn to quit the army, 
where my prefe.v:e is no longer ne- 
ceiTary; his majefty was gracioufly 
pleafed to give me a very favour- 
able anfwer, in the following let- 


ter ; which I fend you, general, to which I was honoured by the king, 

be communicated to the army. I therefore defire, general, that you 

*' Coufm, will return them my fincere thinks, 

I thank you for the obliging con- and that you will alfo thank, in my 

gratulations in your letter of the name, the whole army for the obe- 

ajd pad, on the happy conclufion dience they paid to me whilll 1 had 

of the peace, to which your good the honour to command them. 

condufl at the head of my army 
hath fo greatly contributed. I rsa- 
dily confent to your demand, and 
am very glad, that, after fo much 
fatigue, you will enjoy, in the bo- 
fbm of peace, that glory which you 
have fo juftly acquired. Being, 
moreover convinced how much I 
owe to your great merit, you may 
be affured of my perfevering in 

Neuhaus, Dec. Ferdinand, 
23,1762. Dukeof Brunfwick. 

The marquis r>f Granhj^s letter ef 
thanks to the Britijh forces in Ger^ 
many. Dated Munjier, "Jan. I. 

** LordGranbyhashoped to have 

had it in his power to have feen and 

taken his leave of the troops, be- 

thefe fentiments ; being, with much fore theirembarkation for England; 

elleem and devotion, coufin, your but a fevere illnefs having detained 

devoted coufm, him at Warbourg, and his prefenl 

St. James's p p „ ftate of health obliging him to take 

Dec. 3. 1762. ' another route, he could not leave 

In confequence of this permif- this country without this public tef- 

fion which his majefty has gra- timony of his entire approbation of 

cioufly given me, I refign to gene- their conduft, fince he has had the 

ral Sporcken the command of the honour of commanding them. 

army, which I fhall leave to-mor- Thefe fentiments naturally call 

row the 24th of December. \ am for his utmoft acknowledgements : 

the better fatisfied, as his majefty He therefore returns his warmeft 

has condefcended to repeat to me thanks to the generals, officers, and 

his approbation of my conduft : private men compofing the whole 

and I have the moft grateful fen fe Britifli corps, for the bravery, zeal, 

of the favours with which you ho- difcipline, and good condu^ he has 

noured me during the time that X conflantly experienced from every 

commanded the army. I fhall ne- individual; and his moft particular 

ver forget with how great and hap- and perfonal thanks are d ue to them 

py fuccefs I fought at the head of for their ready obedience, upon all 

the brave troops that compofed the occafions, to fuch orders as his fta- 

army, for liberty, and for their tion obliged him to give. 

country and mine. This I fhall al- His belt endeavours have always 

ways remember, and it will make been diredled to their good, by 

ine think continually on the obliga- every means in his power ; and he 

tions I owe to the generals and of- has the fatisfaftion to think he has 

ficers in particular, who, by affift- fome reafon to flatter himfelf of 

ing me with their experience and their being convinced, if not of the 

their good advice, enabled me to efficacy, at leaft of the fincerity of 

ferve my country, and to difcharge, his intentions, if he may judge by 

at liie fame time, the truft wi;h the noble return their behaviour has 




*adehim; a behaviour that, while 
it fills him with gratitude, endeared 
them to their king and country, 
and has covered them with glory 
and honour. 

Highly fenfible of their merit, he 
(hall continue while he lives, to 
look upon it as much his duty, as 
it will for ever be his inclination, to 
give them every poffibie proof of 
his afFe<flion and efleem ; which he 
fhould be happy to make as appa- 
rent as their valour has been, and 
will be, confpicuous and exemplary 
to after- ages. 

An account of the extraordinary cere- 
monies obj'er-jed, on account cf the 
fryvereign' s prefence, at the infialla- 
tion of his royal highnefs prince 
William and the enrl of Bute, as 
knights of the garter, at Windfor, 
Sept. 22. 1762. 

THE inftallation was preceded 
by the ceremony of the bilhop 
of Salifbury's taking the oaths as 
chancellor of the order, after which 
his majefty put the gold chain with 
the badge about his neck, and de- 
livered the purfe to him, Izc. 

When the fovereign and the 
knights had retired to their ftalls. 
Garter, with the ufual reverences, 
took up the banner of the late fove- 
reign, and holding it up, imme- 
diately Clarenceux and Norroy, 
kings of arms, joined, and making 
their reverences, repaired to his royal 
iiighnefs the duke of Cumberland, 
and his royal highnefs the duke of 
York, the two fenior knights; who 
thereupoH joined, and making their 
reverences together, received the 
banner from Garter, and being pre- 
ceded by the two kings of arms, 
advanced to the firft ftep, or haut- 
pas, where they repeated, their re- 

verences, and coming to the raiJ, 

made one to the altar ; then kneel- 
ing, they delivered the banner to 
the prelate, who, affiled by the 
prebends, placed it upright at the 
iouth end of the altar. 

In the mean time, according to 
his majefty's particular direction):, 
all the other knights, as attending 
the offering of the fovereign's ban- 
ner, advanced from under their 
banners, and made their double re- 
verences : the two knights who 
made the offering returning with 
reverences a^ before under their 

The fword of the late fovereign 
was then delivered by Garter to 
their royal highnefies, and offered 
in like manner ; and then the helm 
and crelt ; v.hich being done, their 
royal highnefies returned, and went 
into their flails. 

After the two new knights were 
inftalled, divine fervice began. 

And at the words of the offertory. 
Let your light fo jhine, the organs 
playing, the officers of the ward- 
robe fpread a carpet on the fleps be- 
fore the altar, and Black rod mak- 
ing his obeifances, went up to the 
rails of the altar, on the right fide, 
where he received from the yeomaa 
of the wardrobe, a rich carpet and 
cufhion, which, with the affiilance 
of the yeoman, he laid down for 
the fovereign to kneel upon. 

In the mean time Garter, fum- 
moned the knights from their flails, 
beginning with the junior, each 
knight making his reverences in his 
flail, and repeating the fame with 
his companion in the choir, retired 
under his banner. 

All the knights (landing under 
their banners. 

The fovereign, making his re- 
verence to the alrar, defcended from 
his (tall, and thea caking another 


126] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

reverence, proceeded to the offer- 

As the proceffion paffed the duke 
of Newcaftle, the fenior knight 
(not of the blood royal) who was 
to deliver the offering to the fove- 
reign, he came from his banner, 
placing hirafelf a little behind his 
majeftyon the right fide_, and com- 
ing againft the lord chamberlain's 
ftall, he came from under his ban- 
ner, going on the left fide of his 

The fox'ereign coming to the rails 
of the altar. Black Rod delivered 
the offering on his knee to the 
knight, who prefented it to the 
fovereign ; and his majefty taking 
off his cap, and kneeling, put the 
offering into the bafon held by the 
prelate affilled by the prebends. 

The fovereign then rifing, made 
one reverence to the altar, and be- 
ing in his ftall, another ; the lord 
chamberlain, and the knights who 
delivered the offering, retiring be- 
hind their banners, when they came 
oppoiite to them in the return. 

Dinner being ended the knights 
placed themfelves on either fide, at 
the upper end of the hal! ; and 
grace being faid by the prelate, and 
the fovereign having walhed, the 
knights all together made their re- 
verences to his majefty, who put off 
his cap and re- fa! u ted them ; and a 
proceffion was made back to the 
prefence chamber, in the fame or- 
der they came from thence. 

An authentic narrative of the death 
of Mark Antony Cala^ , a?ici of the 
trial and execution cf his father, 
John Calas , for the fuppojed mur~ 
der of his fon. Fro?n the French. 

JOHN CALAS was a merchant 
of the city of Touloufe ; where 
he had beea fettled, and lived in 

good repute, forty years; he mar- 
ried an Englifh woman of French 
extraftion, her grandmother being 
of the family of Garde- Montef- 
quieu, and related to the chief no- 
b'effe of Languedoc. 

Calas and his wife were proteft- 
ants, and had five fons, whom they 
educated in the fame religion : But 
Lewis, one of the fons, fome time 
lince became a Roman Catholic ; 
his father's maid-fervant, areligious 
Catholic, who had lived thirty years 
in the family, having greatly con- 
tributed to his converfion; but the 
father was fo far from expreffmgany 
refentment or ill-will on the occa- 
fion, that he fettled an annuity up- 
on Lewis, and ftill kept the maid 
in his family. 

In Oftober, 1761, the family 
feems to have confifted of the father 
John Calas, and his wife, one wo- 
man fervant, Mark Anthony Calas, 
the eldell fon, and Peter Calas, 
the fecond fon. Mark Anthony had 
been educated a fcholar, with a 
view to his becoming an advocate 
or counfellor at law; but he was 
not able to get himfelf admitted as 
a licentiate, becaofe he mult either 
have performed fome afts, which, 
as a Proteftant, he could not have 
performed ; or have purchased cer- 
tificates, which he either thought 
unlawful, or found too expenfive ; 
He could not follow the bufinefs of 
a merchant, becaufe he was not 
qualified for it by his education, nor 
his turn of mind; he therefore be 
camedifcontented and melancholy, 
and endeavoured 10 diffipate the 
gloom of his mind by playing at 
billiards, and other expenfive plea- 
fures, of which his father often ex- 
preffed his difapprobation with fome 
warmth, and once threatened that 
if he did not alter his condaft, he 
would turn him out of doors; or 



expreffed himfelf in words to that 
eiFeft. The young man's difcon- 
tentand melancholy Hill increafed, 
and he feems to have entertained 
thoughts of putting an end to his 
life, as he was continually felefting 
and reading pafiages from Plutarch, 
Seneca, Montaigne, and manyother 
authors on fuicide, and could lay 
by heart a French tranHation of the 
celebrated foliloquy in Hamlet, 
which he frequently repeated, with 
fome paflages from a French tragi- 
comedy, called Sidney, to the fame 

On the 13th of Oftober, 1761, 
M.Gober la Vaifle, a young gentle- 
man about nineteen years of age, 
the fon of La ^'ail^e, a celebrated 
advocate of Touloufe, having been 
fome time atBourdeaux, came back 
to Touloufe to fee his father ; but 
finding that his father was gone to 
his country-houfe, at fome diftance 
from the city, he went to feveral 
places, endeavouring to hire a horfe 
to carry him thither. No horfe, 
however, was to be hired ; and 
about five o'clock in the evening 
he was met by John Calas, the fa- 
ther, and the eldert fon Mark An- 
thony, who was his friend. Calas, 
the father, invited him to fupper, 
as he could not fet out for his fa- 
ther's that night, and La VaiiTe 
confented. All three therefore pro- 
ceeded to Calas's houfe together, 
and when they came thither, find- 
ing that Mrs. Calas was ftill in her 
own room, which fhe had not quit- 
ted that day. La Vaifie went up to 
fee her. After the firftcompliments, 
he told her he was to fup with her 
by her hufband's invitation; fheex- 
preffed her fatisfadtion, and a few 
minutes after left him, to give fome 
orders to her maid ; when that was 
done, fhe went to look for her fon 

Anthony, whom flie found fitting 
alone in the fliop, very penfive; 
fhe gave him fome money, and de- 
fired him to go and buy fome 
Roquefort cheefe, he being always 
the market-man for cheele, as he 
knew how to buy it good bettef 
than any one in the family. 

She then returned to her gueft 
La VaiiTe, who very foon after 
went again to the livery-ftable, to 
fee if any horfe was come in, that 
he might fecure it for the next 

In a fhort time Anthony return^ 
ed, having bought the cheefe, and 
La Vai/Te alfo back about 
the fame time, the family and their 
gueft fat down to fupper in a room 
up one pair of ftairs, the whole 
company confifting of Calas the 
father and his wife, Anthony and 
Peter Calas, the fons, and La VaifTe 
the gueft, no other perfon being ia 
the houfe except the maid fervant, 
who has been already mentioned. 

It was now about feven o'clock ; 
the fupper was not long ; but be- 
fore it was over, or, according to 
the French expreflion, I'jhen they 
came to the deffert , Anthony left the 
table, and went into the kitchen, 
which was on the fame floor, as he 
ufed to do ; the maid afked him if 
he was cold ? he anfvvered, ^itt 
the contrary y I burn ', and then left 
her: in the mean time his friend 
and the family left the room they 
had fupped inland went into a bed- 
chamber ; the father and M. La 
\z\Sz fat down together on a fofa ; 
the younger fon Peter in an elbow 
chair ; and the mother in another 
chair; and without making any in* 
quiry after Anthony, continued in 
converfation together till betweea 
nine and ten o'clock, when La 
VaiiTe took his leave, and Peter, 


1285 ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

iR/ho had fallen afleep, was awaked 
to attend him with a light. 

On the ground floor of Calas's 
lioufe was a (hop and a warehoufe ; 
the warehoufe was divided from the 
Ihop by a pair of folding-doors. 
"When Peter Galas and La Vaiffe 
came down Ilairs into the fhop, they 
were extremely fhocked to fee An- 
thony hanging in his fhirt, from a 
bar which he had laid acrofs the top 
of the two folding doors, having 
half opened them for that purpofe. 
Upon difcovery of this horrid fpec- 
tacle, they fhrieked out, and the 
cry brought down Galas the father, 
the mother being feized with fuch 
a terror as kept her trembling in 
the pafTage above. The unhappy 
old man rulhed forward, and taking 
the body in his arms, the bar, to 
which the rope that fufpended him 
was faftened, flipped off from the 
folding doors of the warehoufe, 
and fell down. Having placed the 
body on the ground, he loofed and 
took off the cord, in an agony of 
grief and angui(h not to be exprefT- 
eJ, weeping, trembling, and de- 
ploring himfelf and his child. The 
two young men, his fecond fon and 
La Vaille, who had not had pre- 
fcnce of mind enough to attempt 
taking down the body, were Hand- 
ing by, ftupid with amazement and 
horror; in the mean time the mo- 
ther, hearing the confufed cries and 
complaintsofherhufband,and find- 
ing nobody coming to her, found 
means to get down Hairs. At the 
bottom fhe found La VaifTe, and 
haftily and eagerly demanded what 
was the matter; this queftion 
rouzed him in a moment, and in- 
ftead of anfwering her, he urged 
her to go again up flairs, to which, 
with much relu^ancffj iheconfent- 

cd; but the conflift of her mind 
being fuch as could not be long 
borne, (he fent down the maid, 
Jannet, to fee what was the matter ; 
when the maid difcovered what had 
happened, flic continued below, 
cither becaufe fhe feared to carry an 
account of it to her miftrefs, or be- 
caufe fhe bufied herlelf in doing 
fome good office to her mafter, who 
was fl;ili embracing the body of his 
fon, and bathing it in his tears. 
The mother, therefore, being thus 
left alone, went down, and mixed 
in thefcene, that has been already 
defcribed, with fuch emotions as it 
mufl naturally produce. In the 
mean time, Peter had been fent for 
La Moire, a furgeon in the neigh- 
bourhood ; La Moire wa5 not at " 
home,buthis apprentice, M.GrofTe, 
came inftantly. Upon examination, 
he found the body quite dead ; and 
upon taking off the neckcloth, 
which was of^ black taffeta, he faw 
the mark of the cord, and immedi- 
ately pronounced, that the de- 
ceafed had been ftrangled. This 
particular had not been told ; for 
the poor old man, when Peter was 
going for La Moire, cried out, 
♦' Save at leafl the honour of my 
family ; do not go and fpread a re- 
port that your brother has made 
away with himfelf.** 

By this time a crowd of people 
was gathering about the door, and 
one Gafing, with another friend or 
two of the family were come in ; 
fome of thofe who were in the 
ftreet had heard the cries and ex- 
clamations of the father, the mo- 
ther, the brother, and his friend, 
before they knew what was the 
matter ; and having by fome means 
learned that Anthony Galas was fud- 
dcnly dead, and that the furgeon 




who had examined the body, de- 
clared he had been ftrangled, they 
took it into their heads that he had 
been murdered; and as his family 
were Proteftants, they prefentlyfup- 
pofed that the young man was about 
to change his re!igion> and had 

40 foldiers, took the father, Peter 
the fon, the mother, La VailTe, 
and the maid, all into cuftody, and 
fet a guard over them : He fent for 
M. de la Tour, a phyfician. and 
M. la Marque and Perronet, fur- 
geons, who examined the body for 

been put to death for that reafon. marks of violence, but found none 

The criej they had heard, they 
fancied were thofe of the deceafed, 
while he was refifting- the violence 
that was offered him. The tumult 
in the ftreet increafed every mo 

except the mark of the ligature 
on the neck ; they found alfo the 
hair of the deceafed done up in the 
ufual manner, perfeilly fmooth, 
and without the lead diforder ; his 

ment ; fome faid that Anthony cloaths were alfo regularly folded 

Calas was to have abjured the next 
day ; others, that Prnteftants are 
bound by their religion to ftrangle 
or cut the throats of their children, 
when they are inclined to become 

up, and laid upon the counter, nor 
was his fhirt either tern or unbut- 

Notwithftanding thefe appear- 
ances, David thought fit to give 

Catholics ; others, who had found into the opinion of the mob, and 

out that La VaifTe was in the took it into his head thai old Calas 

houfe when the accident happened, had fent for La VaifTe, telling him 

very confidently afHrmed, that the he had a fon to be hanged'; that La 

Proceflants, at their lall afl'embly, Vaifle had come to perform the 

appointed a perfon to be their 
common executioner on thefe occa- 
iions, and that La VaifTe was the 
man, who, in confequence of the 
ofnce to v/hich he had been ap- 
pointed, had come to Calas's to 
hang his fon. 

office of executioner ; and that the 
father and the brother had affifled 
him in it. 

The body, by order of this poor 
ignorant bigot, was carried to the 
t^wn-houfe, with the cloaths. The 
father and fon were thrown into a 

The poor father, therefore, who dark dungeon ; and the mother. La 

was overwhelmed with grief for the VaifTe, the maid, and Cafing, were 

lofs of his child, was advifed by his imprifoned in one that admitted the 

friends to fend for the officers of light. The next day, what is called 

juflice to prevent his being torn to the verbal procefs, was taken at the 

pieces for having murdered him. town-houfe, inftead of the fpot 

This was accordingly done: One where the body was found, as the 

was difpatched to the Capitoul, one lawdireds, and was dated at Calas's 

David, the iirit magiflrate of the houfe, to conceal the irregularity. 

police, or principal civil magiftrate This verba! procefs is foraewhat like 

of the place; and another to an our coroner's inquefl ; witnefTes are 

inferior officer, called an afTefTor. examined, and the magiflrate makes 

The Capitoul was already fet out, his report, which is the fame there 

having been alarmed by the ru- as the verditl of the coroner's ju- 

mour of a murder before the mef- ry v/ith us. The witnefTes exami- 

fenger fent from Calas's got to his ned by this Capitoul, were the 

h^ufe : He entered the houfe with phyficiau and furgeon, who proved 

Vol. V. [K] Anthony 

130] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762.. 

Anthony Calas to have been ftran- 
gled; thefurgeon, having been or- 
dered to examine the Itomach of the 
deceafed, depofed alfo, that the 
food which was found there had 
been taken four hours before his 
death. As no proof of the fuppofed 
fa£l could be procured, the Capi- 
toul had recourfe to a Monitory, in 
which the crime was taken for 
granted, and all perfons were requi- 
red to give fuch tellimony concern- 
ing it as they were able, particulariz- 
ing the points to which they were 
to fpeak. This Monitory recites, 
that La Vaifle was commiffioned by 
the Proteftants to be their execu- 
tioner in ordinary, when any of 
their children were to be hanged for 
changing their religion ; it recites 
alfo, that when Protellants thus 
hang their children, they compel 
them to kneel, and one of the inter- 
rogatories was, whether any perfon 
bad feen Anthony Calas kneel be- 
fore his father when he flrangled 
him ; it recites too, that Anthony 
died a Roman Catholic, and re- 
quires evidence of his catholicifm. 
Thefe ridiculous opinions being 
thus adopted and publiihed by the 
principal magiftrate of a confider- 
able city, the church of Geneva 
thought itfelf obliged to fend an 
attcftation of its abhorrence of opi- 
nions fo abominable and abfurd, 
and of its aftonifliment that they 
Ihould be fufpe£led of fuch opinions 
by perfons whofe rank and otice re- 
quired them to have more know- 
ledge and better judgment. 

But before this Monitory was 
publilbed, the mob had got a no- 
tion, that Anthony Calas was the 
next day to have entered into the 
confraternity of the White Peni- 
tents. The Capitoul immediately 
adopted this opinion alfo, without 

the leaft examination, and ordered 
Anthony's body to be buried in the 
middle of St. Stephen's church, 
which was done ; forty priefts, and 
all the White Penitents, affifting in 
the funeral proceffion. 

Four days afterwards the Whit« 
Penitents performed a folemn fer- 
vice for him in their chapel ; the 
church was hung with white, and a 
tomb was raifed in the middle of 
it, on the top of which was placed 
a human Ikeleton, holding in one 
hand a paper, on which was writ- 
ten abjuration rf herejy, and in the 
other a palm, the emblem of mar- 

The next day the Francifcan* 
performed a fervice of the fame 
kind for him ; and it is eafy to 
imagine how much the minds of 
the people were inflamed by this 
ftrange folly of their magiftrates 
and priefts. 

The Capitoul continued the pro- 
fecution with unrelenting feverity; 
and though the grief and diftraftion 
of the family, when he firft came to 
the houfe, were alone fufficient to 
have convinced any reafonable be- 
ing that they were not the authors 
of the event which they deplored, 
yet having publicly attefted that 
they v/ere guilty in his Monitory 
without proof, and no proof coming 
in, he thought fit to condemn the 
unhappy father, mother, brother, 
friend, and fervant, to the torture, 
and put them all into irons on the 
1 8 th of November. Cafing was en- 
larged upon proof that he was not 
in Calas's houfe till after Anthony 
was dead. 

From thefe dreadful proceeding* 
the fufFerers appealed to the par- 
liament, which immediately took 
cognizance of the affair, annulled 
the fentence of the Capitoul as ir- 



regular, and continued the profe- 

When the trial came on, the 
hangman, who had been carried to 
Calas's houfe, and fhewn the fold- 

experiment whether he was guilty 
or not, hoping he would, in the 
agony, confefs the crime, and accufe 
the other prifoners, whofe fate, 
therefore, they fufpended. It is. 

ing doors and the bar, depofed, that however, certain, that if they had 
it was impoffible Anthony lliould had evidence againft the father that 

hanghimfelf as was pretended; an- 
other witnefs fwore that they look- 
ed through the key- hole of Calas's 
door into a dark room, where they 
faw men running halHly to and fro ; 
a third fwore, that his wife had 
told him, that a woman named 
Mandrill had told her, that a cer- 
tain woman unknown had declared 
Ihe heard the cries of Mark An 

would have jullitied the fentence: 
they pronounced againft him, that 
very evidence would have jullified. 
the fame fentence againll the retl ; 
and that if they could not juftly 
condemn the rell:, they could not 
juftly condemn him, for they were 
all in the houfe together when An- 
thony died, all concurred in de- 
claring he hanged himfelf, which 

thony Galas at the farther end of thofe who did not help to hang 

the city. Upon fuch evidence as him, if hanged by others, could 

this, the majority of the parliament have had no motive to do, nor 

were of opinion, that the father and could any of the priloners have 

mother had ordered La Vaiffe to hanged him by violence, without 

hang their fon, and that another 
fon, and a maid fervant, who was 
a good Catholic, had aflifted him 
to do it. 

One La Borde prefided at the 
trial, who had zealoufly efpoufed 
the popular prej udices ; and though 
it was manifell to demonftration 
that the prifoners were either all in- 
nocent or all guilty, he voted that 
the father (hould firll fuiFer the tor- 
ture ordinary and extraordinary, to 
difcover his accomplices, and be 
then broken alive upon the wheel, 
to receive the laft Itroke when he 
had laid two hours, and then to be 
burnt to afhes. In this opinion he 
had the concurrence of fix others^ 
three were for the torture alone, 
two were of opinion that they fhould 
endeavour to afcertain upon the 
fpot whether Anthony could hang 
himfelf or not, and one voted to 
acquit the prifoner. After long 
debates the majority was for the 

the knowledge of the reft. 

Poor Galas, however, an old man 
of fixty-eight, was condemned to 
this dreadful puniftiment alone ; he 
fuffered the torture with great con- 
ftancy, and was led to execution in 
a frame of mind which excited the 
admiration of all that faw him. 

TwoDominicans, fatherBourges 
and father Caldagues, who attend- 
ed him in his laft moments, wilhed 
* their latter end might be like his,* 
and declared that they thought him 
not only wholly innocent of the' 
crime laid to his charge, but an ex- 
emplary inftance of true chriftian 
patience, fortitude, and charity. 

One Tingle fhriek, and that not 
very violent, efcaped him when he 
received the firft ftroke, after that 
he uttered no complaint. Being at 
lentrth placed on the wheel, to wait 
for the moment Which was to end 
his life and his mifery together, he 
expreffed himfelf with an humbla 

torture and the wheel, and probably hope of an happy immortality, and 
condemned die father by way of a companionate regard tor thejudges 

[K]2 who 


who had condemned him. When 
he faw the executioner prepared to 
give him the laft ftroke, he made a 
frefh declaration of his innocence to 
father Bourges; but while the words 
were yet in his mouth, the Capi- 
toul, the author of this catallrophe, 
and who came upon the fcafrold 
merely to gratify his defire of 
being a witnefs of his punifhment 
and death, ran up to him and bawl- 
ed out. Wretch, there are the faggots 
ixhich are to reduce your body to 
cjhes ; /peak the truth. Mr. Calas 
made no reply, but turned his head 
a little afide, and that moment the 
executioner did his office. 

Though the teftimony of adying 
man had thus acquitted the reft oi 
the prifoners, yet the judges, that 
they might aft with an uniform ab- 
furdity throughout the whole affair, 
banifhed Peter Calas for life, and 
acquitted the reft. The widow and 
the other fufferers are feeking fuch 
redrefs from the king as can now 
be had, to whom the fentence of 
the judge was not fent for confir- 
mation, as it ought to have been. 

The judges have thought fit to 
fupprefs this trial ; the widow peti- 
tions that it may be ordered to be 
laid before the parliament of Paris 
for a revifion. 

Some account of the murder cf Anne 
Nayhr, by Sarah Mefyard, and 
her daughter Sarah Morgan Met' 

IN the year 1 758, Sarah Metynrd, 
the moiher, kept a little haber- 
dalher's fhop in Bruton-flreet, Ha- 
nover-fquare, and her daughter, 
then about 19 years old, lived with 
her: their chief bufinefs was mak- 
ing of filk nets, purfes, and mit- 

GISTER, 1762. 

tens, and they took parifli children 
apprentice?. They had then five, 
Philadelphia Dowley, about 10 
years old ; Sar;;h Hinchman, about 
12 ; Anne Naylor, about 13 ; Mary, 
her filler, about eight ; and Anne 
Paul, whofe . ge does not appear; 
but as Hinchman is faid to have 
been the biggeft girl, fhe was pro- 
bably not more than 10. 

Thefe children were kept to work 
in a fmall flip of a room, fo clofe, 
that their breath, and the heat of 
theirbodies, made it fuffocating and 
unwholefome, and they were not 
only treated with unkindnefs and 
feverity, but were not allowed fuf- 
ficient food. As it was natural to 
fuppofe they would complain, ano- 
ther punifhment became neceflary, 
and they were fuffered to go out of 
dvjors but once a fortnight, and then 
were never alone. Anne Naylor 
had a whitloe upon her finger, fo 
bad that it was obliged to be cut 
off, and, being befides a weak fick- 
ly child, ihe became particularly 
obnoxious to the inhumanity and 
avarice of the petty tyrant, of 
whom file was condemned to be 
the flave. 

Being almoft worn out by a long 
feries of ill-treatment, the girl, at 
length, ran away, but was foon 
brought back ; after this fhe was 
treated with yet greater feverity, 
and kept fo fhort of food, that find- 
ing her flrength decay, flie watched 
for an opportunity to run away a 
fecond time ; but this was now be- 
come very difficult, for the mother 
and daughter being apprehenfive of 
fuch an attempt, and dreading the 
confequences of a complaint, yet 
more than the lofs of the girl, were 
careful to keep the ftreet-door fafl, 
and their unhappy vi6lim in the 
upper part of the houfe, 

- U 



It happened, however, that, on 
the 29:h of September, fhe watch- 
ed the door's being opened for the 
milkman, and creeping do^v' i ftairs, 
took the opportunity of the daugh- 
ter's back being turned, to flip out ; 
but the daughter miffing her while 
fhe was yet in fight, called out to 
have hei ftopped, and the milk- 
nian, as fhe was running with what 
ilrength fhe had left, caught her in 
his arms. The poor child expoftu- 
lated with the man, and prefTed 
him with a moving earnef^nefs to 
let her go ; Pray, milkman, fays fhe, 
let Tne go, for I have had no njiSiuah 
a long time, and if I fay here I 
frail be farmed to death. By this 
time the daughter was come up, 
and the milkman having no power 
to detain the child, and it being im- 
pofTible for her to efcape, fhe fell 
again into the hands of her merci- 
lefs tyrants; and the daughter hav- 
ing dragged her into the houfe by 
the neck, flapped to the door, and 
then forced her up ftairs into the 
room, where the old woman was 
flill in bed, though fhe had ftarted 
up, and joined in the cry, upon the 
firll alarm. Here fhe was thrown 
upon the bed, and the old woman 
held her down by the head, while 
the daughter beat her with the. 
handle of a hearth-broom ; after 
this, flie was forced into a two pair 
of ftairs back room, and a fbing 
being tied round her waifl, ftie was 
made faft to the door with her hands 
bound behind her, fo that llie could 
neither lie nor fit down. _ In this 
manner was llie kept ftanding with 
out food or drink for three days, 
being untied only at night that fhe 
might go to bed, and the laft night 
ihe was fo feeble, that fhe was ob- 
liged to crawl up to bed upon her 
iiands and knees. During this ;ime. 

the other children were ordered to 
work in the room by her, that they 
might be deterred from attempting 
to efcape, by feeing the punifhmenc 
that was infliaed upon one who had 
thus ofFended already. 

The firft day ftie faid little, her 
ftrength failing her apace; the next 
day, the faid nothing, but the pains 
of death coming on, flie groaned 
piteoufly ; on the third day, foon 
after fhe was tied up, her ftrength 
wholly failed her, ancl ftie funk 
down, hanging double in the ftring 
which bound her by the waift. The 
children being then frighted, raa 
to the top of the ftairs, and called 
o\i\.,Mif Sally ! Mif Sally! Nanny 
does not movs. The daughter^ came 
up ftairs, and found her without 
any appearance of fenfe or motion, 
hanging by the ftring with her head 
and her feet together; but flie was 
fo far from being touched with pity, 
that flie cried out. If f^e does not 
mo've, I'll ivarrant J II make her 
moue, and immediately began to 
beat her with the heel of her fhoe : 
finding, however, notwithftanding 
the blows, which were very hard, 
that the poor wretch Ihewed no 
figns of fenfibility, fear took the 
alarm, and fhe haftily called up her 
mother. When the old womaa 
came up, fhe fat down upon the 
garret-ftairs, at the door where the 
child was ftill hanging, and the 
ftring being at length cut, ftae laid 
her acrofs her lap, and fent Sally 
Hinchman down ftairs for fome 
drops. When the drops were 
brought, the girls were all fent 
down ftairs, and the mother and 
daughter were foon convinced that 
their viflim was dead. 

Having confulted together, they 
carried the body up ftairs into the 
fore garret, next to that where the 

134] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

child ufed to lie, and locked the 
door that the other children might 
not fee it. They pretended fhe had 
had a fit, from which fhe foon re- 
covered ; and for two or three days 
they infinuated, that fhe was con- 
fined in the garret to prevent her 
running away, having made a third 
attempt to efcape; and the mother 
herfelf, in fight of the children, 
took vidtuals and carried it up into 
the garret, pretending it was Nan- 
ny's dinner. 

On the fourth day, the body be- 
ing (tripped, was locked up in a 
box : and, in confequence of a 
plan concerted between the mother 
and daughter, the garret-door was 
left open when the children were 
fent down to dinner, and the ftreet- 
door was alfo opened and left a-jar; 
when they were at dinner, the mo- 
ther faid to the daughter. Hark ! 
Sally, dcn^t you hear a iioi/e P go and 
fee nvhat it is ; to which the daugh- 
ter, as had been agreed, replied, 
*There is no noife, and continued ac 
table : then faid the old woman to 
Sally Hinchman , Go and fetch Nanny 
do-ivr., jhe Jhall dine belcn.ij to-day. 
Hinchman went up, and finding the 
garret-door open, and the child not 
there, ran back frighted, and faid. 
Madam, Nanny is not there — Run 
dc^jon then, faid the old woman, 
and look helo-uj ; upon this feveral of 
the children ran down, and finding 
the flreet-door alfo open, came up, 
and told what they had feen — y^ye, 
faid the old woman, then Jhe is run 
aiuay at laji ; and it nvas jhe that I 
heard, nvhen I mentioned the noife. 
Girls, did not you hear a noife ? O ! 
lan.u, madam, faid the poor children, 
implicitly concurring in an opinion 
they did not dare to contradict, fo 
ive did. 

Thus they hoped to account for 

the child's abfence to her fellow- 
prentices, who were not, however, 
without fufpicions ; oneof them,in 
particular, obferved, that if fhe had 
run away, fhe had run away without 
her flioes, of which fhe was known 
to have but one pair, and they 
were found in the garret foon after 
the fuppofed efcape; another re- 
marked, that they had all her fhifts 
in the wafh, and that it was not 
likely fhe fhould efcape without 
either fhift or fhoes. The old wo- 
man hearing this whifpered, faid. 
That Jhe 'went luithout her Jhoes for 
fear of being heard to go do^wn fairs ^ 
and that if JJ^e could hut get into the 
freet, Jhe ixjould not mind being hare-' 
foot; the fhifts fhe could not fo 
readily account for; and a perfon 
who lodged in the houfe, having 
afked what was become of Nanny, 
was anfvvered by her fifter, that Jhe 
nfjas dead. The lodger was fatif- 
fied with the anfwer, having no 
fufpicion that her death was not 
natural ; but the mother hearing of 
it, afked Molly Naylor, Who told 
her, that her filler was dead ; fhe re- 
plied, Philly Dowley, one of her 
fellow-prentices ; Philly, therefore, 
was fharply reproved. Molly was 
foon after deflroyed as her fifler had 
been, and the horrid fecret flept 
with the mother and daughter. 

It became neceffary, however, to 
keep the children out of the gar- 
ret, for the body was become very 
offenfive; they were therefore or- 
dered not to wafh their hands there 
as ufual, but to wafh them in the 
kitchen, and the garret-door was 
kept locked. But at the end of 
two months, the putrefaftion was 
fo great, that the whole houfe was 
infefted, and it became abfolutely 
neceffary to remove the body. 




The old woman, therefore, took 
the body out of the box, and cut it 
to pieces, thinking it more eafy to 
difpofe of it in parts than whole : 
ihe endeavoured to cut oft the head, 
but could not; fhe therefore tied 
up the head and body in a piece of 
brown cloth, which was part of the 
bed furniture, and the limbs in ano- 
ther piece of the fame, except the 
hand which had loft the finger, that 
being fo remarkable as to make a 
particular caution necefTary. 

This was on the 5th of Decem- 
ber, the depth of winter, when the 
nights were dark and long; and all 
being thus far in readinefs, the 
children were fent to bed : the old 
woman then fetched down the hand 
which wanted the finger, and burpc 
it : but her fear was To little mixed 
with remorfe or pity, that ihe 
curfed the unhappy creature Ihe 
had murdered becaufe her bones 
were fo long in confuming, and 
comforted herfelf at the fame time, 
by faying, that the fire told no 
tales. She would have burnt the 
reft of the body, but was afraid of a- 
larming the neighbourhood by the 
fmell: fhe, therefore, the fame night 
took the two bundles, and carried 
them to the great gully-hole in 
Chick-lane, where the kennel water 
runsintothe common-fhore, whence 
it falls into the Thames. When 
ihe came thither, fhe took them out 
of the cloths, and endeavoured to 
throw them piece- meal over the 
wall, behind which the common- 
fhore is open, but could not; fhe 
therefore threw them down in the 
mud and water before the grate, 
and returned home. 

About twelve o'clock the fame 
night, the mangled body was feen 
where Metyard had left it, by two 
watchmen, whp gave notice of it 

to the conftable, who went imme- 
diately to the overfeer of the parifh, 
St. Andrew's, Holborn, and de- 
fired he would come and remove it : 
the overfeer went with the con- 
ftable and watchmen to the place, 
and all the parts of the body being 
collefied, except the hand, it was 
carried to the v/orkhoufe ; the next 
day Mr. Umfreville, the coroner, 
was acquainted with it, who direct- 
ed the parts to be put togetner and 
wafned, which beingdone, he came, 
and having taken a view of it, he 
gave an order for its burial, with- 
out fummoning any jury, probably 
fuppofing it had been in the hands 
of fome furgeon. 

Thus was the child murdered, 
and the body difpofed of without 
railing any fufpicion; no inquiry 
was made or apprehended, and the 
murderers were in the hands only 
of each other. 

They had, however, always lived 
upon very ill terms, and though the 
daughter was between 19 and 2& 
years old, the mother ui'ed fre- 
quently to beat her; the daughter 
hoping to terrify her mother into 
better behaviour, would, when thus 
provoked, threaten to accufe her 
of the murder, and make herfelf an 
evidence to prove it, fuppofing that 
the mother's teftimony would not 
then be admitted againft her: thi$ 
rendered their animofities more bit- 
ter; fometimes fhe urged the mo- 
ther to let her go to fervice, and 
fometimes declared fhe would drowa 
herfelf. The mother always op- 
pofed her going to fervice, becaufe 
fhe found her aihftance necefTary in 
her bufinefs, and confidered her talk 
about drowning herfelf, as the mere 
unmeaning I ravings of paflion, 
which, as foon as the paflion fub- 
fided, were thought of no more. 

[K] X Thu8 

j36] annual register, 1762. 

Thus they continued to hate, to 
reproach, and to tormenteachother, 
till about two years after the child 
had been dead ; when one Mr. 
Rookfr, who appears to have been 
a dealer in tea, took a lodging in 
their houfe. 

Rooker cbferved, that the daugh- 
ter was very ill treated by the mo- 
ther, who ftill continued to beat her, 
2nd, after lodging with them about 
three months, be took a houfe the 
upper end of Hill-ftreet, Berkeley- 
fquare ; and, when he went away, 
lie took the daughter, in mere com - 
paiTion, as a fervant. 

The old woman, upon the daugh- 
ter's leaving her, became quite out- 

• rageous ; fhe went almoft every day 
to Rocker's, and abufed both him 
and the girl in the moftopprobious 
terms, and with fuch clamour and 
vehemence as frequently to breed 
ariotaboutchedoor: this, however, 
in compaffion to the girl, he en- 
dured patiently at firil, hoping time 
v/ould put an end to it. It was not 
long before a little place fell to him 
■at Ealing, and he immediately quit- 
ted his houfe in town, ard u-ent to 
live [here, taking the girl with him : 
but the mother, neither foftened by 
time, nor difcouraged by dillance, 
followed her thither, and continued 
her abufe with yet more malice 
and vociferation. When orders were 

.given to refufe her admittance, fhe 
forced her way in, and, at other 
times, behaved in fuch a manner 
before the houfe, that to let her in 
-was thought the leaft evil of the 
two. Rooker was loaded with re- 
fjroaches, and the girl was often 
cruelly beaten. It is probable that 
fhe would have been killed if affift- 
ance had not been at hand, for fhe 
was once found forced up into a 
corner by the mother, who having 

torn off her cap and handkerchief, 
and greatly bruifed and fcratched 
her face, had laid hold of a pointed 
knife, which fhe was aiming at her 
breaft. This continued till the 9th 
of June lafl, and it had been ob- 
ferved, that, in the height of their 
quarrels, many doubtful and myfte- 
rious expreffions were ufed that in- 
timated fome fecret of importance 
between them. 

The mother ufed to call Rooker, 
** The old perfume tea dog;" and 
the daughter would reply, Mother, 
remember, you are the perfumer, al- 
luding to her having kept the child's 
body in a box till it could not 
be endured : at other times the 
daughter, when provoked, would 
fay. You are the Chick-lane ghoji ; 
remember the gully -hole in Chick' 

Thefeobfcure hints made Rooker 
uneafy : and one day, after the 
mother was gone, he urged the 
girl fo prefiingly to tell what they 
meant, that, with many tears and 
great reluctance, fhe gave him an 
account of the murder, begging, at 
the fame time, that it might be a 

As by this account the girl did 
not appear to be any otherwife cul- 
pable than by concealing the mo- 
ther's crime, and as Mr. Rooker 
fuppofed alfo that the faft could not 
be proved without her evidence, he 
immediately wrote an account of 
what he had learnt to the officers 
of the parifli of Tottenham-High- 
Crofs, by whom the deceafed had 
been put out an apprentice, that a 
profecution again fl the mother 
might be commenced. 

In confequence of this letter, the 
parifli-ofncers applied to Sir John 
Fielding, at whofe houfe they were 
met by Rooker and the daughter, 




and proper perfons were fent to The mother, in her defence, a!- 

bring the mother and her appren- ledged, that the deceafed was fickly, 

tices before tliejuftice. The mother and was therefore kept apart from 

was foon brought, with Dowley and the reft ; that fhe had a fit, from 

Hinchman, two of the girls who which fhe was recovered bv hartf- 

lived with her when the murder horn drops, and that foon after (he 

was committed : the daughter's ex- ran away. The daughter ^ave a 

amination was taken, which con- long and circumftantial account of 

tained a very full, direil, and clear the whole tranfaction, but imputed 

charge againft the mother, who was all the guilt to the mother. She 

therefore committed toNewPrifon ; 
the girls were fent for further exa- 
mination to the workhoufe of St. 
George, Hanover-fquare, and the 
daughter was difmiffed : but the 

faid, that the night before the child 
died, fhe intreated her mother to 
fend her fome vicluals, which fhe 
refufed with many oaths and exe- 
crations : that fhe, the daughter. 

mother and the apprentices being did not tie her, nor know fhe was 
examined a fecond and third time, tied the laft morning ; that fhe 
fome evidence came out which af- generally gave the children viftuals 
fedled the daughter, who was there- by ftealth, for which her mother, 
fore committed to the Gatehoufe when fhe difcovered it, ufed to up- 
on the 5th of July. braid and to beat her ; that after 

Bills of indiftment were foon af- Nanny died, fhe urged the mother 

ter found againft both mother and to have the body buried, which the 

daughter, and the evidence of the mother refufed, calling her fool, 

girls was thought fufficient to con- and faying, T^ai the body, upon 

vift them both. 'uie'-jj, tvouU Jh:--'j that the child had 

On the 1 6th of July they were been Jiawed; that the mother urged 

brought to their trial at the fefTions her to alTift in cutting it to pieces, 

houfe in the Old Bailey, when the which fhe refufed ; and ufed to 

two girls depofed, that the deceafed threaten if ever fhe fpoke of it, 

was tied up and cruelly beaten by that fhe would fwear firft, and be- 

the daughter, and kept without come an evidence againft her ; fhe 

viduals, till fhe died, by the joint alfo denied that fhe ever beat the 

confent of both daughter and mo- children, and declared that fhe had 

ther. Mr. Rooker depofed, that futFered much from the mother's 

the daughter related the circum- cruelty, becaufe fhe would rot be 

ftances of the murder to him as {)\<t 
had related them in her examina- 
tion, and told him, that the muti- 
lated hand was burnt, and the refl 
of the body thrown into the gully- 
hole in Chick-lane, The conftable 

the inftrument of it againft them. 

\{ this, however, had been true, 
the girls, on whofe teftimony fhe 
was convifled, would have had no 
motive to depofe againft her ; they 
neceffarily would have loved her in 

proved that all the corpfe, except proportion as they hated the old 
the hand, was found there; and woman ; and as they could have no 
Rooker alfo depofed, that the chil- intereft in accafing her, neither 
dren who lived with her, when he could they have had any inclina- 
Ijved in her houfe, were ill treated, tion. 



They were, after a long trial, both 
convitiied, and received fentence of 
death ; but even after this there 
continued fo bitter an animofity 
between them, that it was neceffary 
to confine them apart. 

Both denied the charge con- 
ftantly and invariably, but with 
this difference ; the mother de- 
clared the child was not ftarved, 
and the daughter declared the mo- 
ther ftarved her ; fo that though 
the daughter accufed the mo- 
ther, the mother did not accufe 
the daughter. 'I'he daughter alfo 
pleaded pregnancy, but a jury of 
matrons declared Ihe was not preg- 

They were both overwhelmed 
■with a fenfe of their condition, and 
about fix o'clock in the evening 
before the execution, the mother, 
who had neither eaten or drank for 
fome time, fell into convulfions, 
and continued fpeechlefs and in- 
fenfible till her death. The daugh- 
ter, though fhe was prefent when 
this happened, took no notice of 
it, but continued her converfation 
with a friend who was come to 
take leave of her. 

The daughter perfifted to the laft 
in declaring herfelf innocent of all 
but conceaHng the murder, which 
ihe extenuated by faying. She 
thought it was her duty, irhat 
(ould I do, fays (he, jhe ixjas my mo- 
ther ! She alfo foleainly declared, 
t' ^.t fhe had no criminal connexion 
with any man, particularly with 
Mr. Rooker, whom ibe yet always 
mentioned rather as a friend than 
a mailer ; and that though fhe 
pleaded pregnancy, it was only 
done as an expedient to gain a fhort 
refpite, not knowing that a jury 
would determine the facl imme- 

diately. This declaration has been 
confirmed by the telHmony of fome 
perfons who were prefent at the 
diffeftion of her body ; and it is 
fald, that though a little woman, 
fhe was remarkably pretty, and had 
a form extremely delicate and well 

The mother was executed in the 
44th, and the daughter in the 24th 
year of her age. 

Some account cf a remarkable forgery 
committed by John and Jojeph 

JOHNKELLO was 26 years 
old, and Jofeph 24. John came 
over in partnerlhip with a gentle- 
man from Virginia about three 
years ago, as his brother Jofeph 
fwore at his trial ; but it does not 
appear that this partnerlhip pro- 
duced him more than one remittance 
of 300 1. in three years. From his 
coming over to his being appre- 
hended he lived in Blnomfbury j and 
Jofeph was, during the fame time, 
clerk to Mr. Charles More of Al- 
dermanbury, and fwore that for the 
lall year and a half he fupported 
not only himfelf but his brother 
John, though when queftioned by 
John at the trial, it appeared that 
he had received about 30 guineas 
of hi.n to pay his debts. 

Jofeph had before ferved an ap- 
prenticelbip to Mr. John Howell, a 
BlackvvellThall facftor, and during 
that apprenticefhip he became ac- 
quainted with Mr. Jofeph Cotton, 
who was alfo then apprentice to a 
packer, and ufed to be fent by his 
mafter to afiift Kello. 

Mr. Cotton coming into bufi- 
nefs for himfelfj ftill continued his 



acquaintance with Kello, who ufed 
to be continually backwards and 
forwards at his houfe in Alderman- 
bury, where Kello alfo lived. 

Mr. Cotton, at this time, did a 
good deal of bufinefs for Mr. Par- 
tridge in the preffing and packing 
way, was converfant in his other 
branches of bufinefs, and greatly 
trailed by him ; fo that Kello had 
great opportunities of becoming 
acquainted with Mr. Partridge's 
affairs, but did not know him per- 

The two brothers being neceffi- 
tous, conceived a defign of obtain- 
ing money by forgery above a year 
ago, but could not determine in 
whofe name to pra£life the fraud. 
Jofeph's acquaintance with Mr. 
Partridge's affairs, by Mr. Cot- 
ton's means, at length determined 
them to praflife it on him. 

With this view Jofeph took an 
opportunity to take a draft of Mr. 
Partridge's from a file in his count- 
ing-houfe, and from this draught 
he forged another, in the follow- 
ing words ; 

To Mef. Amjand, Staples , and Mercer. 
Auguji 28, 1763. 
Pay to Bearer a thou/and Pounds. 
£, 1000. f'P^. Partridge. 

He had before forged feveral 
others, all for a thoufand pounds, 
but the refemblance was not 
thought fo great as in this. 

The 28th of Auguft, the day of 
the date of the note, was Saturday, 
and Jofeph Kello had learnt of Mr. 
Cotton, that Mr. Partridge would, 
on that day, go to Harlow, and in 
his way dine at Woodford. He and 
bis brother John, therefore, deter- 
mining that this was an opportunity 
not to be loil, went together to the 
Red-lion alehoufe in Moor-fields, 
where John Kello wrote the follow- 


ing letter in Mr. Partridge's name 
to Mr. Cotton : 

Woodford, Aug. 28, 1 762. 
Mr. Cotton, 

Recei-ve the inclofed draught your- 
/elf in bank, and carry it direSily 
under co^oer, direSied for Mr. Rous, 
to be left at the bar of Sam*s coffee^ 
houfe ; lea-ve the bill ixiith the banker: 
f>Quld not this come time enough this 
e^jening, be fure carry it early, cs 
abo-ue, on Monday ; Lut don^t fail this 
e'vening, if poffible, Tour's 

Wm. Partridgem 

When the body of the letter was 
written by John, who, it fhould 
feem, had, by fome means, learnt 
alfo to imitate Mr. Partridge's 
hand, Jofeph counterfeited the 
name to it, and dated it ; they then 
inclofed in it the draught for 
icool. and, to give it colour, a 
forged bill of exchange for 350 L 
fuppofed to be from a clothier, in 
favour of Mr. Partridge. 

The letter, with the draft and 
bill, were then put into a cover, 
which they directed to Mr. Cotton, 
at Mr. Elliot's, in Aldermanbury j 
and as they could procure no wax 
at the alehoufe, they went to a 
ftationer's in Whitechapel, where 
they bought a ftick, and where they 
alfo borrowed the ufe of afeal, and 
fealed up their packet. 

It was now about five o'clock, 
and the bufinefs being thus far dif- 
patched, Jofeph Kello went imme- 
diately to Mr. Cotton, whom he 
found at his warehoufe, contiguous 
to Mr. Partridge's houfe; and foon 
after his brother John, with whom 
he had left the letter, fent it from 
the Change by a porter, as direfted. 

When Cotton received the letter, 
Jofeph Kello was with him : he 
aiked the porter whence he brought 
it, whoanfwered,from a gentleman 


r4o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1752. 

\vho gave it him in the ftreet, and 
that it required no anfwer. 

When he had read the letter, and 
examined the draught and bill it 
contained, having no fufpicion of 
forgery, as the fimilitude was very 
great, he immediately fet about 
obeying Mr. Partridge's orders. It 
was now about near the time when 
bankers fhut up their fhops ; for 
expedition's fake, therefore, Kello 
direfted a blank cover to Mr. Rous, 
with which Cotton ran to Mr. 
Amyand's, taking with him the 
draft and bill: he happened to find 
Mr. Mercer, one of the partners, 
who expreffed fome furprife at his 
coming fo late, but however gave 
liim a bank-note of loool. in ex- 
change for the draft. 

This bank-note he inclofed In 
the cover dircded by Jofeph Kello, 
and borrowing a wafer in the fhop, 
feaied it, and went himfelf with it 
to Sam's coftee-houfe, in Exchange- 
alley, being well acquainted with a 
gentleman whofe name was Rous, 
who lived at Hackney, and for 
fe'hom he fuppofed the bank-note 
was intended by Mr. Partridge. 

He sfked for the niaficr or rnif- 
trefs of the houfe, but both were 
abroad ; he then left the cover, with 
the note feaied up in it, at the bar, 
but did not leave the houfe. 

Having waited there three hours, 
and nobody coming for the letter, 
he took it back from the waiter, 
and left a paper inlkad of it at the 
bar, on which he w.'ote. The letter 
for Mr. Rous Is at J. Ccttoii's, JU 
dermanhury : he then went home, 
where he found Jofeph Kello ftill 
waiting, for he would not venture 
to call or fend for the letter till he 
knew Cotton was returned from 
the coffee- houfe. 

Kello aiked him if he had left 

the letter ; and he faid. No, he wa^ 
afraid. Kello then went to his bro- 
ther, who was waiting to know how 
matters went on, at Seymour's cof- 
fee. houfe, in Pope's-head alley. It 
was there agreed that John fhould 
fend a verbal melTage by a chair- 
man to Cotton, from the Antigal- 
lican,defiring him todeliver to him 
the letter that was to have been 
left at Sam's for Mr. Rous. 

Kello then hailed back again to 
Cotton, and foon after the chairman 
came for the letter. 

Mr. Cotton faid he would go 
along with him, and fee the gentle- 
man to whom, the letter was to be 
delivered ; he did fo ; and the mif- 
trefs of the houfe told him the gen- 
tleman was gone, but would re- 
turn in ten minutes ; for John Kel- 
lo had the precaution not to ftay 
in the houfe, but to watch the por- 
ter's return, and fee whether he 
came alone. 

Cotton then fat down, waiting- 
the return of the gentleman ; and 
having ftaid till near 12 o'clock, 
returned again back with the letter 
and note, leaving a billet at the 
cofFee-houfe, purporting, that the 
letter Ihould be delivered the next 
morning at Mr. Rous's at Hack- 
ney, by ip o'clock. 

Ac his return, he found Jofeph 
Kello Hill waiting, who afked, if 
he had left the parcel : he faid No. 
Why,faysKello, Mr. Partridge will 
be very angry ; you don't know the 
confequenceof not leaving it. Cot- 
ton, however, ftill continued firm 
in his intention of carrying it him- 
felf to Hackney in tlie morning, 
and immediately wrote a letter to 
Mr. Partridge, telling him what he 
had done, and what he intended to 
do ; with which he and Kello both 
weat to the Poft-oflice ; and it be- 



ing paft twelve, Cotton gave fix- 
pence to have it received. 

Jof. Kello lay with Cotton that 
night ; and in the morning he got 
up before fix, and went to his bro- 
ther John, and acquainted him 
with what had happened, and with 
Cotton's intention of carrying the 
note to Hackney. 

It was then agreed that another 
letter Ihould be written to Mr, 
Cotton as from Mr. Partridge, to 
acquaint him that he had learnt by 
cxprefs, that he (Cotton) had not 
afled agreeable to the diredion in 
the firft letter, and deiiring that he 
would leave the note at Sam's 
without delay. 

Jofeph Kello leaving his brother 
to write and fend the letter, re- 
turned to Cotton, whom he found 
fetting out for Hackney, and fet 
out with him, in order, if pofTible, 
to find fome means of delay. Mr. 
Cotton had propofed to call at the 
Sun at London Wall, and while 
they were drinking a pot of beer, 
Kello pretended to have forgottten 
his handkerchief, and made an ex- 
cufe to go back and fetch it. In 
Aldermanbury he was told by Mr. 
Partridge's porter, that there was a 
letter left for Mr. Cotton, and he 
directed the porter to carry it to 
London Wall, where Cotton Ilill 
was, to whom he might deliver 

This flratagem produced the de- 
fired efFea. Mr. Cotton, upon 
reading the contents, carried the 
letter with the bank note in it to 
the cofFee-houfe, and returned to 
Aldermanburyi to Kello, fhewing 
him the letter he had received, and 
telling him what he had done. 

As the body of the letter was 
written by John, and the name by 
Jofeph, Jofeph took care to dellroy 

it, and after dining with Mr. Cot- 
ton, he went and acquainted John, 
that the note was left at the coffee- 
houfe, and that he might now re- 
ceive it. This he prefently did, and 
then both went into the fields by 
Sadler's-wells, where they opened 
the letter, and found the note. 
About fix they agreed to meet ac 
John's lodgings, at the crown cof- 
fee- houfe, Peter-fir eet,Bloomfbur) , 
and there they talked of different 
ways of getting it exchanged. At 
length it was concluded that the 
prifoner (hould go to Briftol as the 
mofc eligibk place, but, having no 
money, Jofeph borrowed ten gui- 
neas of a relation, and on Tuefday 
morning the prifoner fet out in a 
poft-chaife for Briftol. 

On Friday, Sept. 3, Mr. Clu- 
verwell, the landlord of the King's 
Head, at Bridgewater, applied to 
Mr. Baker, clerk to the general re- 
ceiver for the county of Somerfet, 
for money for loool. bank-note, 
and Mr. Baker told out 888 gui- 
neas, and 2s. which, together with 
three fmall notes, one of 30I. one 
of 25 1. and one of lol. made the 
fum of 997 1. 10s. and 5s. per hun- 
dred, to wit, 2 1, 10 s, for exchange, 
completed the whole fum of a 
loool. Mr. Culverwell examined 
the cafh, and the prifoner appeared 
as the owner of the note, and re- 
ceived the money as it was retold. 
Mr. Baker aflced the prifoner his 
name, that he might enter it in his 
book; andhe faid, John Hyndman, 

The prifoner having now fuc- 
ceeded to hiswifh, infi;ead of endea- 
vouring to make his efcape, as he 
probably might have done from 
Briftol, returned to Weftminfter, to 
the houfe where one PhcebeLalkard 
lives, in Wood - ftreet. To this 
woman he gave both th« money 


l4i] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762; 

and the bills : the money, fealed up 
in a bag, he pretended to be half- 
pence to the amount of about 5 I. 
and the bills, he faid, were foreign 
bills, of no ufe to any body but 
himfelf: the bills (he afterwards 
delivered to a porter that was fent 
for them, and the money was care- 
lefsly laid about, at one time on 
the dreffer, and at another time 
in the window, till at length Sir 
John Fielding, having got fome 
information where the prifoner 
might be found, caufed him to be 

The conftabie who found him, 
found alfo the money in the bag ; 
and when he was examined, the 
bills were found upon him. The 
particulars here related were all 
authentically proved upon his trial; 
and when he was called upon to 
make his defence, he endeavoured 
to throw the whole blame upon the 
brother, and appealed to the court 
which had the appearance of moll 
guilt. The mailer of the colfee- 
houfe where he lived, gave him the 
charafter of an extreme fober man, 
but the jury paid no regard to his 
former charadler, but brought in 
their verdidt, Guilty, death. 

Hewasfoon afterwards executed 
at Tyburn, purfuant to his fen- 
tence. He behaved, during his con- 
finemenf, with great obdinacy and 
indecorum, making little account 
of religion, and the comforts of a 
chrillian faith. He faid, hehadfcvie 
particular opinions of his onvn, that he 
Jhohld ncucr quit in this lifCy nor 
after it. He is laid to have been the 
fon of a merchant in Houndfditch, 
who gave him a liberal education, 
and left him about 3ool.v/ith Vt-hich 
he e(] nipped hinjfclf for ^' irginia, 
and having reiided tltere foms time. 

returned to London, and carried o» 
a kind of commercial correfpon- 
dence with fome perfons there, that 
produced but little profit : and 
having rather a turn for pleafure 
than bufinefs, his friends had long 
expeifled fome unlucky iffue to his 
affairs, tho' not fo fatal as to affeft 
his life. He was about 26 years of 
age, and, in many refpeds, what 
is commonly called a clever fel- 

A fummary account of the proceedings 
in regard to fome f range noifes, 
heard the beginning of the year at 
a houfe in Cock-lane, Wefl Smith- 

MR. P — , the officiating clerk 
of St. Sepulchre's, obferving 
one morning at early prayers a gen- 
teel couple llanding in the aifle, or- 
dered them into a pew ; and, being 
afterwards thanked for his civility 
by the gentleman, was afked if he 
could inform him of a lodging in 

the neighbourhood : P offered 

his own houfe, which was accepted 
of. Some time after, in the abfence 
of the oentleman, who was in the 
country, Mr. Parfons's daughter, 
a child of 1 1 years of age, being 
taken by Mifs Fanny (the name the 
gentlewoman went by) to her bed, 
Mifs Fanny complained one morn- 
ing to the family, of both having 
been greatly dillurbed by violent 

■oifes. Mrs. P , at a lofs to 

account for this, bethought herfelf 
of a neighbouring induftrious fhoe- 
maker, whom they concluded to 
be the caufe of this dilturbance. 
Soon after, on a Sunday night, 
Mifs Fanny, getting out of bed, 




called out to Mrs. P , '' Pray, 

does your flioemaker work fo hard 
on Sunday nights too?" to which 
being anfwered in the negative, 

Mrs. P , &c. were deiired to 

come into the chamber, and be 
themfelves witneffes to the truth of 
the afTertion. At this time feveral 
perfons were invited to affilt, and 
among the rell the late reverend 
Mr. Linden, but he excufed him- 
felf ; and the gentleman and lady 
removing into the neighbourhood 
of Clerkenwell (where fiie foon 
after died) the noife difcontinued 

at the houje of P , from the 

time of their leaving it to the firft of 
January, 1762, or thereabouts, the 
fpace of above a year and a half ; 
and then began this fecond vifua- 
tion, as, for diftinftion's fake, we 
may venture to call it. 

In thisvifitation, then, the child, 
upon certain knockingsandfcratch- 
ings, which feeraed to proceed from 
beneath her bedftead, was fome- 
times thrown into violent fits and 
agitations, and a woman attendant, 

orthe father, Mr. ,putque{lion3 

to the fpirit or ghoft, as it was fup- 
pofed by the credolous to be, and 
they had alfo diftated how many 
knocks fliould ferve for an anfwer, 
either in the affirmative ornegative ; 
and though thefe fcratchings and 
knockings difturbed Fanny before 
her death, it was now fuppofed to 
be her fpirit, which thus harraffed 
the poor family. In this manner 
of converfe fhe charged one Mr. 
• ■ •> whofe firft wife was her fifter, 
and with whom fhe afterwards lived 
in fornication, with having poifoned 
her, by putting arfenick in purl, 
and adminiflering it to her, when 
ill of the fmall-pox. Numbers of 
perfons, of fortune and charaflsr. 

and feveral clergymen, affirtedatths 
vagaries of the invifible knocker 
and fcratcher, and though no dT- 
covery could be made, by the feve- 
ral removals of the girl to other 
houfes, where thenoifes ftill follow- 
ed her, (the fuppofed ghoft proteft- 
ing fhe would follow her wherever 
fhe went) though wainfcotsand floor- 
ings were torn away to facilitate 
a detedlion of any impofture, to no 
purpofe ; yet the rational part of the 
town could notbe broughttobelieve, 
but that there was fome fraud ir» 
the affair, confidering the known fa- 
culty many people, called Fer.ti-ilo- 
qui, have had of uttering ftrange 
noifes, and making them appear to 
come from any place they thought 
proper, without any vifible motioa 
of their lips ; and this fufpicion was 
confirmed by the attefiations of 
the clergymen, and fome gentle- 
men of the faculty, who vifited the 
deceafed in her illnefs, and of fome 
other perfons of unqueftionable 
credit ; and the guilt of the impof- 
ture in fome meafure, fixed upon, 
the parents, and their friends, by 
fome fatfls contained in the follow- 
ing advertifement : 

To the public. We, whofa 

names are underwritten, thought it 
proper, upon the approbation of the 
lord-mayor, received on Sa:urday 
lafl in the afternoon, to fee Mr. 

P yell:erday, and to afk him in 

refpecl of the time when his child 
fhould be brought to Clerkenwell. 
He replied in thefe words : " That 
he confented to the examination 
propofed, provided that fome per- 
ions connedled with the girl might 
be permitted to be there to di- 
vert her in the day-time," Thi» 
was refufed, being contrary to the 
plan. He then mentioned a wo- 
z man. 

144] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

man, whom he affirmed to be un- 
conneiledf and not to have been nvith 
her. Upon being fent for, fhe 
came, and was a peribn well Icnovvn 
by us to have been coiifioMly n.vith 
her, and <very intimate njoith the fa- 
miliar , as (he is called. Upon this 

he, Mr, P , recommended an 

unexceptionableperfon, the daugh- 
ter of a relation, who was a gen- 
tleman of fortune. After an in- 
quiry into her charadler, he in- 
formed us, that this unexceptiona- 
ble perfon h. id difobliged her father , 
and <zvas cut at fervice. Upon this 
we anfwered, *' Mr. P — , if you 
can procure any perfon or perfons, 
of ftridl character and reputation, 
who are houfc-keepers, fuch will 
be with pleafure admitted." Upon 
this he required a little time to feek 
for fuch a perfon. Inftead of 
coming, as he promifed and we ex- 
pecled, one William Lloyd came 
by his direction , and faid as fol- 
lows : 

** Mr. Parfons chufes firft to 
confalt with his friends, who are 
at prefent not in the way, before 
he gives a poiitive anfwer c©HC&m- 
ing the removal of his daughter 
to the Rev. Mr. Aldrich*s." 

Signed, Will. Lloyd, 
Brook-flreet, Holborn. 

Within three hours after, we re- 
ceived anoiher melfage from Mr. 
Parfons by the fame hand, to wit : 

*' If the lord-mayor will give his 
approbation, the child fhall be re- 
moved to the Rev. Mr. Aldrich's." 

The plan before-mentioned was 
thus fet forth in the public pa- 
pers : The girl was to be brought 
to the houfe of the faid clergyman, 
without any perfon whatever that 
had, or was fuppofed to have, the 
leafl conuewlion wich her. The fa- 

ther was to be there; not fuffered 
to be in the room, but in a parlour 
where there could be no fort of 
communication, attended with a 
proper perfon. A bed, without 
any furniture, was to be fet in the 
middle of a large room, and the 
chairs to be placed round it. The 
perfons to be prefent were fome of 
the clergy, a phyfician, furgeon, 
apothecary, and a juftice of the 
peace. The child was to be un- 
dreffed, examined, and put to bed 
by a lady of character and fortune. 
Gentlemen of eftablifhed charadler, 
both of clergy and laity (amongft 
whom was a noble lord, who de« 
fired to attend) were to have been 
prefent at the examination. We 
have done, and ftill are ready to do 
every thing in our power to detedl 
an impofture, if any, of the moft; 
unhappy tendency, both to the 
public and individuals. 

Ste. Aldrich, 
Reaor of St. John's, Clerkenwell, 

J A M E S P E N N , 

Lecturer of St. Ann's, Alderfgate* 
In purfuance of the above plan, 
many gentlemen, eminent for their 
rank and charailer, by the invita- 
tion of the Rev. Mr. Aldrich, of 
Clerkenwell, afTembled at his houfe 
the 31ft of January, and next day 
appeared the following account of 
what palled on the occafion : 

*' About ten at night the gentle- 
men met in the chamber, in which 
the girl, fuppofed to be difturbed 
by a fpirit, had, with proper cau- 
tion, been put to bed by feveral 
ladies. They fat rather more than 
an hour, and hearing nothing, went 
down flairs, where they interro- 
gated the father of the girl, who 
denied, in the llrongeft terms, any 
knowledge or belief of fraud. 


C H R O N I C L E. 


As the fuppofed fpirit had before 
publicly promifed, by an affirma- 
tive knock, that it would attend one 
of the gentlemen into the vault, un- 
derthe church of St. John, Clerken- 
well, where the body is depofited, 
and give a token of her prefence 
there by a knock upon her coffin; 
it was therefore determined to make 
this trial ot the exiftence or veracity 
of the fuppofed fpirit. 

While they were inquiring and 
deliberating, they were fummoned 
into the girl's chamber by fome la- 
dies, who were near her bed, and 
who had heard knocks andfcratches. 
When the gentlemen entered, the 
girl declared that ihe felt the fpirit 
like a moufe upon her back, and 
was required to hold her hands out 
of bed ; from that time, though the 
fpirit was very folemnly required to 
inanifeft its exiftence by appearance, 
by impreffion on the hand or body 
of anyprefent, by fcratches, knocks, 
or any agency, no evidence of any 
preternatural power was exhibited. 
The fpirit was then ferioufly ad- 
vertifed, that the perfoQ to whom 
the promife was made of ftriking 
the coffin, was then about to vifit 
the vault, and that the performance 
of the promife was then claimed. 
The company, at one, went into the 
church, and the gentleman, to whom 
the promife was made, went, with 
one more, into the vault: the fpi- 
rit was folemnly required to per- 
form its promiie; but nothing more 
than filence enfued. The perfon 
fuppofed to be accufed by the ghoft 
then went down, with feveral 
others, but no effefl was perceived. 
Upon their return they examined 
the girl, but could draw no con- 
feffion from her. Between two 
and three (he defired, and was per- 
VoL. V. 

mitted, to go home with her fa- 

It is therefore the opinion of the 
whole aflembly, that the child has 
fome art of making, or counter- 
feiting, particular noifes, and that 
there is no agency of any higher 

To elude the force of this con- 
clufion, it was given out that th© 
coffin, in which the body of the 
fuppofed ghoft had been depofited. 
or at leaft the body itfelf, had been 
difplaced, or removed out of the 
vault. Mr. K — therefore thought 
proper to take with him to the 
vault the undertaker, who buried 
Mifs F , and fuch other unpre- 

judiced perfons, as on infpedlion 
might be able to prove the weak- 
nefs cf fuch a fuggeftion. 

Accordingly, on February 25, in 
the afternoon, Mr. K — , with a 
clergyman, the undertaker, clerk, 
and fexton of the parifti, and two 
or three gentlemen, went into the 
vault; when the undertaker prefent- 
ly knew the coffin, which was taken 
from under the others, and eafily 
feen to be the fame, as there was no 
plate or infcription ; and, to facisfy 
further, the coffin being opened be- 
fore Mr. K—- — , the body was 
found in it. 

Others, in the mean time, were 
taking other fteps to find out where 
the fraud, if any, lay. The girl 
was removed from houfe to houfe, 
and was faid to be conftantly at- 
tended with the ufual noifes, though 
bound and muffled hand and foot; 
and that without any motion in her 
lips, and when Ihe appeared afleep. 
Nay, they were often faid to be 
heard in rooms at a confiderable 
diftance from that were ftie lay. 



146] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

At laft her bed was tied up, in 
the manner of a hammock, about 
a yard ard a half from the ground, 
and her hands and feet extended as 
wide as they could without injury, 
and faftened with fillets for two 
nights fucceffivcly, during which no 
noifes were heard. 

The next day, being prcITed to 
confefs, and being told, that if the 
knockings and fcratchings were not 
heard anymorp, fhe, her father, and 
mother, would be fent to Newgate ; 
and half an hour being given her 
to confider, Ihe defired fhe might 
be put to be', to try if the noifes 
would come: fhe lay in bed this 
night much longer than ufual ; but 
no noifes. This was on a Satur- 

Sunday, being told that the ap- 
proaching night only would be al- 
lowed for a trial, fhe concealed a 
board, about four inches broad, and 
lix long, under her ftays. This 
board was ufed to fet the kettle 
upon. Having got into bed, flie 
told the gentlemen (he would bring 
F — —at fix the next morning. >• 
The mafler of the houfe, how- 
ever, and a friend of his, being in- 
formed by the maids, that the girl 
Jiad taken a board to bed with her, 
impatiently waited for the appoint- 
ed hour, when flie began to knock 
and fcratch upon the board ; re- 
marking, however, what they them- 
felves were convinced of, that 
** thefe noifes were not like thofe 
which ufed to be made." She was 
then told, that (he had taken a board 
to bed; and, on her denying it, fhe 
was fearched, and caught in a lye. 
The two gentlemen, who, with 
the maids, were the only perfons 
prefent at this fcene, fent to a third 
gentleman, to acquaint him that 

the whole affair was detefted, and 
todefire his immediate attendance; 
but ae brought another along with 

Their concurrent opinion was, that 
the child had been frightened into 
this attempt, by the threats which 
had been made the two preceding 
nights ; and the mafter of the houfe 
alfo, and his friend, both declared, 
" That the noifes the girl had made 
that morning, had not the lead 
likenefs to the former noifes." 
Probably the organs, with which 
(he performed thefe ftrange noifes, 
were not always in a proper tone for 
that purpofe, and ll'.e imagined fhe 
might be able to fupply the place 
of them by a piece of board. 

At length Mr. K — thought pro- 
per to vindicate his charafter in 
a legal way. On the lothof July, 
the father and mother of the child, 
one Mary Frazer, who, it feems, 
aded as an interpreter between the 
ghoft and thofe who examined her, 
aclergyman, and a reputable tradef- 
man, were tried at Guildhall, be- 
fore lord Mansfield, by a fpecial 
jury, and convidled of a confpiracy 
a?ainfl the life and charafler of Mr, 

K . 

But the court, chufing that Mr. 

K , who had been fo much in- 

juredon thisoccafion, fhouldreceive 
feme reparation by the puniflimcnt 
of the offenders, deferred giving 
feutence for feven or eight months, 
in hopes the parties might make ic 
up in the mean time. Accordingly 
theclergyman and tradefman agreed 
to pay Mr K— a round fum, fome 
fay between 5 and 60c 1. to pur- 
chafe their pardon, and were there- 
upon difmifled, with a fevere re- 
primand. The father was ordered to 
be fet ia the pillory three times in 




One month, once at the end of 
Cock-lane, and after that to be im- 
prifoned two years ; Elizabeth his 
wife, one year ; and Mary Frazer, 
lix months in Bridewell, and to be 
there kept to hard labour. 

The father appearing to be out 
of his mind at the time he was £rft 
to ftand in the pillory, the execution 
of that part of his fentence was de- 
ferred to another day, when, as well 
as on the other days of his llanding 
there, the populace took fo much 
compalTion of him, that infiead of 
ufing him ill, they made a hand- 
fome colleflion for him. 

State of the Land carriage Fijhery 
in London, to the eJi4 of September 
1762 ; fiibmitted to the public by 
the fuperintendant . 

THE fuperintendant of the 
land-carriage fi(h plan, in 
order that all ranks of people might 
reap the benefit thereof, did, at the 
commencementofthis undertakini:, 
direct certain prices for the feveral 
kinds and fizes of fifh to be publicly 
fixed, at as moderate rates as the 
nature thereof admitted ; at which 
they continued till four o'clock in 
the afternoon, and from that hour 
till feven they were reduced one- 
third, in.order that families cf mid- 
dling rank might partake of this 
defirable food, as well as the great 
and opulent, and at lefier prices;, 
and what, remained after the laft- 
mentioned hour, were further re- 
duced to half price, for the benefit 
of perfons of lower degree; and 
moreover, any furplus quantity left 
at the (hutting up the places of fale 
at night (as has often been the cafe) 
were direded to be fprinkled with 
fait, and expofed to fale the next 

monning, at two-thirds lefs than 
the firlt price the day before, for 
the benefit of poor families : and 
if not fold by twelve at noon the 
fecond day, were then given to ths 
prifons and workhoufes, fo that no 
part thereof might be wafted. 

Thefe methods have been hitherto 
continued; but the iuperintendant 
has found that this proceeding, 
which was calculated for general 
benelit, has been perverted to very 
oppcfite purpofes, and greatly to the 
difad vantage of this undertaking; 
feveral dealers in filh having made it 
their practice (efpecially fince the 
weather has been fo cool for the fifh 
to keep good till thenext,orfucceed* 
ingdav) to wait for the hour of half* 
price, and then to purchafethefilh; 
which he is informed they fell ia 
their {hops the next day, at the 
fame (and often at a lefs) price, 
than that affixed in the morning at 
the land-carriage places of fale for 
iifh newly arrived ; and by this 
means have had an opportunity of 
underfelling this plan with its own 
lin-i; or, in cafe no fiih arrived by 
land-carriage, to get extraordinary 
prices for the fame ; befides leavinor 
a door open to.ipipoficions of an- 
other kind. .-• ' 

For thefe reafojs, the fuperin- 
tendant finds himfelf neceffitated to 
make an alteration in his meafures, 
and to direct that, no tilh be fold at 
reduced price on the day of their 
arrival ; and thinks it proper to 
give this" notice to the public, left 
it fhould be imagined that fuch an 
alteration of meafures proceeds from 
lucrative views, which is not the 
cafe, as the fiih, which remains after 
the fale of the firft day is over, will 
be fold the next day at proper 
prices, according to the Hate and 
condition thereof; and care will be 

[I] 2 taken 

148] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

taken todlftribute what remains un- 
fold, while it is wholeforae and fit 
for ufe; and which, he can with 
confidence allure the public, has 
hitherto been done; fo that out of 
45 tons, or 917 cwt. (the quantity- 
brought from the commencement 
of this undertaking, between the 
l6th of May and the 30th of Sep- 
tember laft, both inclufive) there 
has not been one cwt. loit, and 
that unavoidable. Moreover, he 
may venture to affert, that the 
prices firft affixed in the morning, 
have been at leaft one-third, or ra- 
ther one-half, lefs than thofe for 
which fuch fifh were ufually fold 
before this undertaking was fet on 
foot; not to mention the further 

benefit which has accrued to the 
middle and lower rank of people, 
by the reduced prices, and to the 
poor, by what has been given away» 
amounting together to 931 1, 9s. 
lod. within the above-mentioned 
time, as appears in the monthly 
account annexed. 

The fuperintendant conceiving 
it may be fome fatisfadlion to the 
public, to be acquainted with the 
ftate and progrefs of this undertak- 
ing, has taken this early opportu- 
nity to give an account of the fe- 
veral fpecies of fifh brought in con- 
fequence of this plan, within the 
time above mentioned, with the 
tale and weight of the fame; which 
are as follow : 


1 41 90 















Pair of Soals . 

Mackerel « 

Brill or Pearl - 
Turbots »— 
Thornback — 

Salmon ■ 

Herrings — — 

Pipers and Gurnets 
Crabs ' 

Dories ■ 

Plaife and Dabs 
Prawns - 

Lobfters ■ 


Eels ■ ■ ■ 

Crayfilh — 

Red Mullets 
Flounders, ^c. 








■ 5 






















1 1 




Total 917 I 3 



The Monthly Account whereof Hands as underneath : 


In May — 65 3 20 
In June — 165 o 16 
In July — 248 o 4 
InAuguu— 204 o 14 
In Sept. — 234 o 4 



Charged to 


I. s. d. 

307 6 9 

783 2 8 

1771 16 o 

I 400 8 3 

1695 o 1 

Produce of 


1. s. d. 

281 8 o 

671 o 1 

1545 6 10 

1260 19 8 

1327 9 10 

5957 H 4 5°^^ 4 5 

<j iven 


I. s. d. 

25 18 8 

172 2 7 

226 9 2 

139 8 7 

367 10 10 

931 9 10 

From thlsaccountltappears, that 
the fi(h fcnt to the markets at its firfl: 
charge amounted nearly to 6000 1, 
and if admitted (as it may in juftice 
be) that they were rated, at the 
firll price, one half lefs than what 
they ufed to be fold for, it will fol- 
low that the public have reaped a 
benefit equal to the above-mention- 
ed fum by this undertaking, befides 
a plentiful fupply, and fome variety 
of fiih little known in this metropo- 
lis before; fuch as brills, pipers, 
dories, and red mallet ; and to thefe 
advantages may be added near 
1000 1. more, by what was fold at 

A Jketch of the fiate of the land-carriage fijheryy from the comm:nccmcnt to 
the ^oth of September inclufve, 

Calh advanced by che fociety — — 20C0 o O 

Cafh engaged by the fuperintendant — •'— uco o o 

reduced prices, and given away as 
before mentioned. 

The above having been commu- 
nicated to fome friends of the plan, 
they were of opinion, that the pub- 
lic would be glad to fee fome ftate 
of the general ex'pences, &c. con- 
ceiving many perfons might, thro* 
miftake, conclude that the defici- 
ency of the firil price feht to the 
markets, amoanting to 931 1. 9s. 
lod. was a fum funk in the capital 
granted by the fociety: the fuper- 
intendant, therefore, defirous to 
give all ihefatisfaftion in hispower^ 
hath hereto annexed. 

Ca(h received for fifh — 


4 5 

4 5 

Total — 8526 
_ Cafh paid for nlh bought at the fea- ports, boat- hire and 
hire of horfes for conveying the fame to London-«-3oli- 
citor's bill fof attending the filli-act— Salaries and wages 
• — Fitting up the general receptable, the of£ce, and a place 
of fale in Sc, James's market — Rents — Travelling ex- 
pences for fettling the nlhery at the fea-ports and on the 
roads— Coals, candles, and liationary — Porterage, criers, 
and difperfing hand-bill; — Bafkets i"or the carnages, &c. 
■| — ^Scales, weights, and other utenfils — Advertifing, print- 
ing, and fundry incidental expenccs ; together with cafh 
paid for 23 new machines, and repairs done to the fame — 49 1 8 1 1 3 

Remains 3607 13 z 
[i]3 . ^^ 

150] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

In giving this Hate to the public, 
the fuperintendant chinks it necef- 
iary to take notice, that though 
there appears but 107I. 13s. 2d. 
over and above the capital 0K3500]. 
yet it is to be confidered, that there 
were at the drawing up of" this 
Iketch 23 fifh machines paid for, 
and then in ufe, belides including 
the fundry enpences as above to 
the 30th of September lail ; and 
this appears to him beyond what 
he could have expedted from fuch 
an undertaking in its infancy, and. 
with the many difficulties to be 
encountered. It is moreover to be 
obferved, that the above fiim of 
3607 1. 13 s. 2d. is not to be un- 
derftood as calh in hand, the whole 
being engaged by the fuperinten- 
dant for the purpofes of fupport- 
ing and extending this undertak- 
ing, by opening fome other ports- 

on the fea coaft, for procuring a 
greater variety of f:lh, which the 
town feems to defire and expeft ; 
and to that end he has now in ufe 
54 machines, befidfs 26 made, and 
making, to complete the number 
80 ; with which, and fuch further 
encouragement as the public may 
think proper to give, filh of infe- 
rior forts may be brought for the 
benefit of labouring perfons at mo- 
derate prices ; more efpecially if 
he fhall be affifteJ with a proper 
place of general fale, where dealers 
and hawkers may be fupplied out 
of the quantities that mayoccafion- 
ally be brought, beyond what the 
prefent ellablifhed place of fale can 
Jind vent for, agreeable to his ori- 
ginal plan ; the want of which has 
hitherto been the greateft difadvan- 
tage he has laboured under in the 
profecution of this undertaking. 

j^n Account of the Sums raijed hy the Land-Tax fince 
the Revolution. 

Years. Tax p 

er pound. Produce. 
IS. 500,000 

Brought forwards 
16 4s 


- 45,250,000 




17 to 21 






22 to 26 







28, 29 






95 > 96, 97 






32' 33 
34 to 39 
40 to 49 
50 to 52 




1 ,000,000 
6, 000, coo 

1701 to 12 
13 to 15 




53 1055 
56 to 60 






Carried over 

- - 







SUPPLIES granted by Parliament for 
the Service of t-^e Year 1761, and not 
publiihed in laft Year's Regifter. 

November 27. j^. s> d, 

1. That for the fupport of his majefty's houfhold, 
and of the honour and dignity cf the crown, there be 
granted to his majefty, during his life, fuch a revenue 
as, together with the annuities payable by virtue of 
any adls of parliament, made in the reign of his late 
majefty king George II. (of blefTed memory) out of 
the hereditary civil H'l: revenues, fhall amount to the 
clear yearly Turn of 800,000 1. to commence from the 

deinife of his faid late majefty — — 800000 O O 

2. That the faid revenue, for the fupport of his ma- 1 ■ , . 
jelly's houfliold, and of the honour and dignity of the 

crown, be charged upon, and made payable out of, 
the aggregate fund. 

3. That the feveral revenues, which were payable 
to his faid late majefty, during his life, and had con- 
tinuance to the time of his demife, (other than fuch. 
payments as were charged upon, and ifTuing out of, 
the aggregate fund) be granted and continue', from 
the time of the faid demife, to his prefent majefty, 
during his life ; and the produce of the faid revenues, 
together with the produce of the hereditary revenues, 
which were fettled, or appointed to be, towards the 
fupport of the houlhold of his late majefty, and of 
the honour and dignity of the crown, be, during the 
faid term, carried to, and made part of, the aggregate 

4. That 70000 men be employed for the fea fervice, 
for 1761, including 18355 niarines. 

5. That a fum, not exceeding 4I. per man per 
month, be allowed, for maintaining them for 13 

months, including the ordnance for fea fervice — 3640000 o o 

November 29. .■ 

I. That a number of land forces, including thofe 
111 Germany, and 400S invalids, amounting to 64971 
efredtive men, commiffion and non-commiffion officers 
included, be employed for the fervice of 176 1. 

\_L] 4 2. That, 


152] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

£. s. d, 

2. That, for the charge of the faid number of men, 
for guards and garrifons, and other of his majefty's land 
forces in Great Britain, Gaernfey, and Jerfey, for 

'i']bl, there be granted a fum, not exceeding* — — ^57^9^5 ^O 7 

3. That, for maintaining his majelty's forces and 
garrifons, in the Plantations, Gibraltar, Guadaloupe, 
Africa, and the Eaft Indies ; and for provifions for the 
garrifons in Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Gibraltar, 
Providence, Quebec, Guadaloupe, Senegal, and Goree, 

for 1 76 1 — — — — — 843756 12 9 

4. That, for defraying the charge of three regiments 
of foot, on the Iriih eftablilliment, ferving in North 

America, for 1761 — — — 22179 o o 

5. That, for the pay of the general, and general 
ftaff- officers, and officers of the hofpitals for his ma- 

jefty's land forces, for 1761 — — — 72896 14 2 

6. That, for defraying the charge of the embodied 
militia, of the feveral counties in South Britain, and 
of the fencible men of Argylefliire, and of lord Suther- 
land's battalion of Kighlanders, in North Britain, for 
122 days, from 25 December, 1760, to 25 April, 1761, 

both days inciufive — — — J40358 19 4 

7. That, upon account, for defraying the charge 

of cloaihing for the embodied militia, for 1 76 1 — 56568 15 2 

December 2. 
I. That, for the charge of the office of ordnance 

2712745 12 o 

for land fervice, for 1761 — — — 302267 9 2 

2. That, for defraying the extraordinary expence 
of fervices performed, by the office of ordnance, for 
landfervice, and not provided for by parliament, in 1760 426449 4 9 

December 9. 

728716 13 II 

1. That, for the ordinary of the navy, including 

half-pay to the fea officers, f r 1761 — — • , 258624 7 10 

2. That, for completing the works of the hofpital 

for lick and wounded feamen, at Haflar, near Gofport 7130 O O 

3. That, towards carrying on the works of the hof- 
pital for fjck and wounded f^amen, building near Ply- 
mouth, for 1761 — — — 10000 o o 

4. Th; t, for the charge of tranfport fervice, between 
the lil cf Oftober, 1759, and the 30th of September, 

• Thefi iMordst in Italics, are to he repeated at the end of almofi every 



1760, including the expence of viftualllng his ma- 

lefty's land forces within the faid time ^ — 

5. That, towards paying off and difcha rging the 

debt of the navy 

479035 -9 2 
1000000 o o 

Dt Or inc iidvv ,. J 

6. That, towards the buildings, rebuildings, and 
repairs, of his majefty's Ihips, for 1761 

— 200000 o o 

1954790 7 

December n. — — — 

1 That, to enable his majefty to difcharge the like 
fum, railed in purfuance of an ad made in the laft 
feffion of parliament, and charged upon the firrt aids 

or fupplies, to be granted in this feflion _ - , - lOOOOOC o O 

2 That, to be applied towards the improving 

v/id'ening, and enlarging, the palTage over and through ^^^^^ ^ ^ 

London-bridge ^— ^ 

1015000 o o 

December 15. 
That, to enable his majefty to pay off, and dif- 
charee, fuch Exchequer bills as were made out be- 
fore the nth of December, 1760, by virtue of an ^dl 
pafTed in the l^ft feffion of pailiament, i^titujed An 
aa to enable his Majejiy to ratfe a certain Sum of Money^ 
to'wards paying off and d: f charging the Debt of tbt 
Na-vv bV. and charged upon the firft aids, or fup- 
pliet to b; granted in this feffion - - 1:^3200000 

December 16. " ' 

1 That, for defraying the charge of 39773 men 
of the troops of Hanover, Wolfenbuttle, Saxe-Gotha, 
and count of Buckeburg, together with that of ge- 
neral and ftaff-officers, adually employed againi the 
common enemy, in concert with the king of Pruffia, 
from 2C December, 1760, to 24 December, 1701, 
both inclufive, to be ifTued in advance every two 
months, in like manner as the pay or tne Heffiau 
forces, now in the fervice of Great Britain ; the faid 
body of troops to be muftered by an Englifti com- 
miffary, and the efFeclive ftate thereof to be afcertain- 
ed by the fignature of the commander in chief ot tne^ ^^^ ^^ 

faid forces — ■"■ T^ vr 

2. That, for defraying the charge of 2i2ohorle, 
and 9900 foot, together with the general aad Katt- 
officers, the officers of the hofpital, and others, be- 
lonoinP to the train of artillerv, the troops of the land- 
grave of HelTe-Caffel, in the pay of Great Britain, 
for 365 days, from 25 December, 1760, to 24 De- ^gnj^er 


154] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

£. s, d 
cember, 1761, both days inclufive ; together with 
the fubfidy for the fame time, purfuant to treaty — . 268360 8 8 

3. That, for defraying the charge of an additional 
corps of 1576 horfe, and 8808 foe r, together with 
the general and ftafF-officers, the officers of the hofpi- 
tal, and officers and others belonging to the train of 
artillery, the troops of the landgrave of Hefle- 
Caffe], in the pay of Great Britain, for 365 days, 
from I January, 1761, to 31 December following, 

both days inclufne, purfuant to treaty — — 147071 5 z 

4. That, for defr crying the charge of 1 205 cavalry, 
and 2208 infantry, the tinops of the reigning duke 
of Brunfwick, in the pay of Great Britain, for 365 
days, fiom 25 Deceniber, 1760, to 24 December, 
1761, both days incliulve; together with the fubfidy 

for the faid time, purfuant to treaty — — 5779^ ^o O 

5. Tha*^, to make good a deficiency in the fum, 
voted laft feffion of parliament, for the charge of the 

troops of Brunfwick, to 24 December, 1760 — 2569 16 O 

6. That, for defraying the charge of fiv." batta- 
lions, ferving with his majefty's army in Germany, 
each battalion confifting of one troop of loi men, and 
four companies of foot, of 1 25 men in each company, 
with a corps of artL'ery, for 365 days, f'cm 25 De- 
cember, 1760, to 24 December, 1761, both days 

inclufive — — — — 25504 6 t 

7. That, for defraying the extraordinary expences 
of his majefty's land forces, and o^her fervices, in- 
curred to the :9th of November, .760, and not pro- 
vided for by jarliament — — — 1 1 67903 12 6 

8. That, tpon account, towards defraying the 
charges of foiage, bread, bread-waggons, train of 
artillery, and of provi.4ons, wood, llr;:w, S:c. and 
other extraoriinary f.vpences and contingencies of 
his majefty's combined arnjy, under the command 

of prince Fcrdinai<i «— — , — 1 000000 o o 

December 23, 

3133082 18 1; 

That, toenabie his majefty to make good his en- 
gagements with the king of Pruffia, purfuant to a 
convention becveen his majeily and the king of 
Pruffia, concluied 12 December, 1760 — — 67000 

January 15, 176 1. ■ 

I. That, replace to the finking fund, the like 
fum paid ou of the fame, to make good the deficien- 
cy, on ue^th of July, 1760, of the feveral duties on 



malt, granted by a6l 33 Geo. 11. to anfwer annuities, 
after the rate cf 4I. per cent, charged thereupon — 

2. That, to replace to the finking fund, the like 
fum paid out of the far?, to make good the defi- 
ciency, on the 5th of July, 1760, of the feveral rates 
and duties upon ofHces and oenfionsjand upon houfes, 
and upon windows or iiohts, which were made a 
fund by an aft 31 George 11. for paying annuities, 
at the bank of England, in refpeci of five millions, 
borrowed towards the fupply for 1758 — — 

3. That, to replace to the finking fund, the like 
fum paidoutof the fame, to make good thedeficiercy, 
on the 5th of January, 1760, of the fubfidy of poun- 
dage upon certain goods and merchandizes imported, 
and an additional inland duty on coffee and choco- 
late, to anfwer annuities, after the rate of 3 1. per 
ce/it. charged thereupon, by an aft of 32 Geo. II. 

Jakuary 20. ' 

1. That, to enable his majefty to give a proper 
compenfation to the refpeftive provinces in North. 
America, for the expences incurred by them in the 
levying, cloathing, and pay, of the troops raifed by 
the fame, according ?.s the aftive vigour, and ftrenu- 
ous eiforts, cf their refpeftive provinces lliall be 
thought, by his majefty, to merit 

2. That, upon account, to be paid to the Ealt- 
India compiny, towards enabling them to defray the 
expence of a military force in their fettlements, to be 
maintained by them, in lieu of colonel Adlercron's 
battalion, withdrawn from thence, and now in Ireland 

3. That, upon account of the reduced officers of 
his majeicy's land forces and marines, for 1761 — 

4. That, for allowances to the feveral officers and 
private gentlemen, of the two troops of horfe-guards, 
and regiment of horfe, reduced, and to the fuperan- 
nuated gentlemen of th; four troops of horfe-guards, 
for 1 76 1 — — 

5. That, for paying penfions to the widows of fuch 
reduce! officers and marines, as died upon the efta- 
blifhment of half pay, in Great Britain, and who 
were married to them before the 25th of December, 
1716, for 1761 — — 

6. That, upon account, for out-penfioners of 
Chelfea-hofpifal, for 1761 

7. That, upon account, for fupportirg and main- 
taining the fectkment of Nova Scotia, for 1761 — 


s. d. 

o o 

72011 6 li 

5969 12 8f 

127404 19 8^ 

— 2000CO o o 

20000 o o 

34854 9 2 

— — 2973 19 2 




2 II 

12 9 


156] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

8, That, upon account, for the civil eftabllfhment 
of Georgia, and other incident expences attending 
the fame, from 24 June, 1760, to 24 June, 1761 — 4057 10 o 

January 22. 

292763 14 o 

That, for defraying the extraordinary expences of 
his majelty's land forces, and other fervices incurred, 
from 20 November, 1760, to 24 December follow- 
ing, and not provided for by parliament — 993844 4 4|- 
January 29. ■ ' '■-' - ■ 

1. That, to enable his majefty to pay oiFand dif- 
charge fuch Exchequer-bills, as have been made out 
£nce the i oth of December, 1 760, by virtue of an aft 
of laft feflion, for paying off the navy- debt (before 
sientioned) and charged upon the firft aid's or fup-; 

plies, to be granted in this feflion — — 268000 O 9 

2. That, for defraying the charge of his majefty's 
mints, and the coinage of gold and filver monies, 
and other incident charges of the mints, and thereby 
to encourage the bringing in of gold and filver to be 
coined, a revenue, not exceeding 15000 1. /er a«»# 
be made up, fettled, and fecured, for feven years, 
from I March, 1761, and until the end of the firft 

feffion of parliament then next enfuing -^ — 15000 o o 

February 9. 

283000 o o 

1. That, upon account, towards enabling the go- 
vernors and guardians of the foundling-hofpital, to 
maintain and educate fuch children as were received 
into thefaidhofpital, on or before the 25th of March, 
1760, from 31 December 1760, exclufive, to 31 De- 
cember 1761, inclufive; and that the faid fum be 
jiTued and paid fur the ufe of thefliid hofpital, with- 
out fee or reward, or any deduftion whatfoever — 44^97 10 O 

2. That, to be employed in maintaining and fup 
porting the fort of Annamaboo, and the other Britifh, 

forts and fettlements upon the coaft of Africa — 13000 o o 

57197 10 o 

February 17. • 

That, for difcharging the extraordinary expences, 
not provided for by parliament, of bread, forage, and 
fire-wood, furnifhed by the chancery of war, at Ha- 
nover, in the years 1757 and 1758, to the Heffian 
and Pruffian forces, afting in the army in Germany 336479 14 1 f 



February 18. 

1, That, for the difference between the pay of ma- 
jor-general Anftruther's regiment of foot, on the Bri- 
tilh ertablilhment, and the fum paid by Ireland for 
the faid regiment, from 25 December, 1761, botlx 
days inclufive, being^365 days; and of feveral aug- 
mentations to his majeity's forces, fince the eftimates 
for the year 1761 were prefented to parliament, from 
the refpeftive times of the commencement of their 
eftablifliment, to the 24th of December, 1761, in- 
clufive 22361 II 8 

2. That, in addition to the fum of 140,3581. 19 s. 
4d. already granted, for defraying the charge of the 
embodied militia of the feveral counties in South Bri- 
tain, &c. from 25 December, 1760, to 24 December, 

1 76 1, both days inclufive; being 365 days ■ 298668 9 10 

321030 I 6 

February 19, 
That, upon account, for paying and difcharging 
the debts and wad/et fums, with the neceffary ex- 
pcnces attending the payment of the fame, claimed .; 
and fuftained upon the lands and eftate, waich be- 
came forfeited to the crown, by the attainder of Si- 
mon lord Lovat, or fo much of the faid debts and 
fums, as ihall be remaining unfatisfied, accoiding to 
the feveral decrees in that behalf, refpeflively made 
by the Jords of feiTion, in Scotland, and purfuant toan 
S^ioi T.^ Gto. 11. mKnyjAtd, jin ail for afinexingf &CC. 38553 12 l|- 
February 23. . 

1. That, to make good the deficiency of the grants, 

for the fervice of 1760 89510 12 11 

2. That, upon account, tovvards defraying the 
charge of the pay of the militia of England, when 
unembodied, and of the cloathing of the part of the 
faid militia, now unembodied, for one year, begin- 
ning 25 March, 1761 — — . _—_ 70000 o o 

159510 12 11 

March 7. 

1. That, upon account, to enable his majefty to 
defray any extra'^rdinary expences of the war, incur- 
red, or to beincurrea, fjr the fervice of 1761 ; and to 
take all fuch meafures a? may b.- necefT.'.ry to difap- 
point, or defeat, any enterprlzes or dengns of the 

enemies, and as the exigency of aifairs may requ-re lOOOOOO o 9 

2. That, on account, towards afliiting his majtily 


158] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

£. s. d. 

to grant a reafonable fuccour, in money, to the land- 
grave of Heffe CafTel, purfuant to treaty ■ 120000 o o 

1 120000 

Sum total of the fupplies granted for the fer- 

viceofthe year 1761. 196 161 19 19 9f 

On the 27th of November, 1760, as foon as'thcfe 
refolutions of the committee of fupply were agreed 
to, it was refolved. That the houfe would, next 
morning, refolve itfelf into a committee of the whole 
houfe, to confider of ways and means for raifing the 
fupply granted to his majefty ; and the faid committee 
being thus eftablifhed, it was continued to the 9th of 
March, 1761, in which time it came to the following -■' 

Tefolutions, which were agreed to by the houfe, as 
follow : 

November 29. 

1. A refolution, in the ufual form, for continuing 
a land-tax of 4 s. in the pound, for a year enfuing, 

from 25 March, 1^61 '- — 2037854 19 II 

2. A refolution, in the ufual form, for continuing 
an annual malt- tax of d^.fer bulhel, for a year en- 
fuing, from 24 June, 1761 ■' - 750000 o o 

2787854 19 II 
December iS. Refolved, .... ■. - » 

1. That the fum of 1 2 millions be raifed in manner 
following ; that is to fay. That the fum of 1 1400C00I. 
be raifed by annuities, after the rate of 3 1. per 'cent, 
per annum, transferrable at the Bank of England, and 
redeemable by parliament ; and that every contri- 
butor to the faid 11400000 I. fliall alfo be intitled to 
an annuity of 1 1. 2s. 6 d. for every 100 1. contributed, 
to continue, for a certain term of 99 years, irredeem- 
able, and to be transferrable at the Bank of England; 
the faid annuities of 3 1. per cent, and i 1. 2 s, 6 d. per 
cent, to commence from the 5thday of January, 1761, 
and to be payable half-yearly, on the 5lh day of 
July, and the 5th day of January, in every year ; 
and that the fum of 600C00I. be alfo raifed, by a 
lottery, attendant on the laid annuities, the blanks 
and prizes whereof to be converted into like 3 1. per 
cent, transferrable annuities, at the Bank of England, 
with the above-mentioned 3 /. pc7- cent, annuities to 
be payable in refped of the faid 1 1400000 1. the faid 
lottery annuities to be payable half-yearly, in like 



manner, to commence from the 5t'hof Januarv, 1762 ; 
and that as well the faid 3 per cent, annuities, payable 
in refped of 1 1400000 1. as the annuities, payable in 
refpeftof the faicl 600000I. be added to, and made 
part of, the joint ftock of 4 per cent, annuities confo- 
lidated at the Bank of England; that every fubfcriber 
fhall, on or before the 3d day of January next, make 
a depoiit of 15 1. per cent, on fuch fum as he fhall 
chufe to fizbfcribe towards the faid fum of 12 mil- 
lions, with the cafliiers of the Bank of England, as a 
fecurity for his making the future payments, on or be- 
fore the times herein limited ; that is to fay. 

On the 1 2000000 1. 
£^. \z^ per cent, depoiit, on or before the 3d day of 

January next, on the whole 12 millions. 
^- On the 11400C00I. in annuities. 

j^. 15 per cent, on or before the 28th day of Februa- 
ry next. 
10 per cent, on or before the 14th day of April next. 
10 per cent, on or before the 27th day of May next. 
10 per cent, on or before the 23d day of June next. 
10 per cent, on or before the 31ft day of [uly next. 
10 per cent, on Or before the 28th day of Augufi; 

\o per cent, on or before the 35 th day of September 

\o per cent, on or before the 20th day of Odlober 

On the Lottery for 600000 1. 
£, 25 percent, on or before the 21 il day of March next. 
"^o per cent, on or before the 29th day of April next. 
30 per cent, on or before the 15 th day of July next. 
Which feveral fums, fo received, fliall, by the faid 
cafliiers, be paid into the receipt of his majefty's Ex- 
chequer, to be applied from time to time, to fuch 
fervices, as fhall then have been voted by this houfe, 
in this fe(5on of parliament, and not otherwife ; and 
that every fubfcriber, who fhall pay in the whole of 
his fubfcription to the faid 1 1400000 1. on or before 
the iSchday of September, 1761, fhall be allowed 
a difcount, after the rate of 3 1. per cent, per annum, 
from the day fuch fubfcription fhall be fo completed 
to the 20th day of Odober next; and that all fuch 
perfons, as fhall make their full payments on the faid 
lottery, fhall have their tickets delivered, as foon as 
they can conveniently be made out. 

I. That an additional duty be paid for everybarrel 
•f beer, or ale, above fix {hillings the barrel (exclu- 


i5o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762; 

live of the duties of excife) brewed by the common 
brewer, or any other perfon or perfons, who doth, 
or {hall, fell, or tap out, beer or ale, publicly or 
privately, (to be paid by the common brewer, or by 
fuch other perfon or perfons refpeflively) of three 
ihillings, and fo proportionably for a greater or leiler 

December 20. 

That the annuities which (hall be payable in pur- 
fuance of a refolution of this houfe, of the iSth of 
this in.ftant December, be charged upon the addi- 
tional duties upon beer and ale, mentioned in a refo- 
lution of this houfe of the fame day, for which the 
finking fund fliall be the collateral fecurity — 12000000 o o 

January 22, 1761. ■ — — 

That an aft made 6 Geo II. for encouraging the 
trade of our fugar colonies, is near expiring, and fit 
to be continued. 

February 5. 

1. That, for defraying the charges of his majefty's 
mints, &c. the duties of 10 s. per ton, upon all wines, 
vinegar, cyder, and beer, imported into Great Bri- 
tain, which, by an adl of 27 Geo II. were continued, 
be further continued for feven years, from the ift of 
March, 1761, and until the end of the next feffion 

then next enfuing ■ ■ 15000 o o 

2. That all thepowers, privileges, and advantages, 
which were granted by the a£l 18 Charles II. chap. 
5. and are now in force, relating to the mints, and 
coinage of gold and filver monies, be further conti- 
nued for feven years from the faid day, &c. 

March 3. 
That, forraifing the fum of one million, granted 
to his majefty, towards paying off and discharging 
the debi of the navy, and alio the fum of 500000 I. in 
part of the fupply granted to his majefty for naval {tx- 
vices, the fum of 1 500000 1. be raifed by loans or Ex- 
chequer bills, to be charged upon the firft aids to be 
granted in the next fefilon of parliament; and fuch 
Exchequer bills, if not difcharged, with in tereft there- 
on, on or before the 25th of March, 1762, to be ex- 
changed and received in payment, in fuch manner as 
Exchequer bills have ufually been exchanged and re- 
ceived in payment " 1500000 o o 

March 7. 
That the fum of 88667 1. 10 s. remaining in the 
receipt of the Exchequer, being part of the ium of 
50000 1. granted to his late majefty, in 1759, upon 



account, towards defraying the charge of pay and 
cloaching for the militia, from 31 December, 1758, 
to 25 March, 1760, and for repaying the fum of 
1332 1. 10 s. advanced by his faid majeiliy for the 
fervice of the niilitia, be iiTued and applied towards 
raifing the fupply granted to his majeliy in this 

feffion of parliament — — . 

AIarch 10. 

1. That there be railed, by loans or Exchequer 
bills, to be charged on the firP: aids to be granted in 
the next feFion cf parlianaen:, the fum of 

2. That there be iffued and applied, outcffuch 
monies as fhall or may arife, of the furplufies, ex- 
cefTes, or overplus monies, compofing the finking 
fund, the fum of 



88667 10 o 


1762400 o o 

2762100 o 

And to thefe refolutlons of the committee of ways 
and means, we mull add what was provided for by 
the 2d and 3d refolutionsof the committee of fupplv, 
agreed to November 27th, as before mentioned, viz. 
the fum of 


Sum total of the provifions made by the laft feliion 

of laft parliaoient 19953922 6 11 

Sum total granted. — — ■ ■ ■ 19616119 ig gf 

More provided for than granted 

337802 10 i| 

Slate of the 'whole of the grants made by this parliament during thi feven. 
years of its continuance. 

The firft feluon fat but a very few daysj and no 
money was granted by it. 
By the fecond feluon there was granted ■ 

Ey the third — — 

By the fourth ■■ ■ 

By the fifth ^ . 

By the fixth 

By the feventh 

And by the eighth and laft 

Sum total of the money granted by laft parliament 

Vol. V. 



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q O to 

164] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 
SUPPLIES granted by Parliament for 


the Year 17&2. 

November 21. 

1. That 70,000 men be employed for the fea 
fervice, for 1762, including 19,061 marines. 

2. That a fum, not exceeding 4 L per man, per 
jnonth, be allowed for maintaining them for 13 
months, including the ordnance for fea fervice 

November 26. 

1. That a number of land-forces, including thofe 
in Germany, and on ah expedition, and 4008 inva- 
lids, amounting to 67,676 effeaivc men, commiffion 
and non- commiffion officers included, be employed 
for the fervice of 1762. 

2. That for defraying the charge cf the faid num- 
ber of land forces for 1762, there be granted to his 

X. s. d. 

3640000 o # 

3. That for maintaining his majefty's forces and 
oarrifons in the Plantations, Gibraltar, Guadaloupe, 
Africa, and the EalMndies, and for provifions for 
the garrifcns in Nova Scotia, Nevvfoundland, Gib- 
raltar, Providence, Quebec, Guadaloupe, Senegal, 
and Goree, for 1762 ■ ■ T 

4. That for defraying the charge of four_ regi- 
ments of foot, on the Irifii elUbiilhment, ferving in 
North America, for 1762 — — 

5. That for the charge of the ofiice of ordnance, 
for land fervice, for 1762 • 

6. That for defraying the charge of an augmen- 
tation to his majefty's forces, confilHng of 937o\mea 
from 25 December 1761, to 25 December 1762, 
both inclulive — " " 

7. That for the pay cf the general, and general 
ftafFofiicers, and officers of the hofpitals, for the land 
forces for 1762 ' 

8. That for defraying tlie extraordinary expence 
of fervices performed by the office of ordnance for 
land fervice, and not provided for by parliament in 

1629320 iS a 

873780 i8 7 

23284 o 6 
343754 17 II 

1637 1 1 12 6 
72896 14 a 

299161 4 4 

34059^° ^ * 

* Theft' rjiorJs hi Italics ^■.ri /• he repeated at the end of almofi e'very 

Tffehfion, __ „ ^ 




[1 6s 


1. That for the ordinary of the navy, including 
half pay to fea oincers, for 1762 — •— 

2. That for completing the chapel, for the ufe of 
ti\e hofpital for fick and wounded feamen, at 
Haflar, near Gofpcrt, and fuch other works as may 
be afterwards found proper to be performed before 
the whole work is put out of hand — 

3. That for completing the works of the hof- 
pital for fick and wounded feamen, building near 
Plymouth — — — 

4. That towards the buildings, rebuildings, and 
repairs, of his majelly's (hips, for 1762 

5. Thattowards paying off, and diicharging, the 
iebt of the navy — — — 

December 7. 

1. That for the charge of trlnfport fervlce be- 
tween the firft of Odlober 1760, and the 30th of 
September 1761, including the expence of viilu- 
allingthe land forces within the faid time — 

2. That to enable his majclly to pay off and dif- 
charge the Exchequer bill?, made out by virtue of 
an adt of lall feflion, and charged upon the firil aids, 
or fapplies, to be granted in this fefiion of parlia- 
ment — — — — 

D E C E M E R R 10. 

1. Thnt for defraying the charge of 39,773 men 
of the troops of Hanover, Wolfenbuttle, Saxe- 
Gotha, and the count of Buckeburg, together with 
that of general and ilaff officers, aflually employed 
againll thecommon enemy, in concert with the king 
of Pruffia, from 25 Dec. 1761, to 24 Dec. 1762, 
both inclufive, to be iffued in advance every two 
months, in like manner as the pay of the Heffian 
forces, now in the fervice of Great Britain, the faid 
body of troops to be muftered by an Englifh com- 
miflary, and the effective ftare thereof to be afcer- 
tained by the fignature of the commander in chief 
of the faid forces — — 

2. That for defraying the charge of 2120 horfe, 
and 9900 foot, together with the general and ftaff 
dingers, the officers of the hofpital, and the officers, 

m 3 




6000 o o 

2C000O O 


1479226 9 I 


I c 00000 o o 


— ^ 465^38 i^ -f 




and others, belonging to the train of artillery, the 
troops of the landgrave of HefTe-Cafiel, in the pay 
of Great Britain, f^r 365 days, from 25 Dec. 1761. 
to 24 Dec. 1762, both inclufive, together with the 
fubii'dy for the faid time, purfuant to treaty _ _ - 

^ That for defraying the charge of an additional 
corps of 1576 horfe, and 8808 foot, together with 
the general and ftaff officers, the officers of the hol- 
pital and officers, and others, belonging to the tram 
of artillery, the troops of the landgrave oi Heffe- 
Caffel, in the oay of Great Britain, for 365 days, 
from the firll of January 1762, to the 3 Hi of De- 
cember following, both inclufive, purfuant to treaty 

4. That for defraying the charge of 1444 cavalry, 
and 2330 infantry, the troops of the reigning duke 
of Brunfwick, in the pay of Great Britain, for 365 
days, from 25 December 1761, to 24 December 
1-62, both inclufive, together v^th the fobfidyfor 
the faid time, purfuant to treaties — 7- 

c.Thatfor defraying the charge of fivebattalions, 

ferving with his majelty's army in Germany, each 
battalion confifting of one troop of 10 1 men, and 
four companies of foot of 125 men each, with a 
corps of artillery, for 365 days, from 25 December 

1761, to 24 December 1762, both inclufive 

6. That for defraying the charge of the embodied 
militia, of the feveral counties in South Britain, and 
of the fenfible men in Argylefhire, and of lord 
Sutherland's battalion of Highlanders, in North 
Britain, from 25 December 1 761, to 24 December 

1762, both inclufive, being 365 days — -- 

7. That for defraying the charge of cloathing tor 
the embodied militia, for 1762, upon account 

8. Thattoenablehismajefty todifchargethelike 
fum, raifed in purfuance of an aft of lafl: leffion, and 
charged upon the iirft aids, or fupplies, to be grant- 
ed in this feffion of parliam.ent — — 

9. That towards defraying the charges of forage, 
bread, bread-waggons, train of artillery, and pro- 
vifions of wood, ftraw, &c. and other extraordinary 
©xpences and contingencies of his majefty's army, 
lender the command of prince Ferdinand — 

December 14. 
That for defraying the extraordinary expences of 
iis majefty's land forces, and other fervices incurred. 


268360 8 • 

147071 5 2 

68008 9 I 

25504 6 8 

443952 10 10 

60706 4 1 

1000000 o o 

I 000000 o o 

3479242 o 8| 



r, s. d. 
to 24 November 1761, and not provided for by 
parliament — — — 1353662 4 i 
December 22. • ■■* 

1. That for defraying the charge for allowances to 
the feveral officers, and privategentlemen of the two 
troops of horfe guards, and regiment of horfe re- 
duced, and to the fuperannuated gentlemen of the 

four troops of horfe guards, for 1762 — 2952 13 4 

2. That for the paying of penhcns to the widows 
of fuch reduced officers of his majefty's land forces 
and marines, as died upon the eftablifhment of 
half pay in Great Britain, and who were married to 

them before 25 December 17 16, for 1762 — 1838 o • 

3. That upon account of the reduced officers of 

his majelly's land forces and marines, for 1762 343S3 O o 

4. That, to be applied towards the improving, 
widening, and enlarging the paflage over, and 

through London bridge — — 15000 o o 

- ^ 

54173 13 4 

January 26, 1762. 

1. That to enable his majelly to give a proper 
compenfation to the refpeftive provinces in North- 
America, for the expences incurred by them in the 
levying, cloathing, and paying of the troops, raifed 
by the fame, according as the active vigour and 
ftrenuous efforts of the refpedtive provinces fhall be 

thought by his majefty to merit, upon account ^33333 ^ ^ 

2. That to be paid to the Eaft India company, 
towards enabling them to defray the expence of a 
military force in their fettlements, to be maintained 
by them, in lieu of the battalion commanded by ge- 
neral Adlercron, withdrawn from thence, and now 

returned to Ireland — — — 20000 o o 

3. That for out-penfioners of Chelfea Hofpital, 

for 1762, upon account — — — *3749 ^^ 5 

4. That for maintaining and fupporting the civil 
eftablifhment of Nova Scotia, for 1762, upon ac- 
count — — — 5684 I 10 

5. That for defraying the charge of the civil efta- 
blifhment of Georgia, andotherincldental expences 
attending the fame, from 24 June 1761, to 24 June 

1762, upon account — — 4^57 ^o o 

6. That to be employed in maintaining and fup- 
porting the fort of Annamaboo, and the otner Britilh 

fortj and fettlements upon the coaA of Africa. 13000 o o 

OT4 7. That 

i68] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

^. s. d. 

7. That to replace to the finking fund the like 
fum, paid out; of the fame, to make good the de- 
ficiency on 5 July 1761, of the leveral rates and 
duties upon o/Sces and penfions, and upon houfes, 
and upon windows, or lights, which were made a 
fund, by an acl 3 \ George 11. for paying annuities 
at the Sank, in refpefl of five millions borrowed, 

towards the fuppl/ for 1758 — — 52393 16 9^ 

8. That to replace 10 the finking fund the like 
fum, paid out of the fame, to make good the defi- 
ciency on 1; July 1 761, of feveral duties on malt, 
gran ted by an act 33 George II. to anfwer annuities, 

after the rate of 4I. per cent, charged thereupon 10540 o O 

9. That to replace to the finking fund the like 
fum paid out of the fame, to make good the defi- 
ciency on 5 July 1761, of the additional duty on 
llrong beer and ale, to anfwer and pay the feveral 
annuities of 3 1. percent, and il. zs. 6d. percent. 
en 11,400,000!. part of 12 millions borrowed, to- 
wards the fupply granted by an aft of 1 George III. 
for 1 76 1 — - — — 


January 28. 
That for defraying the extraordinary expences of 
his majefty's land forces, and other fervices incurred, 
from 24 November 1761, to 24 December follow. 
ing, and not provided for by parliament — 

February i. 
That towards enabling the governors and guardians 
ot the Foundling Kofpital, to maintain and educate 
fuch children as were received thereinto, on or be- 
fore 25 March 1760, from 31 December i76i,ex- 
clafive, to 31 December 1762, inclufive : and that 
the faiJ fum be ifTued and paid, for the faid ufe, 
withoutfee or reward, or any dedudion whatfoever 

March 23. 

1. That towards enabling the truftees of the Bri- 
tifh Mufaeum to carry on the execution of the trull 
repofed in them by parliament — — 

2. That to be applisd towards new paving the 
fquares, Itreets, lanes, and alleys, of the city and 
liberty of Weftminfter, the parilTies of St. Mary-Ie- 
bone, St. Giles in the fields, St. George the Martyr, 
St. George Bloomfbury,thatpartof the parilh of St. 
Andrews, Holborn, which lies in the county of Mid- 

35 6664 5 8| 

958384 O !• 

41752 10 o 

2000 O # 



dlefex, the feveral liberties of the Rolls ?.nd S?.voy, 
and that part of the duchy of Lancallev which lies 
in the county of Middlefex — 

March 26. 

1. That towards defraying the charge of the pay 
of the militia of England, when unembodied, and of 
the cloathing of part of the faid militia, novv unem- 
bodied, for one year, beginning 25 March, 1762, 
upon account — — ~ 

2. That towards enabling the commifiloners ap- 
pointed by an aft pafTed 33 George II. for repairing 
and ^Jiidc7iing the roads frcm Deanburn-bridge, through 
Greenlaw, and part of the Jedburg road, by Lauder, 
in Berwicklhire, to Ccrnhill, iv. Durham county, and 
for building a bridge o-uer the Tweed, n£o.r Coidliream, 

to build the faid bridge, and to defray fuch other ex- 
pences as may be found neceffary in relation thereto 

April i. 

1. That towards affifting his majefty to grant a 
reafonable fuccour, in money, to the landgrave of 
Hefle-Cafiel, purfuant to treaty, on account — 

2. That to make good the deHciency of the grants, 
for 1761 — ■— — — 

Mat 13. 

1. That to enable his majefty to defray any extra- 
ordinary expences of the v/ar, incurred, or to be in- 
curred, for the fervice of 1762, and to affift the king- 
dom of Portugal, an ancient and natural ally of his 
majeliy's crown, and to take all fuch meafures, as 
may be neceffary todifappoint and defeat any enter- 
prizes, or defigns of his encxiiies, againfl his majelty, 
or his allies, and as the exigency of affairs may re- 
quire, upon account — — — 

2. That to make good the like fum, iffued, pur- 
fuant to addrefs of this houfe, by his majefty, to Je- 
remiah Dyfon, Efq: towards defraying the expence 
of printing the journals of this houfe, from tr.e be- 
ginning of the 9th parliament, of Great Britain, to 
the end of the lall feffion of parliament, and alfo to- 
wards defraying the expence of making and print- 
ing indexes to the zd, 3d, 4th, 5th, 6th, aud 7th. 


— 5C00 o o 


2C000 o o 

400*5 o o 

24000 o o y 

50000 o o 

112613 5 5i 

162613 5 5^ 

— ICOOOCO o o 


i7o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

volumes, of tlie faid journals, v.hich have been al- 
ready printed — — — 

1500 o o 
looiroo o o 

Sum total of the fupplies granted by this felTion 18299153 18 iif 

From hence we may fee, that if from the fum total 19616119 19 
of the fupplies granted by the lafl preceding feffion, 1470000 O 
we deduft the 8oo,orol. then granted for the fupport 




of the civil lift, and the 670,000!. then granted to 18146119 19 gi 

the king of Pruffia, the fum total of the fupplies 

granted by this feffion, will exceed what was granted 

by the lall in the fum of — — ■ — 153033 '9 ^i 

And as to the provifions made by the fefiion for 
raifing thefe fupplies, I fhall obferve, that as foon as 
the houfe had, on 21 November, agreed to the two 
firft refolutions of the committee of fupply, it was re- 
folved, that the houfe would, on the 22d, refolve it- 
felf into a committee of the whole houfe, to confider 
of ways and means for raifing the fupply granted to 
his majefty ; and the refolutions of this committee, 
as agreed to by the houfe, were as follow : 
November 24. 

I . That, toivards raifing the fupply granted to his 
majefty, a. land- tax of 4s. in the pound, and no more, 
be raifed v/ithin the fpace of one year from, &c. — 

7. That the duties on malt, &c. be further conti- 
■ued for one year, &c. — — — 

2037854 19 IT 

December 15. 
1. That the fum of twelve millions be raifed by 
annuities in manner following ; that is to fay, that 
every contributor to the faid twelve millions fhall, for 
every lool. contributed, be entitled to an annuity 
transferrable at the Bank of England, after the rate 
of 4/^^ cent, fer annian, for nineteen years, and then 
to ft and reduced to 3I. per ceiit. per annum, redeem- 
able by parliam-jnt; and alfo to an annuity, tranf- 
ferrable at the Bank of England, of 1 1. per cent, to 
continue irredeemable for a certain term of 98 years, 
and then to ceafe ; the faid annuities of 4I. per cent* 
and 1 1. percent, to be charged upon the finking fund, 
to commence from, the 5th day of January, 1762, 
and to be payable half yearly on the 5th day of July, 
and en the 5th day of January in eveiyyear; and that 
%he faid /{per ant, annuities ftiall be added to, and 

2787854 19 n 



made, one joint {lock of transferrable 4/er cent, an- 
nuities at the Bank of England, with I'uch other 4 
per cent, annuities transferrable at the Bank of Eng- 
land, as ihall, by any aft of this preient feJion of 
parliament, be charged upon, and made payable out 
of, the finking fund ; and that every fuch contributor 
ihall, for every fum of Sol. per cent, paid in to the 
cafhiers of the Bank of England, upon account of his 
ihare to the faid annuities, after the rate of 4I. per 
c tut. per annum, be entitled to looi. capital in the 
faid ilock of 4I. per cent, annuities ; and for every 
fum of 20 1. paid in like manner, upon account of 
his Ihare of the faid annuities of i I. per cent, fhall be 
intitled to an annuity of 1 1. to continue for a certaia 
term of 98 years, in manner above-mentioned. 

That every contributor ihall, on or before the 23d 
of this inllant December, make a depofit with the 
cafhiers of the Bank of England of 15I. per cent, on 
fuch part of the fum, or fums, to be contributed 
by him towards the faid fum of twelve millions, as 
fhall be payable in refpeil: to his ihare in the faid 4 
per cent, annuities, and alfo a depoiit of 15 1. per cent, 
on fuch part of the fum, or fums, fo to be contribut- 
ed, as fhall be payable in refpeft of his fhare in the 
faid 1 1. per cent, annuities, as a fecurity for his mak- 
ing the future payments refpedlively, on or before 
the times herein after limited ; that is to fay. 

On 9, 600, cool, to be paid in refpeft of the faid 
\per cent, annuities, 

10 per cent, on or before the loth day of Febru- 
ary next. 
10 per cent, on or before the 23d day of March 

10 per cent, on or before the ziftday of April next, 
10 percent, on or before the 26th day of May next. 
lopercent. on or before the 23d day of J une next. 
1^ per cent, on or before the 18th day of Augufl 

lopercent. on or before the I7thday of Septem- 
ber next. 
10 per cent, on or before the 20th day of Oclober 
On 2,400,0001. to be paid in refpedl of the faid 
l\. per cent, annuities, 

25 per cent, on or before the loth day of March 

^n per cent, on or before the 12th day of May next. 
10 per cent, on or before the 2 1 il day of July next. 


172] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

Which fevc-ral fums fo received fhall, by the faid ca- £. s. d> 

fhiers, be paid into the receipt of his majefty'sexche- ' '^ 

quer, to be applied, from time to time, to fuch fer- 
vices as fiial! then have been voted by this houfe, in 
this fefiion of parliament, and not otherwife. 

And that every contributor, who fhall pay in the 
whole of his contribution on account of his fhare in 
the faid ^ per cent, annuities, at any time, on or be- 
fore the i8th day of September next, or on account 
of his Ihare in the faid i percent, annuities, on or be- 
fore the 13 th day of May next, fhall be allowed a dif- 
count after the rate of 3 per cent, per annum on the 
fum fo completing his contribution refpeftively, to 
be computed from the day of completing fuch con- 
tribution, to the 20th day of Oftober next, in re- 
fpedl of the fum paid on account of the faid 4/w 
cent, annuities, and to the 2iil day of July next, in 
refpeft of the fum paid on account of the 1 1. per cent. 
annuities — — — — izoooooo o • 

2. That there fhall b6 paid for every window, or 
light, in every dwelling-houfe inhabited, or to be 
inhabited, within the kingdom of Great-Britain, 
which fliall contain eight or nine windows, or lights, 
and no more, the yearly fum of one fhiliing, for every 
window, or light, in fuch houfe, to commence from 
the fifth day of April, 1762. 

3. That there ftiall be paid for every window, or 
light, in every dwelling-houfe as aforefaid, which 
Ihall contain ten or eleven windows, or lights, and 
no more, the yearly fiim of fix-pence for each win- 
dow, or light, in fuch houfe, over and above all 
duties chargeable thereupon, to commence from the 
lifth day of April, 1762. 

4. That there ihall be paid for every window, or 
light, in every dwelling-houle, as aforefaid, which 
ihall contain twelve, thirteen, or fourteen windows, 
or lights, and no more, the yearly fum of one fhil- 
iing for each window or light, in fuch houfe, over 
and above all duties chargeable thereupon, to com- 
mence from the 5 th day of April, 1762. 

5. That there fhall be paid for every window, or 
light, in every dwelling-houfe as aforefaid, which 
fhall contain fifteen, fixteen, feventeen, eighteen, 
or nineteen windows, or lights, and no more, the 
yearly fum of three pence for each window, or light, 
in fuch houfe, over and above all duties chargeable 
thereupon, to commence from the fifth day of April, 

6. That, 


6. That, towards making good to the finking fund £, s, /. 

the annuities charged thereupon, in refpedt of the 
faid fum of twelve millions, the faid addiiicnal rates 
and duties upon the windows, or lights, be carried 
to, and made part of, the faid fund. 

7, That, towards making good to the finking fund 
the faid annuities charged thereupon, the furplus of 
the monies, which fhail from time to time arife from 
the feveral additional duties laid upon fpirituous li- 
quors, by two afts, one made in the 24th and the 
o'.her in the 33d year of his late majefty's reign, 
after fatiafying all payments charged on the faid du- 
ties, which furplus is referved for the difpofition of 
parliament ; and alfo the farther additional duties 
upon fpirituous liquors granted to his raajelly, in 
this feffion of parliament, be carried to, and made 
part of, the faid fund. 

December 17. 

1. That the 4!. per centum annuities, transferrable 
at the Bank of England, payable in refpedl of the 
principal fum of eight millions, raifed by virtue of an 
aft, made in the 33d year of his late majefty's reign, 
and alfo upon the additional capital of 3 1, added to 
every 100 1. advanced towards the faid fum of eight 
millions, amounting to 24CCC0I. together with the 
charges and expences attending the fame, be, with 
the confent of the proprietors of the faid annuities, 
charged upon, and paid out of, the finking fund ; 
and that fuch perfons, who ftiall not, on or before 
the twenty-fi/ft day of June, 1762, fignify their dif- 
fent in books to be opened, at the Bank of England, 
for that purpofe, fhall be deemed and taken to af- 
fcnt thereto. 

2. That all the monies, that fiiall or may arife, 
from and after the fifth day of January, 1762, of the 
produce of the feveral duties on malt, which by the 
iaid ad of the 33d year of his late majefty's reign, 
v^ere made a fund for payment of the faid four pounds 
per cent, annuities, fhall be carried to, and made part 
of, the finking fund. 

January 26, 1762. 
That, towards paying oiFand difcharging the debt 
of the navy, and alfo the fum of 500000 1, in part of 
the fupply granted to his majefty, for naval fervice, 
there be railed, by loans or Exchequer bills, to be 
charged upon the firft aids to be granted in the next 
feffion of parliament ; and fuch Exchequer bills, if 
not difcharged, with intereft thereon, on or before 25 

3 Marck 

174] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

— ,_ __ irooOOO O O 

— — — 80000 O O 

March 1763, to be exchanged and received in pay- 
ment in fuch manner as Exchequer bills have ufually 
been received in payment 

May 17. 

1. That the fum granted by aft 2 Geo. II. upon 
account of arrears of his late majefty's civil lift reve- 
nues, and nowi ^Y his majefty's direftioti, replaced 
and refunded out of the arrears of the faid revenues, 
which were ftanding out at the time of his late ma- 
jefty's demife, be iffued and applied — 

2. That the fum remaining in the receipt of the 
Exchequer, being part of the fum of loooool. 
granted to his late majefty in 1758, upon account, 
towards defraying the charge of pay and cloathingfor 
the militia for that year, and for defraying fuch ex- 
pences as were aitually incurred upon the account 
of the militia in 1757, be iffued and applied — 

3. That the fum remaining in the receipt of the 
Exchequer, which was granted to his late majefty in 
1760, upon account, towards defraying the charge 
of pay and cloathing for the unembodicd militia, for 
the year ended 25 March, 1759, be iflued and ap- 
plied — — 

4. That the fum remaining in the receipt of the 
Exchequer, which was granted to his majefty, in the 
laft feffion of parliament, upon account, towards de- 
fraying the charge of the pay of the militia of Eng- 
land, when unembodied, and of the cloathing of the 
part of the faid militia then unembodied, for one 
year, beginning 25 March, 1761, be iffued and ap- 
plied — — 

5. That the fum remaining in the receipt of the 
Exchequer, being the furpius of the feveral duties on 
malt, eftablilhed by an aft, 33 Geo. II. for paying 
annuities, granted in 1 760, after fatiofying all charges 
and incumbrances thereupon, to the 5th of January, 
1762, be iflued and applied — — — 

6. That out of fuch monies, as fhall or may arife 
of the furplufTes, exceffes, or overplus monies, and 
other revenues, compofmg the fiaking fund, there 
be ift'ued and applied the fum of — — 

7. That towards making good and fecuring the 
payment of the fums of money, direfted by an aft of 
32 Geo. II. to be applied in augmentation ofthefa- 
laries of the judges and juftices therein mentioned, 
within England and Wales, there be granted to his 
majefty an additional ftamp duty of 2 1. upon every 
piece of vellum or parchment, or fheet or piece of 

£. s. d. 

— 115000 o o 

— 20000 O O 

^— 70000 o o 

73678 o o 
1005Z17 2 8f 



paper, on which-ftiall be ingrofled, or written, any ^, s. d. 
admilHon into any of the four inns of court. 

8. That towards making good and fecuring the 
payment of the faid Sums, there be granted to his 
m.^jefty an additional ftamp duty of 2 1. upon every 
piece of vellum or parchment, or Iheet or piece of 
paper, on which (hall be ingrofled, or written, any 
regiller, entry, teUimoniai, or certificate of the de- 
gree of utter barriiler, taicen in any of the four inns 
of court. 

9. That there be raifcd by loans or Exchequer 
bills, to be charged on the firft aids to be granted in 

the next feffion of parliament, the fum of — 1 000000 o o 

2367895 2 81 

Sum total of the provifions made by this feffion 18655750 2 8^ 

But to this we muft add, what 
may hereafter be raifed by the faid 
7th and 8th refolutions of May the 
17th, which cannot be afcertained, 
becaufe the deficiency of the fund, 
eftabliihed by the aft therein men- 
tioned, is not known. However, 
without this addition, we may fee 
that the total fum provided for by 
the committee of ways and means, 
exceeds the total fum granted by 
the committee of fupply by the fum 
•f 356,596 1. 3 s. pd. yet notwith- 

ftanding this excefs, we may pro- 
bably have, as ufual, a deficiency to 
be provided for by the next felTioa 
of parliament ; befide providing for 
fuch fervices as may this year be in- 
curred, though not before provided 
for, which amounted lail year to a 
very krge fum, as appears by the 
8th refolation of November i7:h, 
the lirR of- December 7th, that of 
December 14th, and that of Janu- 
ary 28th, being, in the whole, 
3,646,2321. 13s. iid. 


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lyS] ANNUAL REG IS TKR, 1762. 


tits majejiy^s mojl gracious fpeech to 
both houfes of Parliament ^ on June 
2d. 1762. 

My lords, and gentlemen, 

THE public bufinefs, for which 
you were afiembled, being 
now happily concluded, the ad- 
vanced feafon of the year calls up- 
on me to put an end to this feffion 
of parliament ; which I cannot do, 
without exprefiing the higheft ap- 
probation of the zeal, unanimity, 
and difpatch, which have fo fignal- 
ly appeared in the courfe of your 

At the opening of this feffion I 
informed ycu, that it had been my 
carneft wilh to reftore the bleffings 
of peace to my people ; but that it 
was my fixt refolution, with your 
concurrence and fupport, to carry 
on the war in the molt effeftual 
manner, till that defireable objecl 
could be obtained upon equitable 
and honourable conditions. My 
fentiments in both thefe refpefts 
continue invariably the fame, and I 
have the fatisfaftion to find them 
confirmed by the unanimous voice 
of my parliament. 

The declaration, v/hich motives 
of humanity have engaged the em- 
peror of Ruffia to make to all the 
courts in that alliance, and the great 
and happy change in the fituation 
cf my ally, the king of Pruffia, 
gives us juft reafon to hope, that the 
other belligerent powers may be in- 
duced to entertain the fame pacific 
difpofilions. On the other hand. 

our rupture with Spain, notwith- 
ftanding my utmcft endeavours to 
prevent it, and the violent and un- 
provoked attack with which the 
dominions of my ancient ally, the 
king of Portugal, are threatened, 
fufhciently evince the wifdom and 
neceility of that firmnefs and refo- 
lution in my parliament, which have 
enabled me to continue our military 
preparations without the lead in- 
terruption or delay ; and confider- 
ablv to augment my fleets and ar- 
mies in thofe parts, in which our 
enemies can be more fenfibly dif- 
treffed. The fignal fuccefs of my 
arms, in the conqueft of Martinico, 
and the acquifstion of many other 
valuable fettlements in the Weft 
Indies, have, under the blefling of 
God, been the happy confequences 
cf thefe meafures. I trufc in the 
Divine Providence, that they will 
be attended with itill farther advan- 
tages, until the powers at war with 
us fhall be difpoicd to fuch terms 
cf accommodation, as the dignity 
and jufl rights of my crown, the 
future fecurity and commercial in- 
terefls of my fubjeds, will permit 
me to accept. 

Gentlemen of the houfe of commons y 

When I confider the ample fup- 
plies v.'bich you have granted, I 
cannot but lament the heavy bur- 
thens, which the necefTities of the 
public fervice have obliged you to 
impofe upon my people. From 
this coniideration, I have endea- 
voured, in every inilance, to reflraia 


my demands within as narrow 
bounds, as the difficulties in which 
I found myfelf involved, would 
allow. From the Time motive, my 
utmoll care fhall be employed to 
the moH: exifi osconomy, confilient 
with the fafety of my kingdoms, 
and the good faich and honour of 
my crown. 

I return you my particular thank?, 
for the proof which you have given 
of your regard to me and to rny fa- 
mily, in the ample provifion you 
have made for the queen ; whofe 
virtues, and affeflion to this coun- 
try, will, I am confident, be found 
to deferve it. 

M}' lords an i gentlemen^ 

I have the fullcll peifuallon, that 
you will continue to dilfufe in your 
i'everal counties that fpirit of con- 
cord, which you have yourfelves fo 
fteadily exerted in parliament: and 
'you may be afTured, that I will, on 
my part, return your zeal and affec- 
tion for my perfon and government, 
by a conftant attention to whatever 
may contribute to the eafe of my 
fubjefts ; and that it is my ardent 
wifti, to found the glories of my 
reign on the union of my people, 
and on the welfare and profperity 
of thefe rny kingdoms. 

His }najefiy''s mojl gracious fpeech to 
both koufes of parliament , on Nov. 
25, 1762. 

My lords and gentlemen, 

I Found, on my acceffion to the 
throne, thefe my kingdoms en- 
gaged in a bloody and expenfive 
war. I refolved to profecute ic 
with the utmoft vigour; determin- 
ed, however, to confent to peace, 
upon juft and honourable terms, 
whenever the events of war fhould 

A P E R S. 


incline the enemy to the fame pa- 
cific dirpoficion. 

A negotiation was accordingly 
begun lalt year, which proved in- 
efFeftual. The war became after- 
v/ards more general by the refolu- 
tion of the court of ?»ladrid to take 
pnrt with the enemy, notwithltand- 
ing my beil endcv.vours to prevent 

This, with the unexpected attack 
of my natural and good ally the 
king of Portugal, greatly affected 
our commerce, multiplied the ob- 
jecls of o ir military operations, and 
ir-creafed our difficulties, by adding 
to the heavy burthens under which, 
this country already laboured. 

My object itiil continued the 
fame, to attain an honourable peace, 
by purfuing this more extenfive 
war in the moft vigorous manner. 
J embraced therefore an occafion of. 
fered me, of renewing the negotia- 
tion ; but at the fame time J exert- 
ed io effectually the ftrength v/hich. 
you had put into my hands, and 
have been (o well ferved by my fleets 
and armies in the execution of my 
plans, that hiftory cannot furnifh 
ex.^mples of greater glory, or great- 
er advantages acquired by the arms 
of this, or any other nation, in fo, 
fnort a period of time. My general 
prince Ferdinand of Brunfwick, 
and my army in Germany, have 
gained immortal honour, by many 
fignal advantages obtained during 
the courfe of this campaign, over 
an enemy fuperior in numbers. The 
progrefs of the French and Spaniih. 
arms in P'irtugai has been ftopt : 
and that kingdom preferved by the 
firmnefs and refoluiion of its fove- 
rcign, and by the military talents 
of the reigning count La Lippe, 
feconded by the valour of the troops 
under his command. Martinico, 
[^V] 2 ■ and 

i8o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

«.nd other iflands in the Weft In- 
dies, have been conquered; the 
Havannah, a place of the utmolt 
importance to Spain, is in my pof- 
ieffion ; and with it great treafures, 
and a very confiderable part of the 
navy of Spain, are fallen into our 

I cannot mention thefe atchieve- 
ments, which refleft fuch honour 
on my crown, without giving my 
public teftimony to the unwearied 
perfeverance, and unparalleled bra- 
very of my officers and private 
men, by fea and land, who, by re- 
peated proofs, have (hewn, that no 
climate, no hardships, no dangers 
can check the ardour, or refift the 
valour, of the Britifh arms. 

Nex: to the aiTil^ance of Almigh- 
ty God, it is owing to their con- 
-Hu6l and courage, that my enemies 
ave been brought to accept of 
peace on fuch terms, as, I truft, 
will give my parliament entire fa- 
tisfadion. Pi-eliminary articles 
have been figned by my minifter, 
with thofe of France and Spain, 
■which I will order in due time to 
be laid before you. 

The conditions of thefe are fuch, 
that there is not only an immenfe 
territory added to the empire of 
Great Britain, but a folid founda- 
tion laid for the increafe of trade 
and commerce; and the utmoft 
care has been taken to remove all 
occafjonsof future difputes between 
my fubjeds and thofe of France 
and Spain, and thereby to add fe- 
curity and permanency to the blef- 
fings of peace. 

While I carefully attended to 
the ciTential intcreft of my own 
kingdoms, I have had the utmoft 
regard to the good faith of my 
crown^ and the intereft of my 
allies. I have made peace for the 
king of Portugal, fecuring to him 

all his dominions ; and all the ter- 
ritories of the king of Pruflia, as 
well as my other allies in Germa- 
ny, or elfewhere, occupied by the 
armies of France, are to be imme- 
diately evacuated. 

Gentlemen of the houfe of commons , 
I have ordered the proper efti- 
mates to be laid before you ; and 
fhall, without delay, proceed to 
make reduftions to the utmoft ex- 
tent, where-ever they may be found 
confiftent with wifdom and found 
policy. It is the greateft afRidioit 
for me to find, that, though the 
war is at an end, our expences can- 
not immediately be fo much IcfTen- 
ed as I defire; but as nothing could 
have carried us through the great 
and arduous difficulties furrounding 
us, but the moft vigorous and ex- 
penfive efforts, we muft expeft, for 
fome time, to feel the confequences 
of them to a confiderable degree. 

My lords, and gentlemsn. 
It was impoffible to execute what 
this nation has fo glorioufly per- 
formed in all parts of the world, 
without the lofs of great numbers 
of men. When you confider this 
lofs, whether on the principles of 
policy or humanity, you will fee 
one of the many reafons which in- 
duced me to enter early into nego- 
tiation, fo as to make a confiderable 
progrefs in it, bef'ore the fate of 
many operations was determined ; 
and now to haften the conclufion 
cf it, to prevent the neceffity of 
making preparations for another 
campaign. As by this peace my 
territories are greatly augmented, 
and new fources open for trade 
and manufartures, it is my earneft 
defire, that you would confider of 
fuch methods in the fettlements of 
our new acquifitions, as fhall mofl 
effedually tend to the fecurity of ^ 

thofe " 



thofe countries, and to the improve- 
inent of the commerce and naviga- 
tion of Great Britain. I cannot 
mention our acquifitions, without 
carneftly recommending to your 
care and attention my gallant lub- 
jecls by whofe valour they were 

We coulJ never have carried on 
til is extenfive war, without the 
greateft union at home. You will 
find the fame union peculiarly ne- 
ceffary, in order to make the belt 
ufe of the great advantages acquir- 
ed by the peace; and to lay the 
foundation of that ceconomy which 
we owe to ourfelves, and to our pof- 
terity, and which can alone relieve 
this nation from the heavy burthens 
brought upon it by the neceffities 
of this long and expenhve war. 

7he humble addrefs cf the fight hon, 
the lords fpiritual an'd tempered, in 
parliament ajfcmbkd, Nov, iz, 

MoJ} gracious fcvereigriy 

WE your majelty '5 moll: dutiful 
and loyal fubjedls, the lords 
fpiritual and temporal, in parlia- 
ment alTembled, beg leave to re- 
turn your majefty our humble 
thanks for your moll gracious 
fpeech from the throne. 

Permit us, fir, to take this earlieft 
opportunity, to entreat your majefty 
to accept our moil fincere and fer- 
vent congratulations on the birch 
of an heir to your crown, which 
adds to yourmajefly'sdomelHchap- 
pinefs, and endears your royal con- 
fort to the people of thefe realms ; 
gnd promifes, that, under a prince 
formed to the arts of government 
by your majefty's royal example, 
the civil and religious liberties. 

the glory, the commerce, and the 
power of Great Britain, will hz 
tranfmitted to poilerity. 

It is with the utraoft gratitude 
that we acknowledge your ma- 
jefty's unwearied attention to the 
profperity and happinefs of your 
people ; which made your majefiy 
conllant'y folicitous, even amidlt 
the glory of vour victories, to de- 
liver them from the burthens of 
war,by a jufc and honourable peace. 
At the fame time, we cannot but 
admire the wifdom, which pointed 
out to your majefty the mott vigo- 
rous efforts, as the fureft means 
of procuring this bleSlDg for your 

We beg leave to ofFer your ma- 
jefty our humble congratulations 
on the fignal fuccefles, which have 
attended ycur majefty's arms in the 
courfe of the prefent year ; on the 
redudion cf the ftrong ifland of 
Martinico ; on the conqueft of the 
Havannah, the buhvark of the Spa- 
ni{hcolonies,and on the acquifition 
offo much treafure, and of fo great 
a part of the Spaniih. marine ; oa 
the manv advanta2es obtained ia 
Germany over the arms of France, 
although fuperior in numbers, by 
the able condu<ft of your majefty's 
general prince Ferdinand of Brunf, 
wick, and by the valour of the 
troops under his command ; and on 
the prefervaticn of Portugal from 
the dangers which threatened ?n- 
ftanrly tocvervv'helm that kingdom, 
and which could not have been fo 
long withftood, but by the firmnefs 
of its fovereign, by the military ta- 
lents of the reigning count La Lip- 
pe, and by the valour of the troops 
employed in that fervice. Thefe 
atchievementsmuft be acknowledg- 
ed to be equal to whatever has been 
performed in any former vear, even 

[.V] 3 ' of 

i82] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

of this prcfperous war ; though a 
new enemy neceHarily made our 
military operations mere extenflve, 
and added new dilSculties to thofe 
we ftruggledwiih before; atchievc- 
menis which reliedl the highell ho- 
nour on the councils thai planned 
them, on the commanders who car- 
ried them into execution, and on 
the fleets and armies, whofe intre- 
pidity no dangers could dii'may. 

Allow us to exprcfs, in the moft 
fervent and grateful manner, our 
joy and congratulations, that, by 
thei'e repeated efforts, your myjflly 
has at length compelled your ene- 
mies to coufent to terms of peace ; 
as well as to off 'r to your majefty 
our fincere thanks, for your having 
informed your parliament, that the 
preliminary articles are already 
figned by your tnajefty's minifter, 
and by thofe of France and Spain ; 
for your majeily's moll: gracious af- 
furances, that you will caufe thefe 
articles in due time to be Lid be- 
fore them : and for the lights vour 
majefty has been pleafcd to give 
concerning the conditions of them, 
which afford to your people the 
faireft profpefi of future happinefs, 
profperity, and fecurity. 

Your majefty may be afTured, 
that we will rtoc fail, on our parr, 
to take, as foon as pofiible, into our 
confideration, the proper methods 
for the fettlement of our new ac- 
quifitions ; for improving their 
commerce, and thereby rendering 
them ufeful to the mother-country. 
Truly fenfible of the merits of thofe 
gallant men, by whffife valour thefe 
acquifitions have been made, we 
Ihall be ready to concur in every 
reafonabie propofition for reward- 
ing them ; lamenting at the fame 
time, as we do, the lofs of fo many 

of our fellow-fubjeds, by which the 
national llrcngth is fo much im- 
paired. We cannot fuflicicntly ad- 
mire that wiidom, which feized the 
fortunate hour of reaping the ad- 
vantages of our viftories, while we 
were yet on the funimit of our 
glory, and before we had experi- 
enced any reverfe of fortune. In 
grateful return of thofe many bleff- 
ings, which your majefty's royal 
wifdom and fortitude have procured 
for us, your majelly may depend 
en our Vkarmeil zeal, on our con- 
Itant endeavours to promote that 
unaniniity your majelly recom- 
mends in all our proceedings, and. 
on our attention to thofe meafures 
of ceconoray, which are the pecu- 
liar bulinefs of times of peace, and 
which alone can relieve your ma- 
jeily's faithful people from the op- 
prefiive buthens of fo long and fo 
expenfive a war. 

His majefty'' s mojl gracious anfuocrt 

My lords, 

^H I S 'very affeSiionafe and loyal 
addrcjs giiMS me the trueji Jatts- 
faSllon. I thank y oil heartily for it ; 
as "Will as for yovr congratulations en 
the birth of the prince, my fon ; a)id 
for the regard you cxprefs, on this cc- 
cafion, for the queen. 

The chcarful and fleady fupport cf 
my parliament throughout the i'.-ar, 
has heen attended njoltn uninterrupted 
fuccvfs : and the ratificaion of the 
preliinlnary articles 'ivill, 1 truji, fcon 
be follovjcd by the completicn cf peace 
on ffe and honourable conditions. 

My only ivijb is, atid ever 'will be, 
to promote the lafling happinefs, prof- 
perity, and fecurity of my faithful 



The humble addrefs of the houfe of 
commons to the king. 

Moft gracious fovereigfif 

WEyourmajefty's moft dutiful 
and loyal fubjedls, the com- 
mon.sofGreac Britain in parliament 
ailembled, beg leave to return your 
majeilyth" moft humble and hearty 
thanks of this houfe, for your moft 
gracious fpeech from the throne. 

Permit us, at the fame time, to 
congratulate your majefty on the 
aufjjicious birch of his royal high- 
neis the prince of Wales, and the 
recovery of your royal confort, en- 
deared to this country not only by 
this important event, but by her 
own perfonal virtues. 

We acknowledge, with the ut- 
moft gratitude, your majefty's great 
attention to the welfare of your 
people in the vigorous profecution 
of the war, and congratulate your 
majefty on that happy effect of it, 
the profpeil of fuch a peace as may 
give ftability and permanency to 
the bleftings we promife ourfelves 
under your majefty's moft aufpi- 
cious reign. 

We alTure your majefty, that your 
f'.ithful commons are truly fenhble 
of the wifdom with which- your 
plans have been concerted, as well 
as of the fuccefsful zeal with which 
they have been carried into execu- 
tion by your fleets and armies. 

The refolution and intrepidity 
of your majefty's army in Germa- 
ny, and the military fkill and dif- 
tinguiftied aflivity of your general 
prince Ferdinand of Brunfwick, 
which have obtained fo many fig- 
nal advantages over an enemy fo 
fuperior in numbers, are objeds of 
our higheft admiration. The ftop- 
pingthe progrefsof the French and 
Spanifn arms in Portugal, r.nd the 
prefervation of that kingdom, by the 


iirmnefs and refolution of its fov'e- 
reign, and by the fuperior talents 
and able condud. of the reigning 
count la Lippe, fcconded by the 
valour of the troops under his com- 
mand, are events of the higheft im- 
portance to this nation and its com- 
merce. TheredudionofMartinico, 
fo glorious to your majefty's arms, 
and the ftill more glorious and im- 
portant conqueft of the Havannah, 
by which great treafure, and a very 
confiderable part of the navy of 
Spain, are fallen into your majefty's 
hands, fpeak the wifdom of your 
councils, and the valour of thofe 
employed in the execution of thefe 
great comm.ands, and fill our hearts 
with gratitude and fatisfadion. 

The public teftimony which your 
majefty has, therefore, gracioufly 
given to the unwearied perfeve- 
rance, and unparalleled bravery of 
your officers and private men, by 
iea and land, towhich, under God, 
thefe glorious atchievements are to 
be attributed, is a no lefs honourable 
than deferved reward for their fer- 
vices, and muft be an additional re- 
commendation of them to the ef» 
teem and gratitudeof theircountry. 
Allow us, fir, to thank your ma- 
jefty for having promifed to dired 
the preliminary articles of the 
peace to be laid before us. And 
we receive with the greateft fatis- 
fadion the information which your 
majefty has condefcended, in tho 
mean time, to aiford us ; from 
which we promife ourfelves, that, 
with your majefty's dominions, our 
trade will be increafed ; and that, 
all occafions of future difputes be- 
ing removed, the bleflings of peace 
will be thereby rendered perma- 
nent and fecure. 

We return vour majefty cur moft 

iincere and humble thanks for your 

[N] 4 great 

184] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

great goodnefs and tender regard 
for the welfare of your fubjefts, in. 
proceeding without delay to the 
conclufion of the negotiation of 
peace, fo expedient for this coun- 
try ; and for your gracious inten- 
tions, as foon as it fnall be conclud- 
ed, to reduce the public expences. 

Your majefty may be alTured, 
that your faithful commons will 
cheerfully affilt in the fupport of 
fuch expences as may IHII be necef- 
fary, with due regard to that oeco- 
nomy which your majeily recom- 
mends to us, as far as may be con- 
fiftent with wifdom and true po- 

We will not fail to confider of 
the moil effeclual methods of fet- 
tling our nevvacquiiitions,of fecur- 
ing thofe cjuntries to us, and of 
improving our commerce and navi- 
gation. And, lamenting the lofs of 
thofe many brave men who have 
fallen in this glorious war, we will 
pay all due attention to the fervices 
of thofe who yet remain, by whofe 
valour thofe acquifitions have been 
made. And we will continue to 
cultivate that union to which we 
greatly owe the fucceffes of the 
war, in order thereby to make the 
bed advantages of peace, and lay 
the f-undation of tha? ceconomy, 
which we owe to ouileives and to 
our pofterity. 

His majejiy's jtiojl gracious anfvjer. 


T Return you my hearty thanks for 
this 'very dutiful a7id affedionate 
addrefs ; and I recei've your congra- 
tulations,, on the b th of th'. prince y 
my fon, as a frejh proof of your at» 
tachment to ;«■' perfon, and of your re- 
gard for the queen. The affurances 
(fyour ready fupport in fuch expences 

as may Refill neceffary, afford me the 
highejl fuisfa£iion ; and the ratifica^ 
tion of the preliti.inary articles gi-ves 
jne the pleafing hope of foon eafen^ my 
faithful fubjeSis, by a faf, honour ~ 
able, and permanent peace, of the 
hewoy , but unavoidable burthens they 
ha-ve. fo chearfully borne during the 

The addrefs of the archhijhop, bijhops, 
and clergy oftht pro-vince of Can- 
terbury, in con'vocation ajfembhdf 
prefentcd December 4, 1762. 

M'jjl gracious fo^vereigUy 

WE your majefty's moft loyal 
and dutiful fubjefts,thearch- 
bilhop, bifhops, and clergy of the 
province of Canterbury^ in convo- 
cation aflembled, beg leave to take 
the firft occafion of jointly congra- 
tulating your majefly on the blef- 
fing, for which we have feparately 
offered up our fervent thanki'giv- 
ingsto God, of his vouchfafing.and 
thnt fo early, to you and your ex- 
cellent confort the queen, a (on to 
inherit the crown of thefe realms. 

We fee! a very fe-ifible pleafure 
from the intreife of your majefty's 
domeilic felicity, in thf addition of 
paternal te conjugal tendernefs. 
But our views extend much further ; . 
and, as we owe to y<^ur-augoH: 
houfe the prel'ervuion of every 
thing dear to us a? men or christians, 
and have found each of your iiluf- 
trious anceftors faithful guardians 
of all thofe diftinguiihed advan- 
tages, which we enjoy to the height 
under your majefty's gracious go- 
vernment i fo we truft, that Proviv 
dence hath defigned us as a pledge 
of the perpetuity of our happinefs, 
in giving us a prince defcended from 
fuch progenitors. For we know, 




that his hereditary good difpofitions quesn ; and fee <wiih particular plea- 

will be fnlicitouily Itrengthened and Jure the exprejjions of your gratitude 

improved by the daily inurudion to Almighty God, for the birth of ths 

and example of his parents; who prince, my fen. 

will complete their merit to tbefe Your opinion of my fixed intention 

nations, by forming his youth- to educate him in every principle of 

ful mind to the love of religion, of religious and civil liberty ^ is truly 

liberty, of our civil and ecclefiafti- acceptable to me. 

cal conilitution ; 10 a judicious zeal 
for the profperity of Great Britain, 
and r. (incere benevolence to man- 
kind in general. 

May thefe pleafing labours be 
fuccefsful in the highelt degree. 
May the royal infant grow up in 
health and ftrength, become the joy 
and boaft of the public by every 
valuable attainment, delight your 
inajellies by the moft affedtionate 
duly and gratitude, throiigli an un- 
common length of days mercifully 
granted you ; and, born at the 
dawning of peace, may he fee, all 
his life, the people of this land 
reaping the beneficial fruits of it 
to the utmoft. 

It fhAll be our confcientious care 
to remind our fellow-fubjeds of the 
ineftimable privileges which they 
poflefs, and the glorious expecta- 
tions which they may ju (11 y entertain 
for themfelves and their pollerity, 
from your raajeily anci your family, 
if they will fecure the Divine pro- 
tedlion, by leading-thankful, quiet 
and peaceable lives in godlinefs and 
honeily, as their holy prcfeffion re- 
quires. And we moil; dutifully in- 
treat the continuance of your ma- 
jell) 's attention to the facred in- 
terells of Chriftian piety and moral 
virtue, which we are fully fatisfied 
you have deeply at heart. 

His majefiy^s moft gracious aifi'jer. 

My lords, and the reft of the clergy, 
J Adept --^ith thanks thefe nenjo af- 
* furances of year r.^ard to the 

Be affured, that no endeavour Ofi 
my part ftjcdl be vuanting to py.Tr.ote 
the facrtd inter efts of piety ^ 
and moral virtue ; and to t ran, mil 
to pofterity our prefent moft happy 

Summary of the papers relative to the 
rupture -with Spain j publifaed by 

THESE papers contain a feries 
of the molt material tranfac- 
tions between the two courts, from 
the time that M. Buffy prefented 
the memorial in the name of his Ca- 
tholic majelly, to that when the E. 
of Briftol left the court of Madrid, 
and war was declared with Spain. 
They begin with a letter of in- 
ftructions from Mr. Pitt to the E. 
of Briftol on that unlooked-for 
event, in which the fecretary re- 
marks, that the engagements be- 
tween the crowns of France and 
Spain were, by the French miniiler, 
avowed to be previous to the over- 
tures of peace by France, and con- 
fequently were from that time as 
difingenuoufty fupprelled, as they 
were in the moment infclently pro- 
duced : That the memorial relative 
to the difputes between England 
and Spain, was fooffenfive, that the 
king's fervants were unanimoufly 
of opinion utterly to rejeil it; that 
nothing could equal the king*** fur- 
prife and regret at a tran faction fo 
unprecedented as that of an attsmpc 


i86] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

to mincfle the difputes of a neutral firudlve to this true and capital in- 
power with the negotiations now tereft of Great-Britain, will be made 
carrying on with France j and that, to Spain, however abetted and fup- 
in cafe the Spanifh minifter fhall ported: And it is flill hoped, that 
avow, that this Itrange piece has prudence as well as juftice will in- 
really bees aulhorifed by the court duce that court no longer to expeft, 
of Madrid, then his excellency is as the price of an union, which it 
enjoined to remonftrate with fw.'-rg-j; is at leaft as much her intereft as 
and/;7;:;?.y} a gain lithe unexampled ours to maintain inviolate, a facri- 
irreguiaricy of fuch a proceeding on fice, which can never be granted. 
the.4)art of Spain, and to allure M. Thefe clear and difiinft anfwera 
Wafl, that as, on the one hand, his being given, Mr. Pitt continues his 
majefty will by no means add any inftraftions. Sec. as follows : After 
newfacilities from the confideration the above memorial, and the inti- 
of an union of councils, or of pre- mation therein, little fhort of a de- 
cent or future conjunftions between claration of a war in reverfion, and 
France and Spain ; fo neither, on that not at a diftance, held out /« 
the other hand, will his majelly's terrorem on the part of France and 
equity and moderation ceafe to dif- Spain, M, Wall cannot wonder, that 
pofe his royal mind to the fame your excellency is ordered by his 
reaionable terms of accommodation majelly, as you hereby are, to de- 
vj'nh Spain, as the king, excited by fire again, in this conjundure, a pro- 
inclination, and determined bv fyf- per explanation with regard to the 
tern, has, through the courfe of naval armaments that have been fo 
this negotiation, invariably declar- long preparing in the various ports 

ed himfclfreaciy to embrace. — Then 
follows the anfvver to be given to 
three points in difpute: Firft; con- 
cernine the relHtution of prizes 

of Spain; and his excellency can- 
not but himfclf be fenlible how 
ftrongly the king is called upon, 
in the order of things, and from 

made againft the flag of Spain, or the indifpenfable motivesof what he 
in violation of the territory of that owes to his crown and people, to 
kingdom; it fuffices to fay, that expeft that the court of Madrid will 
ihe\ourts here inftituted to take come to fome explicit and catego- 
cognizance of all matters of fuch a rical eclairciflement, with regard 
jiature, are always open to the to the dcliination of her fleets, as 
parties who think fit to feekredrefs well as with refpea to her difpofi- 
in due courfe of juftice; and it is lions to maintain and cultivate 
fuperfluous to obfcrve, that the mi- friendiliip and good correfpondence 
niiters of his moil Chriilian majelly with Great-Britain : And this mea- 
£re not a tribunal to which Great- fure is become the more highly ne- 
Britain allows an appeal. cefTary, as the emifTaries and parti- 
Next, as to the Hale and inad- zans of France here are not a little 
roiffiblepreienfionsoftheBifcayans aftive, in endeavouring to infufe, 
and Guipufcoans to filh at New- particularly into people's minds in 

foundland, let M. Wall clearly un- 
deriland, that this is a matter held 
facred ; and that no conceffion, 
Cii the part of his majelly, fo de- 

the city, for purpofes too obvious 
to mention, that a rupture with 
Spain in conjunftion with France 
is aaproaching. 




Although in the courfe of this 
inrtriidion to yoar excellency, 1 
couid not, with fuch an infolent 
memorial from France before me, 
but proceed on the fuppcfiiion, that 
infidious as that court is, fhie could 
notdarctocommit in fuch a manner 
the name of his Catholic majefty, 
without being authorifed thereto ; 
I mull not, however, conceal from 
your excellency, that 'tis thought 
poffibl'-herethat the courtof France, 
though not wholly ui>authorifed, 
may, vvith her nfual artifice in ne- 
gotiation, has^e put much exagge- 
ration into this matter ; and, in 
cafe, upon entering into remon- 
ftrance oh this affair, you fnall per- 
ceive a difpofition in M. Wall to 
explain away and difavow the au- 
thorifation of Spain to this offen- 
iive tranfadion of France, and to 
coiHe to a categorical and fatisfaflo- 
ry declaration relative to the final 
intentions of Spain, your excellency' 
will, with your ufua! addrels, adapt 
yourislf to fo delireable a circum- 
Itance, and will open to the court 
of Madrid as handlome a retreat as 
may be, in cafe you perceive from 
the Spanifh minilter that they4rn- 
cerely wifn to find one, and to re- 
move, by an efFeAual fatisfadion, 
the unfavourable imprelHons which 
this memorial of thecourt ofFrance 
has jullly and unavoidably made on 
the mind of his majeity. 

In thisdifpatch, which bears date 
July 2S, 1761, was inclofed the 
memori.l already mentioned ; Mr. 
Pitt's letter to M. Buiry,when he re- 
turned it, with two fupplemental me- 
morials ip/'a moji extraordinary nature, 
as Mr, Pitt expreffes it, which the 
public has not yet feen ; the receipt BriJlolacknow- 
lelges and, in confequence of the 
inilrudionsy contained therein, hisr 

excellency had no lefs than five con- 
ferences wich the Spanifh miniiler, 
in which he had urged all that he 
had received in coramiffion with 
great force of argument ; the an- 
iwers to which are as follow : 

M. Wall owned, that he had 
been informed of all that had paiTed. 
at the court of London on the fub- 
jeft of the memorial in queftion, 
and that in confequence of a pro- 
pofal made by the court of Ver- 
failles to the king his mailer, hia 
majcil'y had confented to guars^ity 
the intended peace between France 
and England; and, at the . fame 
time, to accept of France's exprefi 
offer of endeavouring 10 accornmCN* 
date the difputes fubfiiling between 
England and Spain ; but, in aflent» 
ing to this, his excellency declared 
that his Catholic majelly had no 
defign ofofFendingtheBrltifhcmirr, 
and was not a little furprifed that 
it could be produdive of fuch an 
effed ; that^ as to England's decla- 
ration oi' adding no new -facilities 
to^-^ain^ in confid"bf£ti6nof any in- 
timation or threatenings whatever, 
the Catholic king could not but ap- 
plaud thofe fentiments in his ma- 
jelty, which he felt fo itrongly with- 
in himfeif ; adding, that the court: 
of London was certainly at liberty 
to rejed any propofals coming from 
the French miniftry, but that the 
king of Spain no doubt had aa 
equal right to communicate what- 
ever meafures he thought conducive 
to his interelb, to the moft Chrif- 
t:an king, his majelly's friend, ally, 
and near relation. 

M. Wall purfued his difcourfe, 
byacquainting theearlwithFrance's 
having fpontaneoufly offered, (in 
cafe the di.''putes of Great-Britaitx 
and Spain fhould, at any time here- 

i88] ANNUAL RE G I S T E R, 1762. 

after, occafion a rupture between 
the two courts) to unite her forces 
with thofe of Spain, to prevent the 
Englifh encroachments in America; 
an offer which theSpanifti monarch 
jhad received with great cordiality. 
General Wail tlien afked, whe- 
ther it was pofiible to be imagined 
in England, that the Catholic king 
could feek to provoke the court of 
London at a time when the Britifh 
Bation was in the moll flourifhing 
End moll exalted fituation it had 
ever known ? Afluring the earl, 
on the contrary, that the Catholic 
Icing, both before, and at prefent, 
cfteemed, as well as valued, the 
frequent profeFions he had made of 
his majelly's defire to adjull our 
xnutual differences amicably ; but, 
he perceived, the terms on which 
thofe difputes were fought to be ac- 
commodated, occafioned the difii- 
culty. The Catholic king, he faid, 
did not think England would look 
upon the French minillers as a tri- 
bunal to which the court of London 
would make an appeal, nor meant 
it as fuch, when the firft article of 
grievances was conveyed through 
that channel. As to the fecond, 
the claim of the Guipufcoans and 
Bifcayans to fifli for bacallao ; it 
was what Spain had always infilled 

upon, and never receded from by 
any treaty * : And laftly, concern- 
ing England's evacuating all the 
ufurped ferilements on the logwood 
coalls, it had never been offered, 
but upon fuch conditions as were 
inconftftent with the dignity of the 
Spanilh crown to accept ; fince the 
court of London would only con- 
fent, that, previous to her fending 
orders to thofe unjiiil fettlers to 
remove, the Catholic king fhould 
be compelled to make knov/n to the 
Englifh, in what marner the log- 
wood was to be afTured to the king's 
fubjeilils, notwith'landing the Spa- 
nilh rtlonarch had repeatedly given 
his royal word, a method fhould be 
found out for that purpofe ; and 
that, till it was adjuited, in what 
manner Great-Britain fhould enjoy 
that privilege, the Englifh cutters 
of logwood Ihould continue, with- 
out interruption, or moleflation 
of any kind, ro carry on their 
commerce upon the footing they at 
prefent exercife it. His Catholic 
majelly only afking, that, for his 
own royal decorum, the ufurped 
eftablifhments fhouldbe relinquifh- 
ed by the Englifh, to prove that 
good faith we piqued ourfelves up- 
on, and to convince Spain, we did 
not maintain thofe forcible poffef- 

• In a paper which M. V/all communicated to the earl, by way of anfwer to 
all the earl had urged, is the following fiiiewd remarks on the t\-o laft 
articles: Concerning^ the liberty oK the Bifcayners and Gui;)urcoans to fifii for 
bacallaoj an abfohiie negative, (ays he, is given to tliat right by England, tho' 
it is well proved : And with refpeft to evacuating the eftahliniments, it is only 
offered upon terms inadmiiTible with the Catholic king's decorum, that, before 
doing it, he fljould alTure to the Englifh the logwood. Hard proceeding cer- 
tainly, for one to confefs, that he is gone into the houfe of another to take 
away his jewels; and to fay, " I will go out again, inn firft you fhall engage 
to give HiC what I want to take." And ftiil harder, when fet in oppofjtion with 
the bacallao; for the Spaniards want that fo: their food, as the Englifli want the 
logwood for their fabricks : yet the Englifli xvould by force take away the log- 
wood, and hinder by force the Spaniards from taking away the bacallao. One 
would think, that the Englifli themfelvcs ought with reluctance to pi'oduce 
iuch a pietcnfion, 




fiorts, as pledges, which fooner or 
later we imagined would compel 
the court of Madrid to grant us 
our own terms, and in the mean 
time to increafe (which the Britifh 
fubjedls did daily) the encroach- 
ments upon the coails of Honduras. 
With regard to the naval arma- 

the governor of Sanroque had in- 
quired into the behaviour of the 
inhabitants of TarifFa, and had 
given fuch effectual orders refpecl- 
ing their illegal proteftion of the 
French row-boats, .is would effec- 
tually prevent any further remon- 
ftrances on that head ; that the Spa- 

ments of Spain, the delHnation of nifh minifter had complained of 

her fleets, and the difpofidons of his 
court to maintain friendlhip, and 
to cultivate a good correfpondence 
with his Britannic majefly, M.Wall 
faid, firft, as to the naval prepara- 
tions of Spain, that fmce the ac- 
ceffion of his prefent Catholic ma- 

fonie additional v/orks carrying oa 
at Gibraltar, and that he had a&ed 
whether Great-Britain could feri- 
oufly entertain any apprehenfioas 
of a rupture between the courts; 
adding, That the Catholic king had 
at no time been more intent on €ulti^ 

jefty, including both the fiiips of 'vating a good correfpondence ^with his 

the line and frigates, the whole 
number did not exceed that of 20 ; 
that, zdly, v/ith regard to their de- 
ftination, fome v/ere frequently 
palling betv^een Spain and Naples ; 
others were intended to convoy the 
homeward, or outward bound flo- 
tas, aili:)gues, or rcgiiter fhips j and 
the remainder were to ferve as a 
check upon the Barbary corfairs, 
.and to defend their coafts, or fmall- 
er veffels, from infults. And, in 
relation to the third queftion, his 
Catholic majefty's dilpofition and 
profeffions had invariably hzt'n. the 
fame, and were ever meant to ce- 
ment and cultivate the friendililp 
fo happily fubfilting between the 
two courts. 

For the greater exaclnels in this 
bufinefs, it was mutually agreed 
between the earl of Briftol and M. 
y^ all, to deliver each other in writ- 
ing the heads of the principal ar- 
guments made ufe of by both, in 
the frequent conferences they had 
on this occafion. Thefe papers are 
inferted; and then follows another 
letter from the E. of Briftol, dated 
Segovia, Sept. 14. in which his 
excellency informs Mr. Pitt, That 

majejiy than at prefsnt. This letter 
did not come to hand till October 
5, the day on which Mr. Pitt re- 
ligned the Teals. 

In another letter, his excellency 
informs Mr. Pitt of the fafe arrival 
of the flota, in the bay of Cadiz, 
on board of which he fays there is 
little more than 330,000!. upon, 
the -Catholic king's account, and 
this paltry fum, the produce of the 
royal revenue for two years, owing 
to want of management in the vice- 
roys and governors, and to the 
knavery of the affefTors and collec- 
tors, who are the principal people 
concerned in defrauding the king 
of his dues. 

Another letter from his excellen- 
cy, dated Sept. 28. exhibits a com- 
plaint made by the Spani.fh court 
againft the Engliih logwood cutters, 
who had begun to fortify them felves 
at Rio Tin to, on the river Wallis, 
and about the Laguna Azul ; and an 
intimation from M. Wall, that if 
thofe fettlers were ordered to with- 
draw, no kind of moleftation what- 
ever Ihould be given to any of 
theEngliih logwood cutters, either 
on the coafi of Honduras, or the 


i9o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762, 

bay of <ran-. peachy, til' a conven- 
tion Ihould be concluded, by which 
this long contefted buiinefs fhould 
be final !y adjulled. M. V/a!l, the 
eirl adds, was the mere prefiing on 
this oc^afion, in order to put a Itop 
to the reprrircd intimations of the 
French emiffiiries, who were conti- 
nually reprefenting to the court of 
Spain the indignity of entering into 
any negotiation-: with a power, who 
avowedly withheld from his Catho- 
lic majeftyfeverai illegal fettlements 
in his territories. This the earl 
feems to willi was complied v/ith, 
as he has no reafon to fufped the 
lincerlty of M. Wall, and as, at 
the fame time that it would filence 
the clamours of the French party, 
it would facilitate the court of 
Spain's coming to a fpeedy adjuli- 
ment with England. 

In the next letter, dated Segovia, 
O^. 5, hisexcellency acknowledges 
the receipt of a difpatch notifying 
liis majeity's marriage. Sec. In this 
letter the earl writes, that M. Wall 
had expreffed his concern that the 
hopes of peace were now more re- 
mote than ever, as Mr. Stanley and 
M, Bufly were foon to return to 
their refpeftive courts. He adds, 
that the prevailing opinion in Spain 
was, that France had made as 
great conceffions as could be ex- 
pefted ; that if Great-Britain was 
fo llrenuous in favour of the K, of 
Pruflia, it was equally laudable in 
France not to defert the emprefs 
queen; and that to in fid on fup- 
porting the former with our whole 
force, while the latter was only to 
be afliltcd with 24,0:0 men by 
France, was almoft equivalent to 
the abandoning the houfe of 4"- 

The next letter in this colledlion 
is that in which the E. of Egremont, 

the new fecretary, opens his cor- 
refpondcnce with the E. of Brillol. 
In this moil fecret letter, which is 
dated Oft. 28. his lordfhip expref- 
fes his majeity's particular fatiifjc- 
tion ac that part of his excellency's 
letterof the i^vh pail, wherein men- 
tion is made, ii/a^ the Catholi: king 
had at no time been more intent on 
cultivating a good correfpondence wjith 
his majejiy than at prefent ; and 
highly approves the afTurances 
which his excellency had given M. 
Wall, that no additional works had 
been begun at Gibraltar, as, upon 
enquiry, his lordfhip finds that no 
orders had been iflued with regard 
to the fortifications of that place. 
His lordOaip, at the fame time, af- 
fures hisexcellency, that the friend- 
ly intimation of M. Wall, to evacu- 
ate the moft recent fettlements on 
the coalls of Honduras, was confi- 
dered by his majefty as a happy 
prefage of a fpeedy and amicable 
conclufion of all difputes fubfifting 
between the two crowns, with this 
additional declaration, on the part 
of his majcfly, that he continues to 
have nothing more at heart, than 
to cultivate the moft cordial friend- 
fhip with the Catholic king ; trull- 
ing, however, to find this difpoii- 
tion reciprocal on the partof Spain; 
*' thefebeingthe king's fentiments, 
fays his lordlliip, his mnjefty cannot 
imagine that the court of Spain 
fhould think it unreafonable to de- 
fire a communic;ition of the treaty 
acknowledged to have been lately 
concluded between tls-e courts of 
Madrid and Verfailles, &c." add. 
ing, as a reafon, that the honour 
of his mnjeliy''. crown, and the in- 
tereft of his people, equally call 
for an explanation on this head, 
before he can, confiftent with his 
dignity, proceed in any negotiation 




with Spain, becaufe no fair or can- 
did difcuffion of the rights or diifer- 
ences of the two courts can take 
place, while Spain, informed as ftie 
13 of the full extent of all his ma- 
jefty's alliances and connexions, 
main tains a fufpicious and unfriend- 
ly referve with regard to a treaty re- 
cently concluded with his majefty's 
declared and inveterate enemy, by 
whom it is openly and induftrioufly 
afferted -throughout Europe, that 
the purport thereof is holHIe to 
Great-Britain. Lord Egremont, in 
this letter, does not forget to ac- 
quaint the enrl, that, in his firft 
conference with the count de Fu- 
entes, he had explained this matter 
fully : but that this miniller had 
avoided entering intoir,and feemed 
to wi(h that it might be paiTed 
through another channel ; he there- 
fore enforces it as the king's plea- 
fure, that his excellency fiiould ufe 
the moil preffing inltance to M. 
Wall, to obtain fuch communica- 
tion as is already mentioned ; but, 
at the fame time, recommends it to 
be done in the moll polite and 
friendly terms, "giving, at the 
fame time, the Spaniih minifcer the 
ftrongeft alTurances, that, this ob- 
fcacle once removed, his majefty is 
moll fincerely and cordially difpof- 
ed to enter into an am.icable dif- 
cuffion of other matters in difpute, 
little doubting but that a confirm- 
ed reciprocal confidence would na- 
turally point out expedients to five 
the honour of both kings, adjull 
things to mutual fatisfadion, and 
eltabliih a harmony as permanent 
as advantageous to both courts." 

To the fecret and precife inftruc- 
tions contained in this excellent 
letter, the whole of which we could 
have wiflied to have preferved in 
Ottrcolleclion^ his lordihip adds this calculated, by protnifing perma- 

mcfl interefiing and fpirited decla- 
ration: That, in order to prevent 
any perverfe impreflions, which 
Mr. Pitt's retiring from public bu- 
fincfs, at this juncture, might oc- 
cafion, it is proper that I Ihould af- 
fure your. excellency, that the mea- 
fures of government vAU fuffer no 
relaxation on that account : on the 
contrary, I may venture to pro- 
mife, that the idea fuggeiled by 
fome malevolent perfons at home, 
and perhips induftriooily propa. 
gated abroad, of the whole fpirit of 
the war fuhiiding with him, in- 
Iteadof difcouraging, will only tend 
to animate the prefent miniftry to 
a more vigorous exertion of their 
powers, to avoid every poiiible ini- 
pu cation of indecifion or indolence, 
which ignorant prejudice mightfug- 
gell : and the example of the fpi- 
rit of the late meafures, will be a 
fpur to his majelly's fervants to per- 
fevere, and to Itretch every nerve of 
this country, towards forcing the 
enemy to come into a fafe, honour- 
able, and, above all, a laftingpeace. 
I further have the pleafure to in- 
form your excellency, that the moiw 
perfeflharmony, mutual confidence 
and unanimity, now reign in his 
raajeily's councils : with a thorough 
determination to pufri the war with 
fuch vigour, as will, it is hoped, 
under the hand of Providence, pro- 
cure ftiil farther fuccefles to the jull 
caufe for which this country drew 
the fword. The king, at the fame 
time, continues to be difpofed, 
with equal moderation, to put an 
end to the dreadful calamities of 
v/ar, the moment the enemy will 
liften to fuch terms of peace as 
fhall be confident with his majeliy's 
honour, in fome degree adequate 
to the fuccelTes of his arms, and 

192] ANNUAL R 

nency, to preferve mankind from 
the various diftrefTes and miferies, 
which have been To fatally experi- 
enced during the courfe of this 
cruel and bloody war. 

To this difpatch was added two 
letters from his lordfhip to his ex- 
cellency, bothof the fame date with 
the difpatch ; the firlt fecrct and 
<onf:dential, informing the earl for 
his private diredion, that, in cafe 
he fhould find infuperable objec- 
tions to the defiled communication, 
but in lieu thereof the moft folemn 
aflurances upon the royal word fig- 
nified in writing, of the innocence 
of the treaty in queftion with re- 
ipecl to the king's interells, his ex- 
cellency was not totally to reject 
the alternative, but to take it ad 
referendum, to be tranfmitted to 
the Britifh court. The fecond let- 
ter, feparate and fecret, enjoined 
his excellency to penetrate, as far as 
he could, his Catholic majefty's 
real views, the prevailing temper 
and fentiments of his principal mi- 
nifters, the order and regulation of 
the fea and land forces, the ftate 
of public credit and the finances, 
- and the difpofition of the court to 
depart in any manner from the neu- 
trality, by openly or fecretly afiift- 
ing the king's enemies ; but, in 
doing this, to avoid the leall mark 
of ofienfive diffidence. 

In a letter from his excellency to 
Mr. Pitt, dated Oft. 12, hejuft 
mentions his having received a let- 
ter from gen. Parllow at Gibraltar, 
concerning the works carrying on 
there, which confided only in fome 
neccfTary repairs and conveniencies 
for the garrifon, which he had re- 
ported to M. Wall, requefting 
him to acquaint his Catholic ma- 
jelly with that very authentic con- 
tradiftion of what had been mali- 
cioufly conveyed to his court. 

EGISTER, i^6i. 

The next paper, in tkis collec- 
tion, is a letter from his excellency 
to the E. of Egremont, dated Nov. 
2, in which he informs his lordlhip 
of the haughty language now held 
by the court of Spain, fo different 
from all the former profeflions and 
declarations of the Spanifh fecre- 
taryofllate, that his excellencycould 
not help exprefiing his uneafinefs, 
by defiring to know whether there 
were any grounds for the rumour 
fo generally propagated of an ap- 
proaching rupture between Great- 
Britain and Spain, grounded upon 
a treaty faid to be lately concluded 
between the courts of Madrid and 
Verfailles: and, if it were ponible, 
after all that had pafTed, that fuch 
a treaty could be concluded, then 
he defired to be told of what nature 
it was, whether offenfive or fingly 
defenfive ; what were its views, and 
what its conditions? But, inftead 
of anfwering diretlly to thefe quef- 
jions, fays his excellency, gen. Wall 
began, by declaiming againll the 
condud: of England, as unwarrant- 
able, as his Catholic Majefty never 
could obtain an anfwer from the 
Britifh miniftry to any paper fent 
thither, either by his own ambafla- 
dor, or his Britannic majefty's ; 
alledgirg, that we svere intoxicated 
with our fuccefies, and aimed at 
ruining the French power, in order 
more eafily to crufh that of Spain ; 
and, having worked up his anger to 
a degree his excellency had never 
feen before, he added, that fince 
his Catholic majefty's dominions 
were to be overwhelmed, he would 
himfelf be the firft man to advife 
his mailer, at leaft to have them 
fejzed with arms in his fubjedts 
hands, and not to continue the paf- 
five vidtim he had hitherto been 
fuppofed to be in the eyes of the 




world. When the general's warmth 
was a little abated, his excellency 
mildly renewed his former que (Hon s, 
but, inftead of giving any fatisfac- 
tory anfwer, he fell again into an 
uncommon warmth, inlifting that 
we had fet the Spanifh power at 
defiance; that we had attacked and 
plundered their veflelsjinfulted their 
coafts, violated oar neutrality, en- 
croached upon the territorial jurif- 
didion of the king's dominions in 
Americaj by illegally feizing log- 
wood, creeling frelTi fettlements in 
the bay of Honduras, and had with- 
held from his fubjefls the right 
which they had long enjoyed of 
fifhing upon the banks of New- 
foundland for bacillao. He added, 
that he had, indeed, given his royal 
mafter hopes that jullice would be 
granted to atone for thefe repeated 
grievances, and therefore wanted to 
know where, when, and how, it was 
to be expetfled ? His excellency, 
notwithrtanding this fecond digref- 
iion, did not depart from his for- 
mer queilion, and at length received 
for anfwer, that he [M. Wall] had 
no orders to acquaint him with any 
meafures but v/hat he had formerly 

Finding no ground to be gained 
by farther enquiries at this ti.iie, his 
excellency took his leave, and af- 
ter paying his court as ufual to his 
Catholic majefty, he returned in 
about an hour, and, under pretence 
of fhewing an attention to general 
Wall, whicti he always paid before 
he fent off a meffenger to England, 
to know if he had any commands 
thither; he took occafion to renew 
the^ former topic of converfatlon, 
which was only productive of a re- 
petition of former grievance;, with 
this additional intimation. That the 
court of France was determined ;o 

Vql. V. 

pub'ifh to the world the mortifying 
terms fne had confented to for the 
fake of peace, and to expofe the 
arbitrajy and unreafonabledemands 
of Great Britain, whofe unbounded 
ambition had fruftrated his moft 
Chriltian majefty's good intentionsj 
in yielding fo much from motives 
of humanity. 

His excellency thought he had 
liftened fufficiently to all thefe ac- 
cufations ; and therefore, having 
recoileded himfelf by a ihcrt ab- 
fence, he begun by anfwering the 
charge to all that complicated heap 
of grievances which the Spanifh, 
miniller feemed purpofely to have 
thrown out to divert his excellency 
from perfevering in the purfuit of 
getting his curiofity gratified ; and 
after having expofed the weaknefs of 
all thofe fpecious arguments which, 
the general had made ufe of, he 
concluded his difcourfe with repeat- 
ing his inllances for informatioa 
concerning the treaty ; but the molt 
he could obtain was, T&ai his Ca^ 
tholic rnajejiy had judged it expedient 
to renenv his family compaSi luith the 
mofi ChnJluiH king. 

His txcelif^ncy concludes this dif- 
patch with affigning what he thinks 
the caufe of this very diff?rent lan- 
guage from the Spanifh court, the 
Jafe arrival of all the voealth that 
ivas expected from Spanifj America 5 
the progrefs of the French army in 
the king's eleftoral dominions; and 
the fuccefs that has attended th^ 
Auftrian operations in Silcfia; add- 
ing, that he had long cbferved the 
jealoufy of Spain at the Britifh con- 
quers, and was convinced that the 
confcioufnefs of their naval infe- 
rioritv, was the only motive that in- 
clined them to maintain harmony 
and friendlhip wi;h Great Britain* 



194] ANNUAL REGISTER, 176a. 

To this difpatch, which was re- 
ceived November the 14th, the E. 
of Egremont returned an anfwer on 
the 19th, in which he exprefles his 
majefty's aftonifhment at the abrupt 
and unprovoked tranfition of the 
Spanifh fecretary of (late from the 
moft cordial and conciliatory tone 
cf friendly profeffion J and amicable 
adjuftment, to the moft peremptory 
and haughty ftile of menace and 
hoftility ; and therather as the count 
de Fuentes had, the very day before 
his excellency's difpatches arrived, 
repeated the ftrongeft aflurances of 
the friendly difpofitions of the king 
his mafter, and of his fteady pur- 
pofe to maintain the ftrifteft amity 
with the court of Great Britain. It 
were, continues his Lordfhip, both 
tedious and ufelefs to enter minutely 
into the anfwers fo obvious to be 
given to the often five digreflions by 
which M. Wall determinately evad- 
ed giving any fatisfa£tion to your 
excellency's moft reafonable demand 
with regard to the treaty lately con- 
cluded with France : a few obfer- 
vations will therefore fuifice on the 
order of your difpatch. 

As the aftertion. That his Catho- 
lic majefty never could obtain an 
anfwer from the Britifti miniftry to 
any memorial, or paper, &c. a pro- 
portion fo notorioufly groundlefs, 
conlidering the ample materials in 
your excellency's hands, fcarce de- 
ferves a ferious anfwer; and as to 
the language held relative to the 
negotiation with France, and our 
unbounded ambition and thirft of 
conqueft, as it confifts of mere abu- 
five affertions, without the leaft 
fhew of argument, it deferves no- 
thing but plain contradiftion. 

The intemperate and rafh advice 
which the Spanilh minifter talked 
of propofing to the king his mailer. 

gives his majefty the greater con- 
cern, as M, Wail cannot but know 
with what particular delicacy our 
plans of military operations have 
been concerted, in order to avoid 
all hoftiJities towards objects that 
might give the leaft jealoufy or um- 
brage to the court of Spain ; his 
unjuft fuggeftions muft therefore be 
looked upon as a mere pretext that 
in cafe the court of Spain fliould 
have meditated hoftilities againft 
iLngland, the court of London 
might appear as the fource of all 
themisfortunes that mayenfuefrom 
the rupture, 

The 'X'/7///f declamation, by which 
the Spanifti fecretary eluded a fe- 
cond time an anfwer to the q ueftion 
you fo properly perfevered in u-f-g- 
ing, has fo unpromiiing an afped, 
as to give the king very little rea- 
fon to hope for good efFedls from 
further patience and forbearance; 
it is therefore his majefty's exprefs 
command, that your excellency de- 
mand of the Spanifh fecretary of 
ftate an immediate, clear, and ca- 
tegorical anfwer to that queflion ; 
but, at the fame time that you can- 
not be too firm and explicit, you 
will be particularly cautious not to 
ufe the leaft harfhnefs in your man- 
ner, or mix any thing in your con- 
verfation which can have the leaft 
tendency to indifpofe or irritate 
him ; that whatever the confe- 
qucnces may be, his majefty maj 
have the confolation of appealing 
to all the world for the re^itude 
and purity of his intentions, and 
for the moderation obferved in en- 
deavouring to prevent a rupture, 
by every ftep which his honour and 
dignity could permit. 

To this public letter was added 
one mof? fecret, of the f me date, 
in which his lordfhip fignifie< the 



king's pleafure to his excellency, 
in cafe he could not fucceed agree- 
able to his inftruclions, tocomefrom 
Madrid forthwith, without tak- 
ing leave, and to repair to Lifbon, 
where he would find a fhip of war 
ready to receive hirn : a refufal 
of the fatisfaftion on the queftion 
demanded, or of difavowing any 
intentions of taking part with the 
enemy, being to be looked upon as 
an aggreffion on the part of Spain, 
and as an abfolutedeclarationofwar. 

Another letter that accompanied 
thefe, feparate and fecret, direcled 
his excellency, if little or no hopes 
of fuccseding remained , to take the 
moft fecret and expeditious manner 
of giving immediate notice to major 
genera] Parflow at Gibraltar, and 
to all his majefly's confuls in Spain 
and Portugal, of the critical fitua- 
tion of our affairs with Spain, and 
Jikewife to make the fame commu- 
nication to Sir Charles Saunders ; 
and if all hopes ^ixere at an end, and 
his excellency's departure from Ma- 
drid was inevitable, then to fend 
oft a letter to admiral Saunders, and 
another to commodore Keppel, ac- 
quainting them with this final refo- 
lution ; and lefthisexcellency fhould 
have reafon to apprehend that the 
meffengers with thefe letters fliould 
be intercepted in the dominions of 
Spain, he is himfelf directed to fet 
out immediately for the frontiers of 
Portugal, and from thence to dii"- 
patch duplicates of his letters, &c. 
leaving a perfon at Madrid to take 
care of his private affairs. 

The nextletter in this colleflion, 
is dated Efcurial, Nov. 9, in which 
the earl of Briftol gives an account 
or the military preparations on the 
part of Spain ; particularly that two 
raeo of war were ordered from Ca» 

diz, the one to convoy the affoguss, 
and the other to proted fom'^ Dutch 
tranlpoits with ammunition and 
ftores for Carthagena and America. 
Eleven (hips of the line, he adds, lie 
at Ferrol, rigged, manned, and ready 
to put to fea, with two frigates, one 
of which is bound to the South Seas, 
with ball, powder, and implements 
of war ; that two ftips of war, with 
two large barks under convoy, hav- 
ing 35CO barrels of gunpowder, 
1500 bomb fhells, 500 chefts of 
arms, and a confiderable quantity of 
other warlike llores, were failed from 
Barcelona to the Weft Indies; and 
that fivebatcalions of different regi- 
ments, making in all about 3600 
men, were waiting at Cadiz for 
final orders to embark for America. 

By another letter, dated Madrid, 
Nov. 16. his excellency acknow- 
ledges the receipt of the fecretary's 
difpatches of the 28th of Oflober: 
and adds, that the military prepa- 
rations of Spain are far from fiack- 
ening; that 15CO men had entered 
the town of Ferrol, with a defign 
foon to embark for the Weil Indies ; 
that a regiment of foot v/as gone to 
Majorca, and another had orders to 
holditfelf in readinefs to be fentto 
the fame ifl^nd ; and that in the 
Wefl Indies they bad 19 fhips of 
war, and not fewer than 16 frigates 
to attend them. 

His excellency's letter, dated Ef- 
curial, Dec. 14, is more important, 
he having entered minutely into 
every argument fuggefted by the 
Britifh fecretary: ♦' And though," 
fays hisexcellency, •* I dare not flat- 
ter myfeif with having gained any 
ground upon the Spanifh minifler, 
yet I never before obferved M. Wall 
iiilen with greater attention to my 
difcourfe. When he anfi,vered me, 

[0] 2 it 

196] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

it was without warmth ; when he 
applied to me, it was friendly ; and 
after long reafonings on both fides, 
we parted with reciprocal protefta- 
tions to each other of our earneil 
defire to continue in peace." On 
this favourable opportunity, his ex- 
cellency urged the infeparable con- 
nexion of intereft that unites the 
two crowns, and which could not 
fail of foon producing a good eifect, 
notwithltanding the mean artifices 
of France to fow diifenfions with a 
view to drain the royal coffers, 
without any real regard to the re- 
tentions of Spain. 

The next paper in this colledlion 
IS, the tranilation of a paper deli- 
vered by the count de Fuentes to 
the Earl of Egremont, being an an- 
fwer to a memorial delivered by the 
earl of Erifiol to the court of Spain. 
This is followed by a letter from 
lord Egremont to his excellency, 
dated Dec. 22, difclaiming any 
knowledge of a feizure, which it 
was reported in the city, that ad- 
miral Holmes had made of fome 
Spanilh bark, laden with fugar at 
Monte Chrifti, expreffing his ma- 
jefty's concern upon hearing it, and 
adding alTurances, that if the fail 
proved true, not a moment ihould 
be loft in taking fuch fteps as (hould 
fatisfy his Catholic majefty, with 
regard to the unjuftifiable and un- 
authorifed conduct of any of his ma- 
jefty's fervants upon this occafion, 
in order to prevent any malicious 
«fe which might be made of this 
unlucky event. 

The next letter that follows, is 
dated Madrid, Dec. 11, 1761, 
which gives the firft account of the 
earl's final refolution of leaving the 
court of Spain, and fetting forth 
the difficulties attending the execu- 
fion of his majelly's orders in fend- 

ing the letters to the proper officcn 
by land and fea for the better fecu- 
rity of his majefty's fubjeds. He 
adds, that he was denied poft- 
horfes ; that he was furrounded 
with fpies ; that the roads were al- 
molt impaflable between Spain and 
Portugal ; that he was himfelf fo ill 
as to be unable to travel; but that 
he had tried a method which he 
does not chufe to mention, to con- 
vey the ncctfTary intelligence to ad- 
miral Saunders, general Parflow, 
and the confuls; and that M. Pot- 
ter, feeing how ill his excellency 
was, had promifed to fet out for 
Lifbon, by whom the letters he had 
then ready Ihould be forwarded. 

Having thus given at large the 
in(lru£lions which the earl of Briftcl 
received from time to lime from the 
court of Great Britain, relative to 
hisconduft with the Spanith mini* 
ftry : it remains only to fhew in 
what manner his excellency exe- 
cuted his commiffion ; and thetreat- 
ment he met with on this memo^ 
rable occafion. 

What paffed at the firft confer- 
ence with the Spanifh minifter, af- 
ter his excellency had received final 
orders to infift on a categorical an- 
fwer, or to retire from the Spanifh 
court, is contained in a letter to 
lord Egremont, dated Madrid, Dec. 
7, 1 76 1, the fubftance of which is 
as follows: The mefTenger Potter, 
having arrived at Madrid on the 
5th at night, his excellency the earl 
of Briftol acquainted M. Wall, the 
next rriorning, that he had received 
difpatches from England of the laft 
importance ; and M. Wall being 
confined to his room by an acci- 
dent that had happened to his foot, 
appointed one o'clock for a confe. 
rence in his own apartment. At 
this fon fere nee the earl began by 



acquainting the Spanifh minifter 
with the allonilhrnent and concern 
which the unprovoked tranfition in 
his language, (o diametrically op- 
polite to the pleafing afTurances he 
had formerly received, had occa- 
fioned at the Britilli court, and the 
rather as the count de Fuentes had 
but juft given the Engiifh minillry 
the ftrongeft affurances of the king 
his mailer's fteady refolution to 
maintain the ftrictefl amity with 
Great Britain; that, notwithlland- 
ing thefe afTurances, his Britannic 
majelly, equally attentive to his own 
dignity, and the interefl of his fub- 
jefts, was determined religioufly to 
adhere to all his folemn declara- 
tions; that Spain had done injuftice 
tothepurityof the king's intentions, 
fince his majefty had been particu- 
larly delicate in caufing fuch mili- 
tary plans to be concerted, as were 
not, in the leaft, likely to give um- 
brage to Spain ; and that, in all the 
royal councils, every thing had 
likewife been avoided that would 
tend to an interruption of a friendly 
intelligence between the two courts. 
His excellency proceeded to renew 
his former inquiries about the treaty 
lately concluded between the courts 
of Madrid and Verfailles ; and fi- 
nally to afk a categorical anfwer 
relative to the intentions of Spain 
with regard to Great Britain, but 
with that moderation as could not 
but exprefs the king's defire to ob- 
tain fuch an anfwer as might con- 
tribute to the continuation of that 
amicable intercourfe which it was 
equally the interell of both courts to 
maintain ; adding, however, that 
this defire did not proceed from 
any timidity, or apprehenfion on 
the king's fide, but from the rec- 

titude and humanity of his royal 

It was impofHble to liflen with 
more obliging attention than M. 
Wall did to all his excellency faid ; 
when hisexcellencyappealed to him 
on any point, he anfwered friendly; 
when he reaibned, he reafoned can- 
didly and minutely; and acknow- 
ledged the caution that had been 
obferved in attacking thofe pof- 
feffions belonging to oar enemies 
that had any connexion with the 
Spanilh territory ; but concluded, 
that the copy he delivered t« his ex- 
cellency of his * difpatch to the 
count of Fuentes, [at the Britifh 
court] , was the onlyanfwer he could 
give about the treaty in queflion. 

His lordfhipobferves, that at this 
vifit he had only dwelt in general 
terms on the intentions of Spain to- 
wards England ; and his motives 
for acling in this manner were, that 
he perceived M. Wall's tone to be of 
a conciliatory nature ; ihathe Jiaiterea 
hin.felf hoxa. thence, that he might 
obtain the categorical anfwer he 
was ordered to demand ; that he 
had obferved for fome time before, 
the flile of the Spanifh miniflry to 
be gradually foftening ; and that 
all that fudden wrath and paffioa 
which he had difcovered, had arifen 
on the notice of a change which had 
happened in the Engiifh adminiflra» 
tion, having been occafioned by 
the meafures propofed to be takea 
againft the Spanifh court. 

His excellency proceeds, in his 
letter of the pch, to give an account 
of his fecond conference with the 
Spanifh minifler, on the fame fub- 
jefl. At this conference, which 
was on the 8th of December, the 
Spanifh minifter faid, he had re- 

This difpatch was by way of naemorial. (See pag. [199. too.] 




ceived his Catholic majefty's com- 
mands, to inform him, that, with 
regard to the trra'^y, and the inten- 
tions of Spain, M. Wall's difpatch 
to the count of Fuentes, was the 
only anfwcr the Catholic king 
judged it expedient to give. But, 
at laft, having declared frankly that 
the Britifh court expefted to have a 
categorical anfwer to the following 
quellions. Whether the Catholic 
king intended to join the French 
our enemies, or purpofed aCling 
hoftilely ? or would, in any man- 
ner, depart from his neutrality ? 
adding, that Spain's refufal of this 
fatis faction, would be deemed an 
aggreffion, and a declaration of war; 
the furprlfe of M. Wall is not to 
be exprefled. He only brought 
out thefe words. ** What is to fol- 
low? have you then orders to with- 
draw from hence?" Being anfwered 
in the affirmative, he fjiid, the cate- 
gorical anfwer required was fuch an 
attack upon theCatholicking'sdig- 
nity, that it was impoffible for him 
to give advice to his fovereign upon 
fo delicate a fubjeft ; but being 
prefled, for the fake of humanity, 
as the ruin of thoufands of thou- 
fands, and the diftrefs of nations 
were now depending, not to let any 
rafh or precipitate meafurebe taken, 
M. Wall defired, for greater preci- 
iion, that w/hat the Britiib minifter 
was ordered to demand, might be 
put into writing ; his excellency 
therefore wrote down the following 
fhort fentences; Whether the court 
of Madrid intendstojoin theFrench, 
our enemies, to aft hollilely againft 
Great Britain, or to depart, in any 
manner, from its neutrality? A ca- 
tegorical anfwer is expected to thefe 
queftions ; otherwife a refufal to 
comply will be hooked upon as 
aggreliion on the part of Spain, 

and a declaration of v/ar." It was 
not till the loth of December that 
his excellency received the Spanirti 
minifter's letter, in which it was 
faid, That the fpirit of haughtinefs 
and of difcord, luhich didated this in- 
coi federate fiep, and nuhich, for the 
misfortune of mankind, fill reigns fo 
7inich in the Britifj gcvernment , it 
nvhat made, in the fame infant, the 
declaration of nuar, and attacked the 
king's dignity. Tour excellency may 
think of retiring ^vhen, and in the 
manner mof conijenient to you ; ivhich 
is the only anfnjoer that, ^without de- 
taining you, his majefly has ordered 
me to give you. With this letter a 
friendlynoteof aprivate nature was 
inclofed, in which M. Wall hopes 
for the honour of feeing his excel- 
lency, and of confirming to him, 
by word of mouth, the elleem and 
refpedl with which he was his lord- 
fbiip's obedient fervant : but, not- 
withftanding, when his lordlhip, at 
his departure, applied for poft- 
horfes to facilitatehis journey out of 
Spain, an order iox that purpofe 
was refufed, fpies were every where 
planted about his houfe, and, in 
fhort, he found himfelf fo clofely 
guarded, that though he was ill of 
a fever, he thought it beft to rifli 
all, even at the hazard of his life, 
in order to quit the dominions of 
that unfriendly monarch. Such was 
the treatment which the Britifh 
minifler received at the court of 
Madrid, when it was no longer in 
the power of that court to treat un- 
der the mafk of deceit and treachery. 
The breach with England had, no 
doubt, been long determined ; but 
the time was not yet come when 
the declaration was to be made. 
Under the charaflerof friends, they, 
upon every occafion of difpute, de- 
cided in favour of our enemies; but 




not yet being in a condition to re- 
pel force by force, they chofe this 
notable way of manifefting their in- 
tentions, till the preparations they 
were making fhouid enable them to 
aft without referve. 

The manifeito fo often alluded 
to, which was difpatched by the 
SpaniHi miniftry to the count de 
Fuentes, and by him delivered to 
the court of London, wiih the pa- 
per delivered by the earl of Brirtol 
to M. Wall, November i8, which 
occafioned it, both fellow at large, 
that the reader may judge on which 
fide that fpirit of haughtinefs is 
moft manifeft, with which the Spa- 
nifii miniftry have charged the Bri- 
tilh councils. 

Tranjlation of a paper deli'vered ly 
the earl cf Brijiol, November l8, 

THE king has learnt, with par- 
ticular fatisfaction, the juftice 
of his Catholic majefty, in giving or- 
ders for the reftitution of the {hip 
the Speedwell ; and his majeliy is 
equally fenfible of the moderation 
with which the privateer the King 
George hath been treated : the 
count de Fuentes having given a 
memorial, complaining of the be- 
haviour of the faid privateer, the 
moft exact inquiries are to be im- 
mediately begun : and, as foon as 
the facis are proved, a fuitable fa- 
tisfadion, agreeable to our laws, will 
be given to the court of Spain. 

Having communicated to the fe- 
cretary of ftate, in a difpatch rf the 
month cf September 1 aft, (agreeable 
totheaffurancelhad then received), 
his Catholic majefty's intentions to 
cultivate a good correfpondence 
with the king ; I have been ex- 
prefsly ordered to teftify the king's 

pleafure, which fuch a declaration 
of the fentiments of this court has 
occafioned : and I muft not omit to 
afTure, that no order has been fent 
for augmenting the fortifications of 
Gibraltar, coiifequently they have 
only been working there on the 
ufual repairs. 

His majefty having nothing more 
at heart, than to maintain and 
Itrengthen the moft cordial, and the 
moft fincere friendftiip with the Ca- 
tholic king, does not doubt of meet- 
ing with the fame difpofitions as his, 
on the part of Spain : for there 
is nothing more evident, than the 
mutual advantage which muft, at 
all times, refult to the two king- 
doms bv fuch a reciprocity. 

After this declaration, it is not 
furprifing, that the court of London 
defires and demands of the Spanifti 
minifters, a communication of 
the treaty lately concluded between 
their Catholic and moft Chriftian 
majefties ; or that they would im- 
part the articles which may be 
thought relative now, or in future, 
diredtly, or lefs immediately, to the 
intereft of Great Britain. Thefe 
inftances do not proceed from any 
difadvantageous fufpicion of the af- 
furances of friendftiip, fo often re- 
peated by Spain to the court of 
London ; they only tend to obtaia 
fome explanation with regard to the 
language which the king's enemies 
have affected to hold ; namely, that 
Spain was on the point of taking 
part in the prefent war, by joining 
France Egainft England. Such are 
the reports which have made fo 
rapid a progrefs in all Europe; and 
the king's honour is concerned in 
putting a ftop to them, as far as the 
intereit of his people require their 
beingcontradidted ; without which, 
how can his majefty perfuade him- 

[0] 4 ielf 


|elf to enter into a negotiation with 
Spain, for accommodating the dif- 
ferences which have unhappily fub- 
iifted, for fo long a time, between 
the two courts ? The Catholic King 
is informed of all the alliances and 
engagements of Great Britain ; and 
it would be an unfriendly referve, 
at thi? jiinflure, not to comply with 
giving his majelly this laiisfadion 
en the contents of a treaty, fo re- 
cently figned with a power aftually 
5it war with the king; and efpecially, 
when France does not ceafe to give 
out, that the conditions of this new 
engagement tend towards holliliiies 
which Spain will, very foon, mani. 
feltagainft the Britifli nation. 

This obftacle once removed, his 
jnajefly is determined, without lofs 
of time, to enter into an amicable 
difcuflion of the matters, which 
make the fubjefts of the difpute of 
the two crowns; not at all doubt» 
ing, but that they may be eafily ad- 
julled ; and being convinced, that a 
jeciprocal and extenfive confidence 
will not fail to fuggell expedients, 
for faving the dignity, and the ho- 
nour, of the two kings, and for ad- 
3 ufling, to the reciprocal fatisfaction 
of their majeities, every thing that 
has, till now, retarded that folid 
and permanent harmony, which has 
always been the objeft, the wilhes, 
the folicitude, and the defires, of 
thofe who wifh the effential advan- 
tages, and the true glory, of the 
two monarchs. 

In order to prevent every per- 
verfe impreffion, which the change 
that has jull happened in the Fnglilh 
minillry might occafion, i. is ne- 
ceffary to declare, that the moft 
pej feft unanimity now reigns in the 
king's councils ; and that it is re- 
folved there, to continue the war 
\vith all poffible vigour j his majefty. 

however, only wifhing for the mo<. 
ment to put an end to the terrible 
misfortunes, which are the inevi- 
table confequences of it, as foon as 
he iY all find his enemies difpofed to 
make peace, on conditions which 
may correspond to the fucceiTeswith 
which Providence has been pleafed 
to biefs the king's arms, and which 
fhall, at the fame time, giveappear- 
ances of a folid and durable peace, 
after all the miferies which have 
bten fuffered during the courfe of 
thefe laft years. 

'Tranjlalion of a paper recevvei. hy the 
lord Egremont from the count de 
Fv.entcs, December 3, 1761 ; in 
anf'wer to the foregoing. 

Mod excellent Sir, 

^/l y lord Briftol delivered to me, 
\_ fome few days ago, the me- 
morial whereof I fend vou a copy. 
In the firft paragraph is feen the fa- 
lisfaftion of this court at the king's 
juftice, in caufing the Englifli fhip 
the Speedwell to be reilored ; and 
at the moderation with which the 
offence of the King George pri- 
vateer had been chaitifed ; to which 
there is nothing to reply, only, that 
his majerty is glad tl»at the minillry 
acknowledge the uprightnefs and 
moderation of his proceedings. 

In the fecond paragraph, my 
lord Briilol fets forth, that having 
wrote in September to his court, 
the intention he had been aflured of 
by us, in which the king was, of 
cultivating a good correfpondence 
with the King of Great Britain, he 
had been ordered to declare the real 
pleafure fuch a declaration from us 
had given. / do not remember 
halving made it t-hen in a more par- 
ticular manner than at jjiany other 

times J 



tlmts ; nor do I comprehend the moti-ve 
fcr their making fuch a point of it ; 
however, it is certain, that in the 
various occafions that have prcfent- 
ed themfelves, in the life-time of 
king Ferdinand (who is in heaven) 
as well as of the king our lord 
(whom God fave), the Spanifh mi- 
nifters have repeated the wilhes of 
their court, to cultivate the bell 
correfpondence with that of Lon- 
don. My lord adds, in the fame 
paragraph, that he can afcertain, 
that no order has been tranfmitted 
for increahng the fortifications of 
Gibraltar; which does notfurprife 
the king, as he has given no rooni 
for the leaft miftruil ; nor would the 
contr -V furprife him, the Englilh 
being a^ .nuch the mailers to in- 
creafe them, as his majelly is in 
any one place of his own. 

My lord Briftol continues, in an- 
other paragraph, to exprefs, that 
there is nothing the king, his maf- 
ter, has fo much at heart, as to form 
a clofer and moil fincere friendfhip 
with the king, our lord ; and that 
he does not doubt finding the fame 
difpofitions on the part of Spain ; 
the mutual advantages that will ac- 
crue to both nations therefrom, be- 
ing evident; And all this is in or- 
der to come, by degrees, to what, 
after fuch a declaration, was not to 
furprife us ; that his court (hould 
defire and aflc of t'le Spaniih mini- 
flers, the communication of the 
treaty lately concluded between 
their Catholic and mod ChrilHan ' 
majelliesjor the articles that relate 
toEngland. Your excellency knovvs 
how eafy it would be for the king 
to give a direft anfwer ; but his 
own decorum prevents him, from 
theconfideration, that this demand 
is made as a compulfive condition 
for commencing a negotiation with 

Spain, about diiFerences which are 
confeiTed to have fubfifted fo long. 
Whoever heard fpeak of commenc- 
ing a negotiation, would think 
that, hitherto, nothing had been ne- 
gotiated about our differences; and 
befides, would believe, that their 
confidering them as worthy of ne- 
gotiation, was doing us a favour. 
It is a very fingular method in that 
miniftry of mifunderliandTng fo 
many offices, memorials, and con- 
ferences, which have paffed forthefe 
fix years thereupon, and particu- 
larly fince the king fent your excel- 
lency to that coar:, proving the in- 
contellable grounds of our com- 
plaints and juft cares, and repeat- 
ing, that, without Aitisfying them, 
it is impoffible to fix the good cor- 
refpondence of the two monarchies, 
nor the friendlhip of the two mo- 
narchs, fo deferving of each other's 
love. If all that has been declared 
by word of mouth, or in writing, 
the anfwers and replies that have 
intervened, the points that have 
been concluded upon, is not a ne- 
g-itiation, I do not know what is 
called fuch. 

My lord Briftol offers, that, when 
the king our lord Ihouid declare 
himfelf upon the exiftence or non- 
exiftence of the fuppofed treaty, or 
upon the articles relating to the 
Englilh, the king, his mailer, has 
determined to enter, without lofs 
of time, into a friendly difcuffion of 
the points which occa/Ion our diffe- 
rences ; not doubting but that they 
may be accommodated, and expe- 
dients found out, for faving the 
dignity and honour of the f.vo fo- 
vereigns. In this court they mull 
confider only as a mere trifle, 
what they feek after ; fince, in re- 
compence, they only promife what 
\ve are already tired of pradifing. 


202] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

What greater difcuffion upon the 
points of our d'Tputes can be made, 
than that which has been in (o long 
a negotiation r What expedients can 
be fallen upon now to fave the 
honour of the two kings, which in 
argu men ts, and difputes of fix years, 
have not occurred ? And if in Lon- 
don they are to be found, Spain is 
ihe creditor for her patience in the 
furfuit cf h:r complaints, and for 
ha-jing feen ths 'various fuccejjes of the 
rwar the Englifh ivere carrying on, 
whilfl; fl)e ov\\y propofed without of- 
fering to impofe, conditions upon 
that account. The mod noble ex- 
pedient, and which does the great- 
eft honour to kings, as well as to 
thofe who are not fo, is, not to 
with-h'^ld the property of another 
unlawfully, but to reftore, and even 
punifh the ufurpers, without mind- 
ing (if it falls out fo) from whom 
the injured perfons aflcs it. 

Mv lord Brillol concludes with a 
paragraph entirely, foreign to our 
bufmefs, declaring, that a perfefl 
unanimity fublifts in the councils of 
Great Britain j and that the king 
was refolved to continue the war 
with all poffible vigour, till he had 
reduced his enemies to a peace ade- 
quate to the fucceffes of the Englifh 
arms, and which might have the 
appearance of being a firm and 
larting one. It is not diretflly our 
intention to anfwer thereto : bat the 
two points which the Englifh deiire 
by the peace, are contradicled evi^ 
dently, by what all the world has 
juft feen. All ioipartial perfons can 
decide, whether the terms offered 
by the I'Vench, and refufed by the 
Englifn, do not befpeak the advan- 
tages of theEnglifh arms ; and their 
inadmiflion will he attributed by 
them to other views, ivhi.h ought 
not to be indifferent to the other mari' 

time poiuers , and proprietor's of do- 
minions beyond fea. And it mull 
occafion furprife to them, that, if 
the court of London defires a peace, 
that wears the appearance of being 
firm and lafting, it fhould pique it- 
felf upon thatofParis's infinuating 
how necefTary it would be to adjuft, 
at the fame time, our differences, 
to cut off all rifk of its renewing 
the war in favour of us. 

My lord Briftol then, by means 
of another memorial, afked, if 
France had taken that Itep with the 
king's confent, in the fame manner 
he now afks us, whether there is 
fuch a treaty, or not, with France? 
We anfwer frankly, yes ; proving 
the regularity cf it : And with this 
motive we reply to the repeated ex- 
preffionsof the court, about defiring 
a good correfpondence with ours, 
efteeming them at all times, how- 
ever, thinking it was neceffary, 
effefts fhould have accompanied 
them ; and as if fuch a memorial 
had never been given by us, for- 
getting it entirely, they prefent us 
another, with a new queftion, with 
the fame general exprefTions, and 
the unexpefled novelty of offering 
to commence a negotiation fo long ' 
difcufTed, and fowell digelled, that 
it has been reduced during your 
excellency's embaffy, to the laflj^/, 
or lall no. 

Your excellency, being thorough- 
ly informed of every thing I have 
fet forth, may tell it, or give it ia 
writing, if it is neceffary, to that 
minillry, in order, that, upon no 
account, it may charge us with 
leaving my lord Briftol's memorial 
unanfwercd, and that it may ac- 
knowledge the impropriety there is, 
th.zt the king Jhould fatisfy their curi- 
ofify at e--verj turn, nvhilji no faiis- 
faSion is^gi-ven to his juji demands. 




We cannot help contrafting the parts of two letters, both written by 
the fame minill??r, within little more than a month of each other ; the one 
from the Efcurial, dated November 2, the other from Madrid, dated 
December 7. 

Efcurial, Nov. 2, 1761. Madrid, Dec. 7, 1761, 

TWO (hips have lately arrived '''17 OUR lordfhip will, nodoubt, 
at Cadiz with very extraordi- J. haveremarked, that, from the 
Eary rich cargoes from the Weft time of Potter's departure with my 
Indies, fo that all the wealth that difpatchesofthe 2d paft, the rtyle of 
was expefted from Spanifh America, the Spanifh minilter has been foft- 
is now fafe in Old Spain. Perhaps ening gradually ; what had occafi- 
THis ciRCXJ MSTANCE has raifed oned the great fermentation during 
the language of the Catholic king's that period at this court, the eifeft?? 
miniflry, added iCt the pr ogre fs 'which of which I felt from general Wall's 
the French army is making in the animated difcourfe at the Efcurial, 
king^s eleBoral dominions, and the was, the notice halving about that 
fiiccrfs that has attended the Auftrian titne reached the Catholic king, that 
operations in Silcjia. I have long the change <zvhi:h had happened in 
obferved the jealoufy of Spain at the Enghjh adminijlration, nxias rela- 
the Britifh conquefts, and am now tiije to meajw-es propofed to be taken 
CONVINCED that the confcioufnefs againjl this country. Hence arofe 
of this country's naval inferiority that fudden wrath and paffioa 
hasoccalioned thefoothing declara- which for a fhort time, aiFefted the 
tions fo repeatedly made of a defire whole Spanifh court, as it ijuas 
to maintain harmony and friendlhip thought tnoft extraordinary here that 
with England. the declaring war againlt the Ca- 

tholic king fhould EVER have been 
moved in his majefty's councils, 
Jince the Spaniards haaie alivays looked 
upon themfclxiesas the aggrie'ved party ^ 
and, ofcourfe, never could imagine 
that the Englifh would he thejirji 
to begin a nuar. 

Papers relative to the rupture of France and Spain luith Portugal. 

Tranjlation of a memorial of the 
Spanijh ambajjador, and of the 
minijier plenipotentiary of France, 
to his moji Faithful tnajejty. 

DO N Jofeph Terrero, ambaf- 
fador extraordinary of the Ca- 
tholic king, and don James O'Dun, 
miniller plenipotentiary of the molt 
Chriftian king, at this court, by the 
cxprefs and poucivs coders of their 

mafters, declare, with the greatell 
refpedl to the moft Faithful king, 

7 hat the two fovereigns of 
France and Spain, being obliged to 
fupport a war againft the Engiifh, 
have found it proper and necefTary 
to ellablifh feveral mutual and reci- 
procal obligations between them ; 
and to take other indifpenfablemea- 
fures to curb the pride of the Bri- 
tifli nation, which, by an ambiti- 
ous projcdl to become defpotic over 


204] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

the fea, and confequently over all 
maritime cammerce, pretends to 
keep dependent the poffeflions of 
other powers in the new world, in 
order to introduce themfelves there, 
either by an underhand ufurpation, 
or by conqueft. 

That the firil meafure which the 
kings of France and Spain agreed 
on, was to have the moft Faithful 
king in their oiFenfive anddefenfive 
alliance, and to defire him to join 
their roajefties forthwith : That 
they expefted that the moft Faith- 
ful king would acquiefce therein, 
conformable to what he owes to 
himfelf, and to his kingdom, fince 
his fubjedls feel, much more than 
Othernations, theyoke which Great 
Britain lays, and which fhe means 
to extend over all thofe who have 
pofTeffions beyond fea ; and that it 
would be unjuft for France and 
Spain to facrifice themfelves for an 
objeft, in which Portugal is fo 
much interefted ; and that, inftead 
of offiiHng them, they fhould make 
it impoffible for them to fucceed, 
by allowing the Englifh to enrich 
themfelves by their commerce, and 
to enter their ports, not only to 
make ufe of them as an afylum, but 
to be more at hand to hurt the de- 
fenders of the caufe of Portugal. 

That, in this fpirit, the ambafla- 
dor of Spain and the minifter ple- 
ripotentiary of France, defire the 
moft Faithful king to declare him- 
felf united with their Catholic and 
moft Chriftian majefties in the pre- 
fent war againft the Englifh, to 
break off all correfpondence and 
commerce with that power, as the 
common enemy of all the three, 
and even of all maritimenations ; to 
fend away from his ports, and to 
fhut them againft, all their men of 
war and merchant-ihips ; and to 

join to the forces of France and 
Spain, thofe which the Moft High 
has put into hit hands, in order to 
make them equal to thofe of the 

This declaration made by the 
two monarchs of France and Spain, 
as being agreed and concerned be- 
tween them ; his Catholic majefty 
has, in the mean time, inftrucled 
his ambafl'ador to make this reflec- 
tion to the moft Faithful king (in 
order that his magnanimous breaft 
may the more eafily and the more 
fpeedily determine, without being 
Hopped by other impreflions, to take 
the part the moft confonant to his 
advantage, and to his glory), that 
it is the brother of the queen his 
wife, a true friend, and a moderate 
and quiet neighbour, who has made 
the propofal to him, and who has 
agreed to it, confidering the interefts 
of the moft Faithful king as his 
own, and wifhing to unite the 
one with the other, fo as that, 
either in peace or in war, Spain 
and Portugal may be confidcred as 
belonging to one mafter ; and in 
order that, if any power fhall 
think of making war with Spain, 
they may not imagine they fhall 
find, in her ov>'n houfe, fhelter and 
fuccours to attack her, as happen- 
ed with regard to Portugal, iit 
the wars, which king Philip the 
fifth, his father, and father-in-law 
of the moft Faithful king, was ob- 
liged to fupport againft England : 
How much more glorious and more 
ufeful will it be for the moft Faith- 
ful king to have for his ally, a Ca- 
tholic king, his near relation, his 
neighbour in Europe and America, 
to afTift each other mutually and 
with eafe, than the Englifh nation, 
incapable, by their haughtinefs, of 
confidering other fovereigns with 



equality, and always defirous to 
make them feel the influence of 
their power : and what occafion can 
the moil Faithful king have for the 
affiftance of England, when, by an 
olfenlive and defenfive league, he 
fhall be united with Spain and 
France ? 

that the Catholic king thinks, there 
can be no doubt, but that the moll 
Faithful king his brother-in-law, 
will yield to them, without ilcp. 
ping a moment; fo much the more, 
as his Catholic majeily, before mak- 
ing this invitation, and in order to 
prevent the danger which the mari- 
time places of Portugal might run, 
when the part taken by his moil 
Faithful maiefly fhoiild come to the 
knowledge of the Englifli, his Ca- 
tholic majeily has caufed his troops 
to march to the frontiers of Portu- 
gal, fo that in a very few days, 
they may garrifon the principal 
ports of the kingdom, and they 
will do it, after ilie anfwer of the 
moll Faithful king, which, doubt- 
lefs, will be as fpeedy, as clear, 
and as decif:ve,as the nccelTity, and 
the pofitive decermination of his 
Catholic majeily to prevent the 
defigns of his enemies, require. — 
Liibon, the 16th of March, 1762. 


Don Joseph Torrero. 

Jaqj;es Bernard O'Duir. 

The two minifters added to this 
memorial. That they were ordered 
by their courts to demand a catego- 
rical anfwer in four days, and that 
every delay beyond that term would 
be confidered as a negative. 

^ratijlation of the atijkuer of the fe- 
cretary of fate of his mof Faith' 
ful majejiy, to the foregoing me- 
morial of the Spanijb amba£adcr, 
and the minifier plenipotentiary of 

DON Lewisda Cunha,fecretary 
of llate to the moll Faithful 
king having laid before his majef- 
ty, the memorial, which his ex- 
cellency M. Torrero, the Catholic 
king's ambalTador, and M. O'Dun, 
miniiler plenipotentiary from the 
moll Chriilian king, at this court, 
delivered to him the i6th of this 
month, wherein, after having de- 
clared the reafons of the prefent 
war, broken out between the faid 
two monarchs, and England, his 
moll Faithful majefty is invited to 
unite himfelf, by an offenlive and 
defenfive league to the two courts 
of Verfailles and of Madrid, againft 
England ; to break off all com- 
munication and commerce witk 
the Englilh ; to treat them as com- 
mon enemies, not only of the three 
allied powers, but of all the mari- 
time ones ; to drive them from his 
ports, to fhut them againll all (hips 
of war and merchant Ihips, and to 
join the Portuguefe forces to thofe 
of France, and of Spain, to ob- 
tain, by this means, the objecl of 
the faid war ; the amballador of 
the Catholic king finally declaiing. 
That that monarch, before he cauf- 
ed the above-mentioned memorial 
to be prefented to the king, had 
ordered his troops to march to the 
frontiers of Port'Jgal, to prevent 
the defigns of the Englilh, who 
might have furprized the maritime 
places of this kingdom, when the 
clFenfive union of his moll faithful 
majeily, v,i:h their Catholic and 


2o6] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

jnoft Chriftian mnjefties, ftiould 
come to their knowledge. 

The king having taken the con. 
tents of the aforefaid memorial into 
ferious confideration, in theprecife 

invariable principles of his majef- 
ty's mind, and of all religious and 
magnanimous princes, fuch as the 
Catholic and moft Chriftian kings. 
Thatbefides thefeconfiderations. 

term of four days, has ordered his his moft Faithful majefty,loving his 
fecretary of ftate to anfwer ; fubjefts as a father, and being ob- 
That his moft Faithful raajefty is liged to attend to their prefervation 
fenfiblyaffefted, at feeing the flames asking, it is eafy to fee, that he 
of war kindled between the powers would be wanting both to one and 
with whom he is clofely connedled the other, if he fhould oblige them 
by ties of blood, and of friendfhip, to endure the calamities of an of- 
and byfolemn treaty, fuch as Spain, feniive war, which they are not in 
France, and Great Britain : That a condition to fupport, after the 
his moft Faithful mnjeftywifties that misfortunes which have happened 
thofe fame ties, and the neutrality in Portuga.1, by the long ficknefs of 
he obferves, may enable him to the late king, his majefty's glorious 
propofe by his mediation a renewal father; by the earthquake in the 
of the conferences broken off at year 1755 ; and by the horrible 
London, fome time fince, and to confpiracy of 1758. 
fee if, by this means, it may be That his moft Faithful majefty, 
poffible to reconcile interefts and upon thefe principles of religion, 
minds ; fo that, without further humanity, and public faith, having 
etiufion of human blood, an ad- embraced the fyftem of neutrality, 
vantageous, neceffary, and ufeful has given orders to repair his ports, 
peace may be obtained. and maritime places, and to pro- 
Thai his moft Faithful majefty. vide them with every thing necef- 
difpofed as much as pofiible to com- fary, and to equip a fufficient num- 
ply with the propofal m.ade on the berof fhips of war to protefl them ; 
part of the Catholic and moft Chrif- he has caufed his troops to be held 
tian kings, defires them neverthe- ready, and at hand, to prevent, in 
lefs to reflect on the unfurmount- the faid ports and maritime places, 
able obftacles, which hinder him thofe accidents which might hap- 
from entering into the oftenfive pen there : all thefe diipofitions 
league propofed to him. That the having been made for the common 
court of Portugal having ancient advantage of the powers at war, 
and uninterrupted alliances with the without diftinftion of any : and in 
Britifh court, for many years paft, order that the fubjedls of the fame 
byfolemn and public treaties, pure- powers may enjoy the proteftion 
lydefenfive, and, as fuch, innocent; and hofpitality granted, and reli- 
and not having received any imme- ligioufly obferved in all times, in 
diate offence on the part of Great the ports of this kingdom, accord- 
Britain, to break the fame treaties, ing to the common rule of the law 
his moft Faithful majefty could not of nations, and the praftice of all 
enterintoanoffenlive league againft the courts, who have no intereft to 
that court, without being wanting take part in the wars which are 
to the public faith, religion, fide- kindled between other nations. 
lity, and decorum, which are the In fhort, the above-mentioned 




fecretaryofftateofhi? mcftFaithf"i:I 
roajeilv, has the king's orders to teli 
his excellency Don Joreph rorrero, 
in order that he may tranfmit it to 
the king his mailer, that his molt 
Faithful maierty, fincc theaccelTion 
of his Catholic majelly to the throne 
of Spain, has always given him the 
xnoft dillinguifhed marks of a bro- 
ther who loves him, of a fincere 
friend, and of a neighbour who has 
forgotten nothing to cultivate an 
intimate correfpondence with him, 
even fo far as to itipulate by the 
laft treaty of the 12th of February 
of the preceding year, even when 
the acquifitions of the king were in 
queltion— ** That he preferred to 
every other intered, that of remov- 
ing thefmallefloccafion, that might 
become an obllacle to, or alter, not 
only the good correfpondence due 
to his friendfhip, and to the ftricl 
ties of blood, but that might pre- 
vent an intimate union between 
their refpeclive fubjecls." The 
king hopes, that the moment his 
Catholic majeity (hail havereflefled 
upon all thefe marks of love, of 
friendfhip, and of uninterrupted 
difpofitions to pleafe him, and ihall 
have weighed them with the force 
of the realons above-cited, he will 
fee on the one hand that thef? rea- 
fons alone, which exceed the limics 
of the king's power, hinder him 
from entering into the league pro- 
pofed to him ; and, on the other 
hand, he will alfo fee, that it is im- 
poffible for any thing to be done in 
the ports of this kingdom contrary 
to the interells of his Catholic ma- 
jelly, and to the firm neutrality 
which this court confiders as a ue- 
ceflary principle of her fyftem. 

Don Lewis da Cukha. 
Palace, 20 March, 1762. 

Tr.inJIaticn of a fecciid Kftrrrial cf£ador of Spain ^ and cf the 
m'n-fttr ylcnipotentiary of France, 
deli^jer-d to M. da Cunka the \fi 
cf April 1762. 

DON Jnfeph Torrero, ambafTa- 
dor of the Cathulic king, and 
don James O'Dun, minifter pleni- 
potentiary of the moft Chnuian 
king ; the iirft in virtue of new- 
orders which he has received from 
his Catholic majefty, after he had 
feen the anfwer given by his excel- 
lency don Lewis da Cunha, fecre- 
tary of ftate to the moll Faithful 
king, dated the 20th of March laft, 
to the memorial which the two 
miniilers delivered to him ; and 
the fecond, in confequence of the 
fyftem which the king his mafter, 
and the Catholic king, his coufin, 
have enlbraced, to keep themfelves 
fo united, that the intereft of the 
one may be rheintereii of the other: 
the faid amb-iflador and miniiler 
plenipotentiary, with the profound 
refpedl due to the monarch of Por- 
tugal, defirous to fatisfy the rea- 
fons fet forth, by his royal order, 
in the faid anf.ver of his excellency 
monf. da Cunha, of the 20th of 
March laft ; and at the fame time 
infilling on thofe which they pro- 
duced in their memorial of i6:h ef 
the faid month, thev humbly de- 
clare to his moll Faithful majefty : 

That their Catholic and moft 
Chrillian majefties are thoroughly 
perfuaded, that the misfortunes of 
war, which they fulFer, are not in- 
different to his moil Faithful ma- 
jefty, and that he would have wifhed 
to contribute to the happinefs of 
peace ; but unfortunately it is not 
in his power to do it, except by 
force, (and that is what they in- 
vite him to) in order to reduce the 


io8] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1761. 

enemy not to defpife propofals of 
accommodation, as they lia-^e hi- 
therto done. 

That, if there fliould be a new 
negotiation for peace, their Ca- 
tholic and mort Chriftian majeflies 
would accept the mediation of his 
moft Faithful majefty, out of regard 
to his facred perfon ; but the par- 
tiality which his miniftry has fhewn 
for the Englilh, defiring to defend 
their neutrality in the courfe of the 
prefent war, would make his moll 
Chriftian majefty fear, with reafon, 
that the mediation of his moft 
Faithful majefty would not be fa- 
vourable to him ; and the Catholic 
king would aft contrary to his own 
decorum, if he (hould, on his fide, 
admit it, when he calls to mind the 
conduft of the court of Liftjon, on 
the king's offers to accommodate 
the differences with the court of 
Rome, without having been able to 
obtain from Portugal any mark of 
confidence, or defire of reconcilia- 
tion with the holy fee (an incre- 
dible thing) except the fingle an- 
fwer, That hitherto God had not 
granted the favourable mo7nent for 

That their Catholic and moft 
Chriftian majefties thoroughly be- 
lieve his moft Faithful majefty's 
averfion to war, and his conftant 
difpofition for peace : their ene- 
mies alfo know them, fo as to make 
advantage of them. 

That the defenfive alliances with 
the court of London, which his 
moft Faithful majefty fets forth to 
fhew the impoflibility of his accept- 
ing the ofFeniive and defenfive 
league propofed to him, cannot be 
any obftacle to him : that the rea- 
fbns, given on this fubjeft, are not 
founded, and that thofe fame al- 
liances are not fo innocent, as they 
would have them thought. 

They are not an obftacle j bft- 
caufe there is no alliance which is 
obligatory, when thequeftion is to 
fhake off a yoke, which one nation 
would lay on another : and that is 
the projeft already far advanced, 
of England on Portugal. 

They are not founded ; becaufe 
notwithftanding it is affured, that 
the crown of Portugal has not re- 
ceived any offence from England, 
to induce her to a breach of trea- 
ties, the contrary is clearly mani- 
fefted ; for wha^ ftronger offence 
than that of attacking a French, 
fquadron in one of the ports of 
Portugal ? This fingle infult is 
fufficient to give his moft Faithful 
majefty a right to declare war 
againft his Britannic majefty, if 
he has not given a fuitable fatif- 
faftion for it ; and if he has done 
it, without at the fame time ob- 
taining reftitution of his moft 
Chriftian majefty's (hips, the moft 
Chriftian king has a right to de- 
clare war againft his Faithful ma- 

Thefe alliances are not fo inno- 
cent, though they are called purely 
defenfive ; becaufe they become ia 
reality ofi^enfive, from the fituation 
of the Portuguefe dominion, and 
from the nature of the Englifh 
power ; the Englifti fquadrons can- 
not keep the fea in all feafons, or 
cruize on the principal coafts for 
cutting off the French and Spanifh 
navigation, without the ports, and 
the affiftance of Portugal : thefe 
iflandets would not infult all ma- 
ritime Europe ; they would let 
others enjoy their poffeflions, and 
their commerce, if all the riches of 
Portugal did not pafs into their 
hands : confcquently Portugal fur- 
nilhes them with the means to 
make war; and their alliance with 
the faid couit is oifenfivei and if 




tiot, it is afked, by what reafon 
England lliculd be obliged to fend 
troops to the glTiHance of Portugal, 
and not Portugal to the afllrtance of 
England : if it is not, becaufe Eng- 
land finds a compenfation in the 
indireft a'Jiflance of Portugal, by 
means whereof fhe makes war 
againrt Spain and France. 

The faid alliances v,'ere made in 
the beginning of this century, when 
there were animofities, occafioned 
by the preceding pofTeffion of Spain, 
and for as long as they might lail i 
thofe animofitie?, however, are 
now ended, and two brothers are 
polTefibrs of Spain and Portugal ; 
fhall it then be allowed between 
two brothers, for the one to furnifh 
arms to the enemy of the other ? 
Necellity might, then, have autho- 
rifed the king of Portugal to adopt 
an alliance contrary to his true fyj- 
tem, and to his decorum: now he 
ought to be glad of the neceffity, 
which others lay upon him to make 
ufe of his reafon, in ordef to take 
the road of his glory and common 

That, if the moft faithful king 
loVes his fubjecls, as a father, and if 
he ought to preferve them, as king, 
their Catholic and molt Chriilian 
majellies not only approve it, but 
they imitate it, by pitying their fub- 
jefls for fo many calamities : how- 
ever, their majefties are not blame- 
able for thofe they fuffer by war, no 
more than his moit faithful majefty 
v/ill be, when he enters into it with 
fo much juftice as the prefent: he 
ought, on the contrary, to hope, 
by the affiftance of God, and of 
his good allies, for new fplendor 
to his crov/n, and the greateft ad- 
vantages to his fubjcas: they will 
then enjov a Urong and folid fvftem. 

Vol. V, 

as well in peace as war ; whereas 
by that of an union with the Eng- 
lifh, the rife and uncertain ',y of the 
alHirance of Great Britain to defend 
them againft Spain, may be now 
feen by the very precautions takea 
by Portugal; even luppcfing, with 
reafon, that the kingdom of Portu- 
gal ought not to be indifferent to 
the Englifh; and that they ought 
to be offended w ith the proceedings 
of Spain. 

That their moftChriftian and Ca- 
tholic majetlies do not complain of 
his mofi: faithful majefiy's caufing 
his places to be repaired and gar- 
rifoned, his ports to be guarded by 
fhips of war, and his troops to ap- 
proach the places where they might 
be neceffary : thefe are precautions 
of a wife and prudent prince : their 
mnjeilies might, however, complaia 
of the preference given to England, 
to fend fuccours to Portugal, for 
theobjed, of thofefame precautions ; 
to keep at Lilbon an Englifh gene- 
ral, feveral aids-de-camp, and other 
ofHcersj fince it is not poffible but 
that they will concert military pro- 
jefts, according to the felicitations 
of the Portuguefe miniiler at Lon- 
don, which are public, and which, 
the Englilh ihemfelves do not con- 
ceal. But as his molt faithful ma* 
jelly is ftill in time to embrace the 
moft juft party, the two monarch* 
of France and Spain flatter them- 
felves, that the preparations of the 
king of Portugal may acquire an 
ally; being well affured, that they 
will give him but little umbrage, 
and, on the contrary, that they will 
produce much advantage to him. 
If the Englifh had been convinced, 
that the preparations were only a- 
gainft the offenders of the neutra- 
lity, theyv^'ould not have contribut- 
[Pj ed 

210] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

ed thereto with fuch good-will, fince 
they would have furnifhed arms a- 
gainll themfelves. 

That his Catholic majefty is fen- 
fible of the good- will and tender- 
ncfs, which his moft faithful ma- 
jelly has fhewn for him, fince his 
acceflion to the throne of Spain, and 
particularly of the readinefs with 
which his mod faithful majefty 
complied with the annulling the 
treaty of limits in Peru, by that of 
the 1 2th of February 1761, in or- 
der to avoid the confequences which 
might lefult from the bad conduft 
of the officers and governors, to 
whom the execution of that treaty 
had been intruded : however, the 
friendfhip and complaifance of his 
Catholic majefty was not lefs re- 
markable, when he himfelf propof- 
ed thatexpedient, without thinking 
cf others which he might have 
made ufe of: v/hat he did then, 
and what he now propofes, by 
sgreentent with the mofi: Chriftian 
king, prove that the ties of blood 
are flronger in the mind of the Ca- 
tholic king, than the flattering ideas 
cf aggrandifement. 

Finally, the ambaffador of Spain, 
and the minifter plenipotenti;irv of 
France, repeat what they have al- 
ready fet forth in the memorial of 
the 1 6th of March, they infift on 
the demand therein contained, and 
they declare to the moft faithful 
king. That without further repre- 
frntations, or his confent, the Spa- 
siih troops already on the frontiers, 
will enter Portugal, lor the fingle 
objed of advancing, till they fhall 
obtain, that the ports of Portugal 
be not at the difpofal of the enemy ; 
having, at the fame time, the moft 
precife orders, not to commit, with- 
•ut reafon, the leaft hoftility againii 

the fubjecls of the moft faithful 
king; to pay them, in ready mo- 
ney, for whatever they fhall furnifh 
to them, as if the one and the other 
belonged to the fame mafter. It 
remains for his moft faithfuTm-a- 
jelly to chufe either to receive thefe 
troops as allies, or to refufe them 
entrance or fabfiftence, and to op- 
pofe them as enemies; for then 
the two allies will take all pofliblc 
precautions, on the fufpicions, al- 
ready too much founded, that the 
court of Lifbon, by intelligence, for 
fome time paft, with that of Lon- 
don, will march out to meet them, 
with Englifti forces, in order to 
hinder their juft deilgns, and ta 
make them bloody, contrary to ths 
fentiments of their heart. Lifbon, 
the 21ft of April, 1762. 
Don Joseph Torrero, 
Don Jaques O'Dun. 

Tra/iJIafion of the enfwer to the fe- 
cond 7nemorial of the fninifters cf 
Spain and France, of April I, 

DON Lewis da Cunha, fecretary 
of ilateofhismoftfaithfi-1 ma- 
j;fty, having laid before the king 
the memoriji, which his excellency 
M. Torrero, ambaffador of the Ca- 
tholic king, and M. O'Dun, mi- 
nifter plenipotentiary of France, 
remitted to him the firft of this 
month; infifting upon all the de- 
mands which they had made in 
the firil: memorial of the i6th of 
March lall, notwithilanding therea- 
fons given or. the part of the king, 
by the memorial, in anfwer, of the 
20th of the faid month : and de- 
claring fardier, that, without any 




Othcrreprefentation, and even with- 
out the confent of his moll faithful 
majelly, the Spanilh troops, already 
upon the frontiers, fliould enter in- 
to Portugal, to feize his ports, and 
to fhut them up; and that there 
only remained to his moil faithful 
miijefty the choice of receiving 
them as friends, or of treating them 
as enemies ; the king has ordered 
his fecretary of ftate to anfwer : 

That his molt faithful majelly 
(notwithJlanding a declaration fo 
lurprifing and unexpefted) periifts 
in the fentiments which he has al- 
ways at heart, of complying vvi:h 
the willies of their Catholic and 
moft Chriilian majefties; neverthe- 
lefs he cannot perfuade himfelf, 
that it is in his power to break the 
defenfive treaties which he has wita 
Great Britain, without that court's 
having given him motives fo ftropig, 
and of luch immediate intereil to 
Portugal, as to oblige him to under- 
take a war, and to make the people, 
whom his mcjefty ought to pre- 
ferve, endure the calamities of his 

That he can no more perfuade 
himfelf, that the faid treaties, which 
fubfilted, for fo manyyears pall, be- 
tween Portugal and Great Britain, 
are offenfive, as is infinuated in this 
laft memorial, on account of the 
commerce which Portugal allows to 
the Englilh fubjecls; on the con- 
trary, this reafon, and the others 
alledged therein, are the bafis and 
the fpirit of all defenfive treaties; 
it being generally known to all the 
world, that thefe fortof treaties con- 
fift of engagements between the 
powers, to enable ihem the better 
to defend and maintain themfelves, 
by the fuccours which one receives 
from the other, either in troops or 
inoney, or in fomething elfe which 

may be of advantage to them ; and 
this is the cafe of the treaties of 
league and commerce between Por- 
tugal and Great Britain, and it is 
what the law of God, of nature, 
and of nations, and the univerfal 
pradlice of all nations, have always 
deemed innocent, without there 
ever having been any power, who 
would undertake to force others to 
break thefe fame treaties, becaufe 
they find their intereft in it, and. 
would prefer the fame private and 
particular intereft to the common, 
and univerfal one, of the public 
tranquillity of neutral powers; to 
attack them and invade their do- 
minions, efpeciallv among mo- 
narchs fo religious as their Catholic 
and mofl Chriilian majefties. 

That the unbounded confidence 
which his moll faithful majeily has 
always had in the ties of blood, the 
friend ihip, and the good neigh- 
bourhood which he has always cul- 
tivated with his Catholic majeily, 
canno: be better proved, than by the 
filence and tranquillity with whick 
the king has feen^ for a long time 
paft, his frontiers almoil blocked 
up and Infefted; the commerce of 
corn prohibited, the Spanifh maga- 
zines upon the faid frontiers filled 
with all farts of military flores, and 
the places fwarming with troops, 
without his moil faithful majeily's 
having given the leall order to his 
ambalTador at Madrid to know the 
obJ2*^ of thefe preparations. 

That after having acted with fuch 
fincerity, tranquillity, and good 
faith, at the time only when hii 
moft faithful m.^jelty faw that it was 
neceffary for him to lillen to the 
clamours of his fubje£ls, and to pre- 
ferve his royal decorum fro':n th5 
univerfal cenlure of all Europe, 
which had fpread even into every 

[P] % public 

212] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

public news-paper: and at the fame 
time that it was known to all the 
world, that the Icirgdom of Portu- 
gal was in want of experienced 
officers, his moll faithful majelly 
invived over lord Tyrawley ; he al- 
fo toc^k fome Engli(h officers and 
of other nations, to exercife his 
troops, as has been conftantly 
praftifed in his kingdom, nnd as 
their Catholic and moft Chrillian 
majeilies, and all fovereigns in ge- 
neral, praftife alfo, without there 
arifing any fufpicious dillrull from 
fuch a proceeding. 

That his moft faithful majefty, 
pafTingover in filence the reproaches 
againll individuals, who only exe- 
cute the orders of their mailers, to 
give an anfwer upon the affair of 
M. de la Clue's fquadron, niuft 
uecefTarily call to mind, that hav- 
Ipg received from the king of 
Great Britain the moft obliging re- 
paration for whatconcerns the rights 
of the territory, and of the port, 
Bear which the French velTels were 
taken, and having by repeated foli- 
citations demanded rellitucion of 
thofe (hips, as he has aiTured the 
jTioll Chriftian king, his mcft faith- 
ful majelly thinks that it is more 
natural to obtain the reftitution of 
the faid lhips,from the friendfl-iip of 
his Britannic majefty, at a conve- 
nient opportunity, than to under- 
take it by the means of a precipitate 
war, which might perhaps render 
the hid reftitution impraJlicable. 

That his moft fauaful m<'ijefty 
hopes, that the Iblidity of thefe rea- 
fons will make upon the minds cf; 
their Catholic and moft Chriftian 
jn^jefties an iraprefTion worthy of 
their religion, and of their hu- 
manity; and that they will per- 
ceive the crying injuftice of purfu- 
ingagainft Portugal the war kindled 

againft Great Britain; that they 
will give an example, that would 
produce thcdeftruftion of mankind, 
if neutral powers were to be attack- 
ed, becaufe they have defenfive 
treaties with thebelligerentpowers ; 
that a maxim fo dellrudive would 
occafion defolation in all Europe, 
the moment a war was kindled be- 
tween two nations ; and that his 
moft faithful majefty, under thefe 
circumftances, could not recede 
from the neutrality which he adopts 
for his fyftem, without lofing.even 
with their Catholic and moil Chrif- 
tian majefties, that good opinion 
which he prefers to every other in- 

That, for thefe reafons, and, in 
the unexpefted cafe of the Spaniih 
troops entering Portugal, (under 
any pretence whatever), not only 
without his moft faithful m^jefty's 
permilFion, but contrary to his ex- 
prcfs declaration, made in the me- 
morial of the 20th of March, and 
repeated by the prefent, making a 
declaied and oftenfive war againft 
him, by this violent and unexpect- 
ed invafion : in fuch a cafe, his 
r'.oft faithful mr.jefty, no longer 
able (without offending the laws of 
God, of nature, and of nations, and 
without univerfal cenfure) to avoid 
doing his utmoft for his own de- 
fence, has commanded his forces to 
hold themfelves in rcadinefs, and to 
join with thofc of his allies, in fup- 
port of the neutrality, which is the 
only and fingle obj:!i1 for which 
they Ihall be employed. 

His moft faithful majefty de- 
clares finally, will affeil him 
lefs (though reduced to the laft ex- 
tremity, of which the Supreme Judge 
is the fole arbiter) to let the lift tile 
of his palace fail, and to fee his 
faithful fubjtas fpill the lall drop 




of their blood, than tofacrificc, to- 
gether with the honour of his crovvn, 
ail that Portugal hold? moft dear, 
and to fubmir, by fuch extra. 
ordinary means, to become zn 
unheard-of example to all pacific 
povvers, who will no longer be 
able to enjoy the benefit of neutra- 
lity, whenever a war iTiall be kind- 
led between other powers with 
which the former are conneded by 
defenfive treaties. Palace of Al- 
cantara, the 5th of April, 1762. 

DoK Lewis da Cunha. 

TranJIatisTi of a third memorial prC' 
fented to the fecretary of J} ate, Don 
Le'Mis da Cunha, by Don "Jofsph 
Torrero, his Catholic majejiy^ s am- 
bajjador, and M. "J antes O' Dun^ 
his moji Chrijlian majejly^s mini- 
Jler plenipotentiary, on the 23.V of 
April, 1762. 

DON Jofeph Torrero, his Ca- 
tholic majedy's ambaifador, 
and M. James O'Dun, his moft 
Chrillian majefry's minifter pleni- 
potentiary to the king of Portugal, 
agreeably to the inilrudions and or- 
ders of their augufl: fovereigns, to 
put an end to the negociation which 
they arejointiy engaged in and have 
purfoed, 'n order to bring his moft 
faithful majefty over to his true in- 
tereft, vVhich although expofed to 
the contingencies of war, yet is 
furely for his honour and glory, to 
unite his forces to thofe of France 
and Spain, and endeavouring to 
fnakeofFthe prejudicial dependen- 
cv on England, which the Portu- 
guefe nation labours under ; the 
faid ambafTador, and minifter ple- 
nipotentiary, having loft all hopes 
that their mafters fhould attain 
this fo laudable and heroic a 

purpofe ; either becanfe the For- 
tuguefe monarch and his minifter, 
being accuftomed to this evil, do 
nnt perceive it, or elle becaufe the 
common enemy has gained a de- 
fpoiic power over their underlland- 
ing ; fince they will not admit of 
thofe reafons which their Catholic 
and moft Chrlftian majefties have, 
with fo much friendftiip, and fuch 
good intentions, reprefented; and 
knowing that although veryeafy, it 
would be abfolutely afelefs to refute 
thofe contained in his excellency's 
Don Lewis da Cunha's laft memo- 
rial, delivered to them on the 5 th of 
this month, they will only lay be- 
fore the moft faithful king, through, 
his means, a curfory refutation 

That it is a matter of great con , 
cern to the kings their mafters, that 
the moft faithful king, by confef* 
fing, that England has given him 
caufe to break the defenfive treaties, 
which he does, in faying, that it is 
notof fo great, or fo immediate, in- 
tereft to Portugal, a=! to outweigh 
the calamities of war : if his moft 
faithful majelly has weighed in the 
fame fca'e thofe of a war with Eng- 
land, and thofe of maintaining it 
againft France and Spain, he has 
chofen the latter, with little regard 
to their power, and great difregard 
of their friendftiip, fince he joined 
himfelf to one who has offended 
him, whether much or little, to 
offend thofe who have given him no 
other motive, than that of perfuad- 
ing him to what would be moft 
convenient for him. 

The king and his minifters can- 
not, becaufe they will not, be per- 
faaded, that thefe defenfive treaties 
with the Englifti, are oftenfive ones 
with regard to Spain and France, 
the arguments to the contrary, al- 

\P\ 3 kdged 

ai4l ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

ledged in the preceding memorials, 
being unanfvverable ; and the com- 
paring them to thofeof other powers 
ill grounded, his fituation and cir- 
cumllances being extremely diffe- 
rent from theirs. 

That their moll Chriilian and Ca- 
tholic majefties, far from finding 
any merit in the friendlv confidence 
of his moll faithful majeity, from 
the filence obferved by his ambaf- 
fador at Madrid, upon the military 
preparations that were miking and 
carrying on upon the frontiers of 
Portugal; this has from the bo- 
ginning raifed in them a difirull, 
which, to their great concern, is 
now confirmed by the experience of 
his preferring theallianceof the king 
of Great Britain to theirs ; for other- 
wife he would in a friendly manner 
have inquired into the defign of 
fuch preparations, and have endea- 
voured to have fet on foot a negocia- 
tion, which their Catholic and moil 
Chriftian majeflies could not imma- 
turely folicit at the known hazard 
of having their views difcovered by 
the court of Liibon to that of Lon- 
don, which then held, and Hill holds 
poffeflion of their afFeftions, Cer- 
tain it is, that that of Lilbon had 
already taken the refolation withia 
itfelf, which It is now obliged todlf- 
cover ; and that the apparent in- 
difference with which it faw what 
is called the blockade and infefla- 
tions of its frontiers without fpeak- 
ing of it in Madrid, was a latent 
fire for foliciting fuccours in Lon- 
don ; thus s:-fpoiing difguifed pre- 
paration 5'^^,CK^open ones. That not- 
withfta^'dittg the courtof Lifbon in- 
iifts that there is no differ nee be- 
tween her neutrality and th t of o- 
ther powers, and that there is no 
right to force them out of it, they 
jT-L-y be afTured, that it is by no 

means looked upon as a point of 
indifference, on account of the in- 
conveniences experienced by Spain 
in other wars with the Englilh, and 
beperfuaded, thatif the breach with 
their Catholic and moft Chridian 
majeflies {hould bring upon th;- moil 
fcjithful king thofe which, united 
with the king of Great Britain, he 
does not fear, to thefe will be added 
the diffatiifaclion, in the opinion 
of the moll found and judicious 
part of Europe, of his having had 
it in his power to avoid them. 

That fince his moft faithful ma- 
jeily erroneoufly founds hiso^^'n ho- 
nour, and that of his crown , not in 
delivering himfelf from the truly op- 
preffive yoke of the Englifh, but in 
oppofing the entry ofSpanifh troops 
into Portugal, who come to his af- 
fillance and defence, their Catholic 
and moil Chriilian majeflies found 
theirs in attempting it, and will 
fuitain it with as much inflexibility 
as his moft faithful majefty, when 
he heroically declares, that rather 
than abandon Portugal, he will fee 
the lail tile fall from his palace, and 
fpill the laft drop of his fubjefts 

And finally, that the moft faiths 
fui king having, upon the alterna-f 
tive propofed to him, preferred the 
rehfting the prrry of Spanilh troops 
as encmiei, to admitting them as 
friends ; and coniequently the en- 
mity of their Caiholic and moft 
Chriftian majefties to their friend- 
fhip, there is nothing more unne- 
cefTary, andeven unbecoming, than 
the continuance of the above-men- 
tioned ambaffador of Spain, and 
minifter plenipotentiary of France, 
near his moft faithful majefty ; 
therefore they befeech him, and 
hope he will be pleafed to direft the 
neceiTary paflpotts to be furnilhed, 




that each may Immediately repair 
to his refpciflive court. Lilbon, 
April 23, 1762. 


Jacques Bernard O'Dun. 

Tranjlation of the. anf^ivcr to the fore- 
going tncmonal, 

DON Lewis da Cunha, in exe- 
cution of the orders which he 
has received from the mofl: faithful 
king, his mafter, in anfwer to what 
is contained in thememcrial, which 
was prefented to him on the 23d 
day of the prcfent month of April, 
by his excellency Don Jofeph Tor- 
rero, ambaffiidor from the Catholic 
king, and by M. James XD'Dun, 
miniller plenipotentiary from his 
mofl: Chrillian majefty, informs 
them : 

That having pofnive orders to 
fet apart, from the fobfl:ance of the 
bufinefs under confideration, the 
ad\'entitious warm expreifionSjfuch 
as have hitherto never been ufed 
between fovereigns, with which the 
faid memorial is filled ; his moft 
faithful majefty has found in it no- 
thing new, that, by giving an open- 
ing to negotiation, fhould make 
him alter his former refolutions, 
communicated in the anfwers of 
him, the fecretaryofrtate, dated the 
ZOth of March lart, and the 5th of 
the prcfent month of April, 

That theejFeclive rupture, which 
the faid allied minifters have now 
owned, in fuch clear and exprcfs 
words, was not matter of furprife 
to his majefly, after having feen 
that this unexampled negotiation 
was opened by notifying to his moll 
faithful majelty, in the firft memo- 
rial of the i6th of March laft, that 
it had been determined between 
the courts of Paris and Madrid, 

without any previous notice to his 
majefty, to make the neutral king- 
dom of Portugal the theatre of .var, 
to oblige his moft faithful majelty 
calmly to fee his provinces and 
ports occupied by Spanifh armies j 
to intimate to him, that, for this 
purpofe, the faid armies were al- 
ready ported upon the frontiers of 
this kingdom : adding to all this, 
that he ought not only to infringe 
al! the treaties of peace and com.- 
merce, which he has with the crown 
of England, but likewife to declare 
an ofFenfive war againft the faid 
crown ; the whole conceived in a 
Ityle by no means gentle or per- 
fuafive, but rather expreffing, ia 
the Ibongefl terms, that the inten- 
tion was not to negotiate, but to 
break ; and his faid moft faithful 
majefty having feen this confirmed 
in the fecond memorial, prefented 
by the faid Don Jofeph Torrero, 
and M. James O'Dun, on the firft 
inftant, therein declaring, that his 
Catholic majefty had already given 
ultimate orders, that his troops 
ihould enter the dominions of this 
kingdom, without waiting for any- 
other anfwer, or con Tent of his moft 
faithful majefty. 

That his faid moft faithful ma- 
jefty folely places his honour and 
glory in being faithful to his royal 
word ; in the obfervance of the du- 
ties of his crown ; and of religion 
and humanity, which forbid his en- 
tering into an ofi^enfive war againft 
any power, although ever fo in- 
different to him, and although not 
allied bv reciprocal treaties, which 
have been adhered to for this age 
paft; as are thofe which fubfift with 
the crown of England. 

That their Catholic and mo* 
Chriftian majefties have been in- 
formed with very little fmcerity, if 
[P] 4 any 

2i6] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

any body has fuggefted to them 
that any claufc in the anfwers, 
which went from this couir on the 
20th of March, and the 5th of the 
prcient month of April, could be 
inieipjeted in the fenfe that his 
iHolt faithful majefty fhouid own, 
that England had given caufe to 
break thofe ancient defenfive alli- 
ances ; becaufc, on the contrary, he 
owes to the crown of Great iiritain 
all that good harmony, which is 
the natural efled of tiicfe ancient 

That his mofl faithful majeRy, 
who has a high opinion of the 
power and fricndihip of their moil 
Chriliian and mnit Catholic majef- 
ties, cannot doubt that their faid 
niifjrilies would be the fird todif- 
approveof the ftep of breaking his 
neuirsHcy, to make an offenfive 
war againil his allies, in the man* 
iicr already related. 

That his faid roajefly fees no 
oiher difference between his neu,- 
trality and that of other powers, 
than the manner in which his fron- 
tiers are befet, under no other pre- 
tence than the perfuafion, that it is 
convenient to the courts cf Paris 
and Madrid, that Portugal ihould 
break through all the above-men- 
tioned ties. Butfurcly mere con. 
veniency, without any legitimate 
title, has never hitherto autho- 
xifed belligerent powers to attack 
thofe which are neuter, and who 
enjoy the advantages attending on 

That his moft faithful majefty 
couKi win., ihat the blame imputed 
to him for not having complained 

not be mifunderftood, that the faid 
blockade and infellation were or- 
dered from the time of the Family- 
compad, to invade and feize upon 
this kingdom ; which are terms 
that plainly {hew, that Portugal 
was neither to afk nor expedl fuc- 
ccurs from the faid courts, which 
had j(^ined thcmfelves in alliance to 
attack it ; and that the latent fire 
has always been on the fide of thofe 
vvho had determined to aft ofFcn- 
fively^ tir.d not on the fide of him 
v;ho has endeavoured, and does on- 
ly endeavour, to defend and pre, 
fervc hinifelf in peace, which, by 
all lav, > of God, of nature, and na- 
tions, he has a right to do. 

That if his Catholic majeily were 
truly informed of what has happen- 
ed in preceding wars, he would 
find, that his crown and fubjeCts 
have reaped many and great bene- 
fits, upon feveral occafions, from 
the peace infeparable from the neu- 
trality of Portugal, and of which 
there are in Madrid many living 
witneiTes ; and that it has not been 
the crown of England alone which 
has profited by the neutrality and 
peace of Portugal. 

That, finally, his moft faithful 
majefty underftands that he ha? the 
fame right to defend his kingdom 
from invafion, which is permitted 
to every private perfon, who is in- 
difpeniably obliged to defend his 
own houfe .Ti^-^nft any body that 
fhoulu enter it without his confent. 
And 0'"\ his majefty, confining 
himfeli' a) this fole point of the na- 
tural defence of the neutrality and 
peace of his kingdoms, ports, and 

that the frontiers of his kingdom fubjefls, will exert his ptmoft efforts 
were hiocked up and infefted,wtre together with his allies, in cafe, 

notwithftarding all that has been 
related, he be attacked ; and has 
given the neceffary orders, in his 
Secretary's office^ that Don Jofeph 

r>c t lo fu'ly provec! by the fsid me- 
morials. ot :hc i6th .of March, and 
the firll inftant, where it was de- 
clared in exprefs words, which can- 



Tcrrero, and M. James O'Dun, 
be furnilhed with the ufual pafl- 
ports, as foon as they pleafe to fend 
for them ; and that, in fach cafe, 
expreiles be Tent to his ambaflador 
don jofeph de Silvan da Pccantra, 
and to his minilter Pedro da Cofta 
de Almeeda, with orders to leave 
the courts of iVIadrid and Paris, in 
the fame manner as the laid ambaf- 
fador of his Catholic majeily, and 
nunifiier plenipotentiary of his moll 
Chriilian m,MJefty, do here. 
PulaceofMcaniara,^-ipril 25, 1762, 
Don Lewis da Cunha. 

M. da Cunha, upon deliveringr to 
the Spanifn and French minii!:ers 
the above anfwers to their memo, 
rials, acquainted them at the fame 
time, that the pafi'ports, which they 
had demanded, would be ready, 
whenever they pleafed to fend for 
them ; accordingly they took up 
their paffports the 26th, and the 
barges being ready for them, they 
fct out the 27th. 

decree, or declaration of--war, ijjiicd 
by order of his PortugnJ'e majejiy 
agaifijt Spain. 

WHereas the ambaffiidor of 
C^ftile, don Jofeph Torrero, 
in ccnjunftion with don Jacob O' 
Dun, minifter plenipotentiary of 
France, by their reprefen rations, 
apd the anfwers I have given there- 
to, it appears that one of the pro- 
jects agreed to between the afore- 
faid powers in the Family-padl was, 
to difpofe of thefe kingdoms as if 
they were their own, to invade 
them, to occupy them, and ufurp 
them, under the incompatible pre- 
text of aflilting me againft enemies, 
which they fuppofed for fuch, that 
never exilted j and whereas diiicr- 

ent general officers of his Catholic 
majefty have fucceflivcly, lince the 
50th of April laft, fpreau various 
papers through my dominions, 
prefcribing laws and fanftions to 
my fubjcds, invading at the fame 
time my provinces with an army 
divided into various bodic;, attack- 
ing my fortified places, and perpe- 
trating all the aforefaid holliliijes, 
under pretence of directing thein 
to the advantage and glory of my 
crown, and of my fubjcdb, and ia 
fuch light even the Catholic king 
himfclf has reprefented the cafe to 
me ; and whereas, notwithlland- 
ing all the contradiftory and un- 
heard-of motives, an ofFenfive war 
has been made agaiult me, contrary 
to truth and jultice, by the afore^ 
faid two monarchs, through mutual 
confent; 1 have ordered it to be 
made known to ail my fubjeds, 
that they hold all difturbers or vio- 
lators of the independent fove- 
reigins of my crown, and all inva- 
ders of my kingdom, as public ag- 
greflbrs and declared eneniies ; that 
from henceforward, in natural de- 
fence, and neceffary retortion, they 
be treated as aggreflbrs and declar- 
ed enemies, in all and every fenfe; 
and to oppofe them in their perfons 
and eH^eds, all military perfons and 
others authorifed by me, make ufe 
of the moft executive means which 
in thefe cafes are fupported by ail 
laws; and that in like manner all 
the faid milisiary perfons, of what- 
ever rank, quality, or condition they 
be, quit ailcommunication andcor- 
refpondence with the faid enemies, 
under the penalties decreed againft 
rebels and traitors. I likewife or- 
der that ail the fubjects of France 
and Spain, that refide in this city, 
or in the kingdom of Portugal and 
Al^arva, retire within the ptecife: 


2i8] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

term of 1 5 days, to reckon from the 
day of the publication cf this de- 
cree, otherwife they fhall be treated 
as enemies, and their effects connf- 
catcd ; and that in all the wet as 
well as dry ports of this kingdom, 
all commerce and communication 
ceafe with the aforefaid monarchies 
of France and Spain, and all fruits, 
inr:nufaftures,or goods of any kind, 
of the produce of the faid monar- 
chies, be deemed contraband, and 
the entry, fale, and ufe of them be 
prohibited. Ordered, that this de- 
cree be affixed and traufmitted to 
every country, that it may come to 
the knowledge of all my fubjeds. 
I have given orders to the intendanc 
general of the people to grant paff- 
ports to all the aforefaid, vyho have 
entered thefe kingdoms, bona fide, 
on their bufinefs, that they be per- 
mitted to retire unmolefted. 
palace of Nrjfa Scnhora da Adjuda, 
iSf/j of May, 1762. 

With the rubric of his majefty. 
Publifhed 23d May, 1762. 

Aktokio Luiz De Cordes, 

y>6f ki»g of Spa'ai's declaration of 
fwar againfi Portugal, ijjued the 
1 6th day of June, 

NEITHER myrcprefentations 
founded in jufticeand utility, 
nor the fraternal perfuafives with 
which I accompanied them, have 
been able to alter the king of Portu- 
gal's blind affedionfortheEnglilb. 
His miniftcrs, engaged by long ha- 
tit, continue obilinate in their par- 
tiality, to the great prejudice of his 
fubjeds ; and I have met with no- 
thing but refufals, and been infult- 
cd byhis injurious preference of the 
friendlhip rf England to that of 
Spain and Fr mce. I have even re- 
ceived a perfocal affront by thear- 

refting of my amba/Tador, don Jo« 
fephTorroro,at Ertremos, who was 
detained there, in violation of his 
charader, after he had been fuffer- 
ed to depart from Lifbon, and had 
arrived on the frontier, in virtue of 
paffports from that court; but not- 
withftandingfuch infults were pow- 
erful motives for me to keep no 
longer any meafures with the king 
of Portugal, neverthelefs, adhering 
to my firft refolution of not making 
an offenfive war againll the Portu- 
guefe, unlefs forced to it, I deferred 
giving orders to my general to treat 
them with the rigours of war : but 
having read the edid of the king of 
Portugal of the i8th of laft month, 
in which, mifrcprefenting the up- 
right intentions of the moil Chrifti- 
an king and myfelf, he imputes to 
us a preconcerted defign of invad- 
ing his dominions ; and orders all 
his vaffals to treat us -as enemies, 
and to break off all correfpondence 
with us, both by fea and land ; and 
forbids the ufe of all produdions 
coming from our territories, confif- 
cating the goods of the French and 
Spaniards, and likewife ordering 
them to leave Portugal in a fort- 
night, which term, however ftrait, 
h?s been further abridged, and 
many of my fubjeds have been ex- 
pelled, plundered, and ill treated, 
before the expiration of it. And 
themarquisde Sarria havingfound» 
that the Portugaefe, ungrateful to 
his goodnefs and moderation, and 
the exadnefs with which they have 
been paid for every thing they have 
furniihed for my troops, have pro- 
ceeded fo far as to excite the people 
and foldiery again ft my army ; fo 
that it would be didionourable to 
carry my forbearance any farther. 
For thefe caufes I have refolved, 
that from- this day my troops fhall 



treat Portugal as an enemy's coun- 
try, that the property cf the Porta- 
guefeihouldbeconfifcated through- 
out mv dominions, that all the Por- 
tu^uefe fhall leave Spain in a fort- 
night, and that all commerce with 
them fhall be prohibited for the 

On June 25, the king of Spain 
fent to the viceroy of Navarre, and 
to the governors of the provinces 
of Spain, an order in the folliwing 
te'-ms : 

** Since the Portuguefe, through 
an inveterate hatred far the Spaniili 
name (a hatred founded only on 
heredicary prejudice-) have carried 
their barbarities to fuch extremities, 
as to cut off the ears and nofes, or 
in other cruel manner to mutilate 
fevera! Spaniards who were leavino- 
Portugal in confequence of the de- 
claration of war, who are arrived 
on our frontiers thus mutilated and 
disfigured ; and as the Portuguefe 
government has endeavoured to 
ihake, by motives of intereft, that 
iidelity and love which good fub- 
jedls owe their country, bypublifh- 
ing, on the 17th, at Yelves, and 
without doubt through all their 
frontiers, th'atany Spaniard banilh- 
ed from Spain, who would retire 
with his wealth to Portugal, fhall 
enjoy all forts of franchifes, and be 
treated as a native there : although 
his majefty believes that he has no 
fubjed fo unworthy the name of a 
Spaniard as to be tempted by fucli 
offers ; if, however, there fhould 
be anyone fo bafe, be it known to 
him from this hour, that if he fhould 
at any time return to Spain, he fhall 
luifer the infamy and punifhment 
due to traitors and deferters of their 
country. His majefly orders you 


to publifh the prefen t edifl through- 
out your jurifuidion. 

D. Richard Wall." 

The French king's declaration ofiiuar 
againji Portugal, 

TH E king and the Catholic 
king, being obliged to fup- 
port a war againft England, have 
entered into reciprocalengagements 
to curb the exceffive ambition of that 
crown, and ihe defpotiim which it 
pretend- to ufurp, in every fea, and 
particularly in the Eaft and Weft 
Indies, over the trade and navi- 
gation of other powers. 

Their majelHes judged, that one 
proper flep for attaining this end 
would be, to invite the king of Por- 
tugal to enter into their alliance. 
Itwas natural to think that the pro- 
pofals which were made to that 
prince, on that fubjeft, in the name 
of his majefty and of his Catholic 
majefty, would be readily accepted. 
This opinion was founded on the 
confideration of what the moft 
faithful king owed to himfelf and 
to his people, who, from the be- 
ginning of this prefent centurv, 
have groaned under the imperious 
yokeof the Englilla. Befides, the 
event hath but too clearly fhewo 
the necefEty of the juft meafures 
taken by France and Spnin with re- 
gard to afufpicious and dangerous 
neutrality that had all the inconve- 
niences of a concealed war. 

The memorials prefented to the 
court of Lifbon on this fubjetfl have 
been made public ; all Europe hath 
feen the folid reafons of juflice and 
conveniency which were the foun- 
dation of their demand on the king 
of Portugal; to thofc were added, 
on the part of Spain, motives of the 


2^o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

raoft tender friendfhip and affinity, 
\vliich ought to have made the 
fkongeft and moft falutary impref- 
fion on the mind of the moll faith- 
ful king. 

But thefe powerful and juft con- 
fiderations were fo far from deter- 
mining that prince to unite with 
his majefty and his Catholic ma- 
jefty, that he abfolutely rejected 
their offers, and chofe to facrince 
their alliance, his own glory, and 
the good of his people, to his unli- 
mited and blind devotion to the 
will of England, 

Such conduct leaving no doubt 
concerning the king of Portugal's 
true intentions, the king and the 
Catholic king could confider him, 
fi-om that time, only as a dircd and 
perfonal enemy, who, under the art- 
ful pretext of a neutrality which 
wo uldnotbeobferved, would deliver 
up his ports to the difpofal of the 
Englifh, to ferve fcr fheitering-pla- 
ces for ihHr fliips, and to enable 
them to hurt Frnnceand Spain with 
more fecurity, and with more efteft. 
Neverthelefs, his ivuj'-fty and his 
Catholic majeliy thought it their 
duty to keep meafures with the 
moft faithful king; and if the Spa- 
nifh troops have entered Portugal, 
this invafion, which was become 
jndifpenfably neceflary, was not ac- 
companied with any declaration of 
War ; and the troops have behaved 
with all the circumfpettion that 
could be required even in a friendly 
and neutral flate. 

All this moderation has been 
thrown away ; the king of Portugal 
hath juft now declared war in form 
againft France and Spain. This 
unexpeded ftep forced the Catholic 
king to make the like declaration 
againft Portugal ; and the king [of 

France] can no longer defer taking 
the fame relolution. 

In dependentofthe motives which 
are common to the two monarchs, 
each hath feparate grievances to al- 
ledge againft Portugal, which of 
themfelves would be fufficient to 
juftify the extremity to which their 
majefties fee themfelves with regret 
obliged to proceed. 

Every one knows the utmoft and 
violent attack made by the Englifh, 
in 1759, on fome of the [French] 
king'^ fhips under the cannon of 
the Portuguefe forts at Lagos. His 
majefty demanded of the moft faith- 
ful king to procure him rcftitution 
of thofe ftiips: but that prince's mi- 
nifters, in contempt of what was 
due to the rule of juftice, the laws 
of the fea, the fovereignty and ter- 
ritory of their mafter, (all which 
were indecently viclaied by the 
moft fcandalous infraction of the 
rights of fovereigus and of nations) 
in anfv er to the repeated requifi- 
tions of the king's anib.iflador on 
this head,madeon!y vague fpeeches, 
with an air that bor- 
dered on derilion. 

At the fame time, the court of 
Lifbon, pretending to be ignorant 
that fovereigns, whohold their rank 
of their birth only and the dignity 
of their crown, c?n never permit, 
under any pretext, any potentate 
to attempt to infringe prerogatives 
and rights belonging to the anti- 
quity and majefty of their throne, 
hith pretended to eilablifti without 
diftinflion an alternative of pre- 
cedence between all theambaffadors 
andforcign miniftersabitut the king 
of Portugal. The king, being in- 
formed by his ambaffador of the 
notification that had been made to 
him of this extraordinary and un, 



exampled regulation, fignified In 
writing to the moft faithful king 
his julldiflatisfaclion; and his ma- 
jelly declared, that he never would 
fufrer any attempt to be made to 
diminifn the right e/Tentially inhe- 
rent in the reprefentative charadler, 
with which lie is pleafed to honour 
his ambafTadors and miniftcrs. 

However jullly the king was au- 
thorifed to exprefs, at that time, 
his difpleafure on account of thofe 
grievances, and feveral other fub- 
jeds of complaint which he had re- 
ceived from the court of Portugal, 
his majelty contented himfelf with 
recalling his ambafTador, and con- 
tinued to keep up acorrefpondence 
with the moll faithful king, which 
he very lincerely defued to render 
more intimate and more lafting. 

That prince, therefore, can only 
blame himfelf for the calamities of 
a v/ar, which he ought, on every 
account, to have avoided, and 
which he hath been the firft to de- 

His ofrcrs to obferve an ex^act 
neutrality might have been liftened 
zo by the king, and the Catholic 
king, if pall experience had not 
taught them to guard againlt the 
illufion and danger of fuch pro- 

In the beginning of the prefent 
century, the court of Lifbon was 
very forward to acknowledge king 
Philip V. of glorious memory, and 
contrafted formal engagements with 
France and Spain. Peter 11. who 
at that time filled the throne of Por- 
tugal, feemed to enter cordiallyinto 
the alliance of the two crowns; 
but, after diflembling his fecret in- 
tentions for three years, he broke 
all his promifes, and the neutrality 
which he had afterwards folicited, 
and which, in a letter to the re- 

public of the United Provinces, he 
had even advifed her to embrace,, 
and joined the enemies of Francs 
and Spain. The fame confidence, 
and the fame fecurity, on the pare 
of the two crowns, in the prefent 
flate of things, would undoubtedly 
hnve been followed by the like de- 
feclion in the court of Liibon. 

United to the Catholic king by 
indifToluble fentiments of tender 
friendfhip and common interefts, 
the king hopes that their united 
efforts will be favoured by the God 
of holls, and will in the end compel 
the king of Portugal to conduct 
himfelf on principles more conform- 
able to found policy, the good of 
his people, and the ties of blood 
which unite him to his majefly and 
his Catholic majefty. 

The king commands and enjoins 
all his fubjefts, vafTals, and fervants, 
to fall upon the fubjecls of the king 
of Portugal; andexprefsly prohibits 
them from having any comm.unica- 
tion, commerce, crintelligencewith 
them, on pain of death; and ac- 
cordingly his majefty hath from this 
date revoked, and hereby revokes, 
all licences, pafTports, fafe-guards, 
and fafe-condufts contrary to thefe 
prefent;, that may bavebeen granted 
by him or his lieutenant-generals, 
and other oScers: declaring them 
null and void, and of no effedt, 
and forbidding all perfons to pay 
any regard thereto. And whereas, 
in contempt of the XVth article of 
the treaty of peace between France 
and Portugal, figned at Utrecht, 
Apjl II, 1713, (and by which it is 
exprefsly fiipulaced, " That in cafe 
of a rupture between the two 
crowns, the fpace of fix months 
after the faid rupture lliall be grant- 
ed their fubjeds refpeclively, to fell 
orreraovetheirclfefts, andwiihdrai/v 



their pcrfons if they think fit") the 
king of Portugal hath juft now or- 
dered that all the French who are 
in his kingdom (hould leave it in 
the fpace of fifteen days, and that 
their efFefls Ihould be confifcated 
and fequellered ; his majeily, by 
way of juft reprifals, commands, 
that all the Portuguefe in his domi- 
nions fhal!, in like manner, leave 
them within the fpace of fifteen days 
from the date hereof, and that all 
their efFeds liiall be confifcated. 
Verfailles, June 20, 1762, 

Papers relati've to the late re^jolution 

in RuJJia. 
Mamfijlo of the prefent emprefs cf 

Ru£la, on her accejfion to the throne 

as tndtpcnder.t fovereign. 
J ^^^Atherine II. by the grace 

\^ of God, emprefs and auto- 
cratrix of all the Ruffias, l£c. cifr. 
All the true fons of Rufiia have 
clearly feen the great danger to 
which the whole Ruffian empire 
hath in faft been expofed. Firfr, 
the foundations of our orthodox 
Greek religion have been fnaken, 
and its traditions expofed to total 
ruin; fo that there was abfolutely 
<rround to fear, that the faith, which 
hath been eftabliihed in Ruflia from 
the earlieil: times, would be entirely 
changed, and a foreign religion in- 
troduced. In the fecond place, the 
^lory which Rufua has acquired at 
the expence of fo much blood, and 
which was carried to the greateft 
height by her victorious arms, has 
been trampled under foot by the 
peace lately concluded with its 
greateft enemy. And laftly, the 
domeftic regulations, which are the 
bafisof the country's welfare, have 
been totally overturned. 

For thefe caufes, overcome by 
the imminent dangers with which 

GISTER, 1762. 

our faithful fubjefts were threaten- 
ed, and feeing how fmccre and ex* 
prefs their delires were on this head, 
we, putting our truft in the Al- 
mighty and his divine juftice, have 
afcended the fovereign imperial 
throne of all the Ruffias, and have 
received a folemn oath of fidelity 
from all our faithful fubjefts.' 

This publication being made, the 
emprefs caufed the following note 
to be delivered to the foreign mi- 
nillers, for their information. 

* Her majefty, the emprefs, hav- 
ing this day afcended the imperial 
throne of all the Ruffias, at the 
unanimous defire and preffing in- 
ftances of all her faithful fubjefts 
and true patriots of this empire, 
hath commanded notice thereof to 
be given to all the foreign minifters 
refiding at her court, with an af- 
furance of her imperial majefty's 
invariable refolution to live in good 
fniendftiip with the fovereigns their 
ra afters. 

The foreign minifters Ihall foon 
have notice of the day when they 
may have the honour to pay their 
court and prefent their compliments 
of congratulation to her imperial 

Pecerft)urg, June 28. O. 3. 1762. 

Some days afterwards the emprefs 
ifpied the folloi-vhig inaniffflo, gi'v- 
ing an account of her motives for 
taking the reins of government intt 
her hands. 

We Catherine II. by the grace of 
God, emprefs and fovereign of 
all the Ruffias, 

Mafting known thefe prefents to all 
our loving fubjeds,ecciefiaftical, 
military, and civil. 

OUR acceffion to the imperial 
throne of all the Ruffias is a 




manifeft proof of this truth, that 
when fincere hearts endeavour for 
^ood, the hand of God dire^ls 
them. We never had either deiign 
or defire to arrive at empire, thro' 
the means by which it hath pleafed 
the Almighty, according to the in- 
fcrutable views of Providence, to 
place us upon the throne of Rufiia, 
our dear country. 

On the death of our mod auguft 
and dear aunt, the emprefs Eliza- 
beth Petrowna,ofglorious memory, 
all true patriots (now our mofi: faith- 
ful fuhjefls) groaning for the lofs 
of fo tender a mother, placed their 
cnly confolation in obeying her ne- 
phew, whom (he had named for her 
fuccelTor, that they might {hew 
thereby, in fome degree, their ac- 
knowledgments to their deceafed 
fovereign. And, although they 
foon found out the vveaknefs of his 
mind, unfit to rule fo vaft an em- 
pire, they imagined he would 
have known his own infufficiency. 
Whereupon they fought our mater- 
nal affiftance in the affairs of so- 

But when abfolute power falls to 
the lot of a monarch, who has not 
fufRcient virtue and humanity to 
place jufl; bounds to it, it degene- 
rates into a fruitful fource of the 
moft pernicious evils. This is the 
fum, in fhort, of what our native 
country has fuflered. She ftruggled 
to be delivered from a fovereign, 
who, being blindly given up to the 
moft dangerous paflions, thought 
of nothing but indulging them, 
without employing himfelf in the 
welfare of the empire committed to 
his care. 

During the time of his being 
^rand-duke, and heir to the throne 
©f Ruilia, he often caufed the mofl 

bitter griefs to his moHauguft aunt 
and fovereign, (the truth of which 
all our court knows) however h© 
might behave himfelf outwardly ; 
being kept under her eye by her 
tendernefs, he looked upon this af- 
feclion towards him as an infup- 
portable yoke. He could not, how- 
ever, difguife himfelf fo well, bur 
it was perceived by all our faithful 
fubjefts, that he was poffefTed of the 
moft audacious ingratitude, which 
he fometimes fhewed by perfonal 
contempt, fometimes by an avowed 
hatred to the nation. At length, 
throwing afide his cloak of hypo- 
crify, he thought it more fit to let 
loofe the bridle of his pailions, than 
condudl himfelf as the heir of fo 
great an empire. In a word, the 
leaft traces of honour were not to 
be perceived in him. What were 
the confequences of all this ? 

He was fcarcely affured that the 
death of his aunt and benefaftrefs 
approached, but he banifned her 
memory entirely from his mind ; 
nay, even before flie.had fent forth 
her laft groan. He only caft sn eye 
of contempt on the corpie expofed 
on t?ie bier; and, as the ceremony 
at that time required obliged him 
approach it, he did it with his eyes 
manifeftly replete with joy ; evea 
intimating his ingratitude by his 
words, I might add, that the ob- 
fequies would have been nothing 
equal to the dignity of fo great and 
magnanimous a fovereign, if our 
tender refpeiTc to her, cemented by 
the ties of blood, and the extremff 
afFeilion between us, had not mads 
the care of it a duty to us. 

He imagined that it was not to 
the Supreme Being, but only to 
chance, that he was indebted for 
al^folute power, and that he had 



h in his hands, not for the good 
of his fubjefts, but folely for his 
fatisfaftion. Adding therefore li- 
cence to abfolute power, he made 
all the changes in the Hate, whicii 
the weaknefs of his mind could 
fuggeft, to the oppreffion of the 

Having effiiced from his heart 
even the Icalt traces of the holy 
Orthodox religion (thougli he had 
been fufiicienily taught the princi- 
ples thereof) he began firlt by root- 
ing oat this true religion, eHablifn- 
ed fo long in Ruliia, by abfenting 
himfelf from the houfe o( God, 
and of prayers, in fo open a man- 
ner, that fome of his fubjefts, ex- 
cited by confcience and honefty, 
feeing his irreverence and contempt 
of the rites of the church, or rather 
the railleries he made of thera, and 
fcandalizing them by his behaviour, 
dared to make remonftrances to him 
concerning it ; who, for fo doing, 
fcarcely efcaped the refentment 
which they might have expefted 
from fo capricious afovereign,whofe 
power was not limited by any hu- 
man laws. He even intended to 
dellroy the churches, and ordered 
fome to be pulled down. He pro- 
hibited thofe to have chapels intheir 
own hnufes, whofe infirmities hin- 
dered them from viliting the houfe 
of God, Thus he would have do- 
mineered over the faithful, in en- 
deavouring to ftifle in them the fear 
of God, which the holy fcripture 
teaches us to be the beginning of 

From this want of zeal towards 
God, and contempt i^f his laws, 
refulted that fcorn to the civil and 
natural laws of his kingdom ; for, 
having but an only fon, which God 
had given us, the grand-duke Paul 
Petrowitz, he would nor, when he 

afcended the throne of Ruflia, df • 
cjartt him for his fucceflbr ; that be- 
ing referved for his caprice, which 
tended to the detriment of us and 
of our fon, having an inclination to 
overthrow the right that his aunt 
had veiled in him, and t© make the 
government of our native country 
pafs into the hands of ftrangers ; 
contradicting this maximof natural 
right, according to which nobody 
can tranfmit to another more thnn 
he has received himfelf. 

Although with great grief we 
faw this intention, we did not be- 
lieve that we ourfelver, and our* 
moll dear fon, fhould have been ex- 
pofed to a perfecution fo (evere : 
but all perfons of probity having 
obferveJ that the meafurcs that he 
purfued, by their eiiefts, manifell:- 
ed that they had a natural tendency 
to our ruin, and that of our dear 
fucceifor, their generous and pious 
hearts were jullly alarmed : Ani- 
mated with zeal for the intereft of 
their native country, and aftoniflied 
at our patience under thefe heavy 
perfecutions ,they fecretly informed 
us, that our life was in danger, ia 
order toengage us to undertake the 
hurthen of governing fo large an 

While the whole nation were on 
the point of telHfying their dif- 
approbation of his meafures, he 
neverthelefs continued to chagrine 
them the more, by fubverting all 
thofe excellent arrangements efta- 
blilliedby Peter the Great, our moft 
dear predece/lbr, of glorious me- 
mory, which that true father of hia 
country accompliflied by indefati- 
gable pains and labour through the 
whole courfe of a reign of thirty 
years. The late Peter the Third 
defpiied the laws of the empire, 
and her .moll refpeftable tribunal?. 



to fuch a degree, that he could not 
even bear to hear them mentioned. 

After one bloody war, he rafhly 
entered upon another, in which tlie 
interelh of Riiffia were no way con- 
cerned. He entertained an infu- 
perable averfion to the regiments of 
guards, which had faithfully ferved 
fiis illuitrious anceftors, and made 
innovations in the army, which, far 
from exciting in their breafts noble 
fentiments of valour, only ferved 
to difcourage troops always ready 
to fpiil their beil blood in the caufe 
of their country. He changed en- 
tirely the face of the army ; nay, 
it even feemed, that by dividing 
their habits into fo many uniforms, 
and giving them fo many different 
embellifhments, for the moft part 
fantaftical to the greateft degree, 
he intended to infufe into them a 
fufpicion that they did not, in ef- 
feft, belong to one mailer, and 
thereby provoke the foldiers, in the 
heat of battle, to flay one another ; 
although experience demonftrated 
that uniformity in drefs had not a 
little contributed towards unani- 

Inconfiderately and incefTantly 
bent on pernicious regulations, he 
fo alienated the hearts of his fub- 
jedls, that there was fcarce a fmgle 
perfon to be found in the nation 
who did not openly exprefs his dif- 
approbation, and was even defirous 
to take away his life : but the laws 
of God, which command fovereign 
princes to be refpefted, being deep- 
ly engraved on the hearts of our 
faithful fubjedls, reiirained them, 
and engaged them to wait with pa- 
tience, till the hand of God flruck 
the important blow, and by his fall 
delivered an opprefied people. Un- 
der thofe circumftances, now laid 
before the impartial eyes of the 


public, it was, in fadl, impoffible 
but our foul fhould be troubled with, 
thofeimpending woes which threat- 
ened our naii've country, and with 
that perfecution which we, and our 
moft dear fon, the heir of the Ruf- 
fian throne, unjuftly fuffered : be- 
ing almolt entirely excluded from 
the imperial palace; in fuch fort, 
that all who had regard for us, or 
rather thofe who had courage e- 
nough to fpeak it (for we have not 
been able to iind that there is one 
perfon who is no: deducted to our in- 
tereft) by expreffing theirfentiments 
of refpeft due to us, as their em- 
prefs, endangered their life, or at 
lead their fortune. In fine, the en- 
deavours he made to ruin us, rofe to 
fuch a pitch, that they broke out 
in public, and then charging us 
with being the caufe of the mur- 
murs, which his own imprudent 
meafures occafioned, his refolution 
to take away our life openly ap- 
peared. But being informed of his 
purpofe, by fome of our trufty fub- 
jesfts, who were determined to de- 
liver their country, or perifh in the 
attempt, relying on the aid of the 
Almighty, we chearfully expofed 
our perfon to danger, v/ith ail that 
magnanimity which our native 
country had a right to expeft, ia 
return for her aifcftion to us. After 
havinginvoked the Moll High, and 
repofed our hope in the divine fa- 
vour, rxe refolved alfo either to 
facrifice our life for our country, or 
fave it from bloodlhed and calami- 
ty. Scarcely had we taken this re- 
folution, by the direftion of favour- 
ing Heaven, and declared our affent 
to the deputies of the empire, than 
the orders of the ftate crowded to 
give us afTurances of their fidelity 
and fubmilTion, 

226] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

It now remained for us, in pur- 
fuance of the love vvp bore our 
faithful fubjefts, to prevent the 
confequences which we apprehen- 
ded, in cafe of the late emperor's 
inconfiderately placing his confi- 
dence in the imaginary power of 
the Holftein troops, (for wiiofe fake 
he flayed at Oranjebaum, living in 
indolence, and abandoning the mofl; 
preHing exigencies of the Itate), and 
there occalioning a carnage, to 
which our guards and other regi- 
ments were ready to expofe them- 
felves, for the fake of their native 
country, for ours, and that of our 
fucceflbr. For thefe reafons we 
looked upon it as a neceffary duty 
towards our fubjedls (to which we 
were immediately called by the 
voice of God) to prevent fo great a 
misfortune, by prompt and proper 
meafures. Therefore, placing our- 
feJves at the head of the body- 
guards, regiments of artillery, and 
other troops in and about the royal 
lefidence, we undertook to difcon- 
cert an iniquitous defign, of wiiich 
we were, as yet, only informed in 

But fcarcely were we got out of 
the city, before we received two 
letters from the late emperor, one 
quick on the heels of the other. — 
The firlt by our vice-chancellor the.- 
prince Gallifzin, . Jntreating us to 
allov/ him to return to HolSein, his 
native dominions ; the other by ma- 
jor general Michel Ifmailoff, by 
which he declared, that of his own 
proper motion he renounced the 
crown and throne of Ruiiia. In 
this lail he begged of us to allow 
him to withdrasv to Holftein with 
Elizabeth WoronzolF Goudowick. 
Thcfe two laft letters, Jfuff'cd w'nh. 
flattering exprefiions, came to our 
hands a i&\y hours after he had 

given orders for putting us to death, 
as we have been fince informed 
from the very perfons who were 
appointed to execute thofe unna- 
tural or^^r?,. 

In the mean time, he had ftill 
refources left him, which were to 
arm againll us his Holftein troops, 
and fome fmall detachments then 
about his perfon ; he had, alfo^ in 
his power feveral perfonages of dif- 
tinftion belonging to our court ; as 
he might therefore have ccmpelUdw% 
to agree to terms of accomodation 
ftill more hui tful to our country, 
(for after having learned what 
great commotions there were among 
the people, he had detained them 
as hoftages at his palace of Oranje- 
baum, and our humanity would 
never have confented to their de- 
ftru6lion, but, to fave their lives, 
we would have rifked feeing a part 
of thofe dangers revived by an ac- 
commodation), feveral perfons of 
high rank about our perfon requeft- 
ed us to fend him a billet in return, 
propofing to him, if his intentions 
were fuch as he declared them to be, 
that he (hould inftantly fend us a 
•i/cluntary and formal renunciation 
of the throne, wrote by his own 
hand, for the public fatisfatSlion.-— 
Major-general ffm ail off carried this 
.propofal, and now behold the wri- 
ting- which he fent back. 

During the Jhort /pace of my ah- 
folute reign ever the empire of Ru^a, 
I l>eca?ne fenftble that I ivas not able 
to fupport fo great a burthen, and 
that my abilities nfjere not equal to the 
tafk of go'verning fo great an empire , 
either as a fo<vereign, or in dny other 
capacity 'Xvhate^ver. I alfo fcrefavj 
the great troubles luhich tnujl ha've 
from thence arofe, and ha-ve been fol- 
lo-i'j'ed 'I'jith the total ruin of the. em- 



pire, and cc'jered menicith eternal d:f- 
grace. After having therefore Jeri- 
cujly reflecicd thereon, I declare, 'with- 
out coiijiraint, and in the mof folettin 
7nan:ie.r, to the RuJ/ian etnpire, and to 
the -ivhole uni'oerfe , that I for enjer re- 
vcim.e the government cf the jaid em- 
fire, never dejiring hereafter to reign 
therein, either as an abfolute fo~ue~ 
rclgn, cr under any other frm of go- 
n,'eri27ncnt ; iie-jcr lui/hi'/'g to ajpire 
thereto, to ufe any means, cf any fort, 
for that purpofe. As a pledge of 
i.i:hich, I fzvear fncerily , before God 
and all the 'world, to this prefent re- 
nunciation, ivrote and (igned this 
li^th of June, 1762, O. S. 


It IS thasj without foilHng ona 
drop of blood, that we have af- 
cended the Ruffian throne, by the of God, and the approv- 
ing fuiFrages of our dear country. — 
H'Jrnbly adoring the decrees of Di- 
vine Providence, we affure oar 
faithful fubjeds, that we will not 
fail, by night and by day, to in- 
voke the Moil High to blefs our 
fceptre, and enable us to wield it 
for the maintenance of our ortho- 
dox religion, the fecurity and de- 
fence of our dear native country, 
and the fupport of juftice ; as well 
as to put an end to all miieries, ini- 
quities, ard violences, by ilrength- 
ening and fortifying our heart for 
the public good. And as we ar- 
dently wiui to prove eftedually how 
far we merit the reciprocal love of 
our people, for'whofe happinefs we 
acknowledge our throne to be ap- 
pointed, we folemnly promife, on 
our imperial word, to make fuch 
arrangements in the empire, that 
the governDient may be endued 
V»i:h an intriiic force to fupport 

itfelf within limited and proper 
bounds ; alid each department cf 
the ftate provided with wholefome 
laws and regulations, fufficient to 
maintain good order therein, at all 
times, and under all circumftanccs. 
By which means we hope to eila- 
blifh hereafter the empire and our 
fovereign power, (however they 
may have been formerly weakened), 
in fuch a manner as to comfort tha 
difcoaraged hearts of all true pa., 
triots. We do not in the leaft doubt 
but that our loving fubjecls will, as 
well for the falvation of their owa 
fouls, as for the good of religion, 
inviolably obferve the oath which 
they have fworn to us in prefence 
of the Almighty God; we there- 
upon affure them of our imperial 

DooeatPeteriburgh,July6, 1762. 

Her imperial majtfiy^ s declaration, 
■ i5<;. on the death of the emperor 
her hifhand. ■ 

WE Catherine II. by the grace 
trefsof all the Rullias.— Greeting, 

The 7th day after our acceffioa 
to the throne of all the Ruffian, we 
received information, that the late 
emperor Peter III. by the means of 
a bloody accident in his hinder 
parts, commonly called piles^ to 
which he had been formerly fubjed, 
obtained a moft violent, griping 
colic. Th^t therefore we might 
not be wanting in Chriftian duty, 
nor difobedient to the holy com- 
mandment by which we are obliged 
to preferve the life of car neigh- 
bour, we immediately ordered that 
the faid Peter fhould be furniih.'d 
with every thing that might be 
judged neceffary to prevent tha 

[^j 2 dangerofi? f 


228] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

dangerous confequences of that ac- 
cident, and to reftore his health by 
the fuccours of medicine. But to 
our great regret and aifliftion we 
learned yefterday evening, that, by 
the permifiion of the AliTiighty, the 
lace emperor departed thi? life. We 
have therefore ordered his body to 
be tranfported to the monaftery of 
Newikv, in order 'o its being bu- 
ried there. At the fame time, with 
our imperial and motherly voice, 
vve exhort our faithful fubjefls to 
forget and forgive what is pail, to 
pay the lalt duties to his body, and 
to pray to God fincerely for the 
peace of his foul ; befeeching hem, 
however, at the fame time to con- 
fider this unexpefted and fudden 
death as a fpeclal elfeft of the Di- 
vine Providence, whofe decrees pre- 
pare for us, for our throne, and 
for our country, things only known 
to his holy will. 

Done at St. Peterfourg, July y^. 

Papers relating to the re-eji&hlijhinent 
of -peace. 

Declaration deli'vered by the emperor 
of RuJJta's order to the Imperial^ 
French, and S-ixediJh minijiers re- 
fditig at St. Peterjburg. 

HIS imperial majefly, who, up- 
on his happy acceuion to the 
throne of his anceftors, looks upon 
it to be his principal duty toe::tend 
and augment the welfare of his fub- 
jecls, fees with extreme regret, that 
the flames of the prefent war, 
which has already continued for fix 
years, and has been for a long time 
burthenfome to all the powers en- 
gaged ia it, far from tending now 

to a conclafion, are, on the con- 
trary, gathering frefh (Ircngth, to- 
the great misfortune of the feveral 
nations ; and that mankind has {o 
much the more to fufFer from this 
fcourge, as the fortune of arms, 
which has been hitherto fubjtd to 
fo many viciffitudes, is equally ex- 
pofed to them for the future. 

Wherefore his imperial majefty, 
comfwflionating, through his hu- 
mane dif^oution, the eitunon of 
innocent blood, and being defirous, 
on his part, of putting a ftop to fo 
great an evil, has judged it necef- 
fary to declare to the courts in alli- 
ance with Ruffia, that, preferring 
to every other confideration the 
firft law which God prefcribes to 
fovereigns, which is the preferva- 
tion of the people intrufted to them, 
he ^ifhes to procure peace to his 
empire, to which it is fo neceflary, 
and of fo great value ; and, at the 
fame time, to contribute, as much 
as may be in his power, to the re- 
eflabliOiment of it throughout all 

It is in order to this, that his im- 
perial majefty is ready to make a 
facrifice of the conquefts made by 
the arms of Ruflia, in this war, ja 
hopes that the allied courts will, on 
their part, equally prefer the reflo- 
ration of peace and tranquillity to 
the advantages which they might 
expeft from the war, and which 
they cannot obtain but by the con- 
tinuance of the elFufion of human 
blood. And to this end his im- 
perial majefty, with the beft inten- 
tion, advifes them to employ, on 
their fide, all their power towards 
the accomplilliment of fo great and 
fofalutary a work. 

St. Peterfburg, Feb. i}, 176 



^he anj\ver of the emprefs- queen to 
the foregoing declaration. 

Til AT animated with the fame 
2.-3l,andbeing of the fame opi- 
nion, as his imperial majeftyj with 
regard to the falutary work of 
peace, and to the putting an end to 
the troubles and ravages that defo- 
late Germany, fhe was ready to 
concur with him therein ; but that, 
for that end, fhe defired his impe- 
rial majefty to furnilli her with the 
mean sofbeginning the negotiation, 
by imparting to her the propofed 
terms of peace, which Jhe would, 
without lofs of time, communicate 
to her high allies, who, as well as 
herfe'f, would be always ready to 
co-o)perate in a matter fo much de- 
firec, provided the term.s were not 
inadmiffible, and contained nothing 
injurious either to their honour, or 
her honour. 

The anfdcer ginjen by the French court 
to the declaration. 

THE king maintaining, with 
regret, thefe fix years pall, a 
twofold war for his own defence 
and that of his allies, has fufficient- 
ly m.auifeJred, on every occafion, 
how muf h he abhors the eft'ufjon of 
human blood, and his conllant de- 
lire to put an end to fo cruel a 
fconrge. His perfbnal difintereft- 
ednefs, the fleps which he thought 
C0L'.id be taken confurent with his 
dignity, and the facrificei which 
he did ofter, in order to procure to 
Europe the defirnble blelling of 
peace, are fure pledges of the hu- 
mane fentiments with which his 
heart abounds. But, at the fame 
time, his paternal tendernefs, which 
jnakes the happincfs and preferva- 


tion of his fubjefls a daty to him, 
cannot make him forget the firft 
law that God prefcribes to fove« 
reigns, even that which conftitutes 
the public fafety, and firc^s the con- 
dition of nations and empire?, fide- 
lity in executing treaties, and punc- 
tuality in performing engagements 
to their full e\'t''nt, preferably to 
every other confideration. 

'Tis with this view, that after 
having given fo great exampips of 
conllancyand generofity.his msjef- 
ty declares that he is ready to liltea 
favourably to proportions for a fo- 
lid and honourable peace, but wiil 
always :;6l in the moll perfeft con- 
cert with his allies ; that he will re- 
ceive no ccunfels but fuch as fhall 
be dicldced to him by honour and 
probity ; that he fhould think him- 
fe,If guilty of a defedion, in lend- 
ing a hand to fecret negotiaiions; 
th;it he v/ill not tarnlfli his glory, 
and that of his kingdom, by aban- 
doning his allies ; and that he refts 
affured each of them will, on their 
part, faithfully adhere to the fame 

Aif'vjer ginjen ly the king of Poland y 
cleSlor of Saxony, to the fame de- 

ALL my allies wlfh as much as 
rayfclf, that the public tran- 
quillity maybe reftored upon folid. 
foundations. It is well known to 
all Europe, that I did not feek the 
war ; but, on the contrary, employ- 
ed every means to keep the calami- 
ties of it at a diftance from my do- 
minions. My love to mankind in 
general, and to my own fubjeds in 
particular, ought to engage me to 
facilitate, as much as in me lies, the 
refloration of peace, and to exer- 
[^] 3 cife 

23o] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

cife all moderation as to my equi- 
table pretenfions. I am df opinion, 
thatajuft and folid peace cannot 
be agreed on, but by the congr^efs 
propofcd and accepted by all the 
powers at war. 

I place a full confidence in the 
friehdHiip of your imperial majcf- 
ty, to whom the houfe of Saxony 
is bound by facred ties. Jt is not 
unknown toyour majerty, that Sax- 
ony hath been attacked merely on 
account of i:s connexions with the 
Ruf?i?.n empire ; and thai the king 
of Prufiia has taken occafion to 
charge us with entering into-dcfen- 
five treaties with that enjpireagainfl; 
him. We therefore flatter ourfelves 
\vith the hope, that fo ancient and 
fo equitable an ally of Saxony will 
not fuffer our dominions, which are 
already reduced to the utmort dif- 
trefs, as well by exorbitant contri- 
butions, as by the alienation of our 
revenues, and of the funds which 
were allotted for the payment of 
debts, to be completely ruined. 

The whole world agrees, that we 
are intitled to an equitable reftitu- 
tion and reparation of the damage 
fuftained. But notwith'ianding all 
thefe confiderations, and though all 
the powers at war fhew themfelves 
inclined tocontribute tothegeneral 
pacification, yet Saxony remains 
threatened with irretrievable ruin. 

We therefore hope that your ma- 
jp^y's philanthropy and magnani- 
mity will prevail with your majefty- 
to, take care thar, before all things, 
the eleflorate of Saxony be fpeedi- 
ly (evacuated, in order thereby to 
put an end to the calamities 
which overwhelm it; this being 
the means of facilitating and ac- 
celerating the conclufion of agene- 
i-al peace. 

Speech math io the king hy the duke di' 
Ni'Ucr7iois, ajr.bdJJ'ador extraordi- 
nary and plenipotentiary from tJ^ 
}ncji Chrifii-'.n king, on his prsfent- 
itig h:s credentials to his majejly^ 
the 2/[th cf Nov. 1762. 


UN E reconciliation cordiale 
qui font faits pour s'aimer; unc 
union de fylleme durable en tredeux 
grandes cours que leurs interets 
bien-entendus rapprochent I'unede 
I'autre; une liajf;!! fincere &: fo- 
lide entre deux refpeftables nations 
que des malheureux prejuges ont 
trop fouvent divifees : voiia, Siie, 
I'epoque brillante de premiers 
momens du regne de voire majc-ile; 
& cette epoque fera, en meme 
tems, celle du bonheur retabli 
dans les quatres parties du monde. 
C'eft a la felicite univerfelle que le 
nom, la gloire, & les vertus de 
votre majelle feront unis pour 
jamais dans les fades de Thllloire; 
& la pofterite y lira avec un fenti- 
rnent de refped ce traite, qui entre 
tous les traites portera le cr.raflere 
dillihtStif d'une bonne foi non equi- 
voque, &: d'une folidite durable, 

Qu'il me foit perniis de me teli- 
citer a vos pieds. Sire, d'avoir ere 
choif] par le rbi mon maitre pour 
fervir, lentre votre majeUe & lui, 
d'organe aux nobles fentiments de 
deux coeurs h dignes Tun de I'autre, 
& pour travailler a, cet ouvrage 
facre, qui affure la gloire de voire 
majefte en faifant ie bonheur de 
I'humanitc entiere. 

T R A K S L A T 1 N 

S I R, 
A cordial reconciliation between 
two powerful monarchs, formed to 



r fVie important communi- 
love each other ; a permaneat union ^;;?;;^';°\^^ ' majelly h^s been 
of i-yftem beuveen tsvo greac conrts ^;^^°"7j;^S4fed to make to us, 
attraaed to one another by their Sf^;^^;;,>^^:^;^ary articles of peace 
interefts rightly underllood; and a f^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^.a day of laft 
fincere and iatting conjunftion of ^°"^^^^^J pontainbleau, with the 
tworefpeaable nation., wnom un- rv.onx^ ^^, .^ 

happy prejudices have to. lon-^ di- crowns ot t .^ ^^^ ^^ 

vided ; form the glor:ous ^ra of the ^^^^\ ? ^ajefty, the fa- 

commencement of your majeil.v s ["J^f J^^-^ ,,e have received, 
reign: and this aera will, at me "-;^ f^^^^dation Uid by thefe ar- 
fame time, be that of happine s re- ^ f^ ^^^^ of peace, which 

fcored to the four quarter, of the ^'j\^y; , ^.aound to your ma- 
world. Your majeftv's name your ^^J^' f;^;;,^>^ and the real beneht 
glory, and your virtues will be in- jv'ty - i^i.^dums ; and our entire 
Separably joined in uftory wuh a- « 7°;^^^ j^f.^ ,i,, fanie care and at- 
niverf.l felicity: and polterity will ^^J^^^^/' ^J^ ^e ^ewn for the per- 
there read, with fentiments of re- ten ton wU ^_^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

f ^^ t'l-t treaty which will be lecang or s 

SS.uilhed, above all other., by ^^^^^^^^^'onr indilpenf^ble 
good faith, without equivocation, ^e . ^ ^_^^^ ^^.^^ ^^-^ 

and bv permanent ftaodity. ,^V°,^or.v of our warmeft gra- 

Permit me, Sir, to felicitate my- Jr/Jy;!'';,^,^,^ ,he great objed of 
felf at your feet, on being cholen 1 ^^^^,,,d, all pro- 

bv the king, my mafter, to ferve 1- wa -o t y^^^^^ ^^ 
between vour majelly and nim, as P^:/;\^':;^°^ ^,ft extent of empire 
the organ of the noble fentiments ^> -;-;^;;- , ^^-^.-^^ crown, new 
of cwo^ hearts fo worthy ot each ^^^^^^^ ^ ^^.a r , ^'"^ ^-'^^ ^^ 
other, and to be employed in this ^^"^^" ^^"P^^/^f this nation, and 
blefT^d w.rk which iniures your "^^^^^Z^^^^ 

xnajellv's glory by giving happinefs -bl^;;>^;;;^^%^ providence, to thefe 
to the whole world. and national advantages. 

" We are no lefs fenfiole o. th. 

' . . prudence and wifdom ^vhich has 

The htcmble addrefs of the rzght ken. V maiefty's condud on 

the lords fpiritual and temporal in ^ ^^^^^ occafion, than of the hu- 

parliament ajfembled, December g ^' ^ difpofition and paternal af- 

,762, on occafion of his nur,ejiy s ^o^^^^ J.our fubjeds, which your 

ha-ving communicated to them the '-{^ has Hiewn. in putting a fafe 

preliminary articles of peace, con- ^^<-j ^>^^^^,ble end to a burthen- 

eluded at FontambUau the 3^ cj ^^^^ ^^^^ expenfive war. 

.Vox;. 1762. tx^e beg leave to alTure your ma- 

. r ■ ieftv that we (hall immediately 

Mcft gracious foueretgn, ^, * J-* urielves to improve the olef- 

WE.vourmajelly'smoftdut.ful WYO""";^ by promoting the 
and loyal fubj.c^s, the lords ""g^ °f^ P I'i^ your majerty has 
fpiritual and temporal in parliament ^^,°';°"^/^„_ tended, and which is 
affembled, beg le'ave to return your -^-/„ ^ °;^,^^^he dignity of the 
aiajel^y cur fincsreft ac.<novvkdg- '° ^^f^^^ ' crown. 

1232] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

crown, and the profperity of thefe 

your kingdoms. 

His fiiajejly's moji gracious anfwet\ 

My lords, 
T Return you thanks for this "very 
dutiful addrefs. 

The fati^fadion nuhich you exprcfs, 
in the poi}2t agreed hy the preliminary 
articles to^Murds a final pacifico-tiony 
is lisry acceptable to me. 

In H.vhat remains to he dene, you 
jnay depend upon the utnicji care and 
attention on my pari, to fettle e'very 
thing 'which concerns the iaterefis of 
my kingdoms, upon a Jolid and durably 

^he humble addrefs of the hoife of 
commons to the king, en the fame 

MoJi gracious fo'vcreign, 

WE yourmajefty's moft datiful 
and loyal fubjecls, the com- 
mons of Great-Britain in parlia- 
ment afTembled, beg leave to re- 
turn your majeftyour moft humble 
and hearty thanks for your moft 
gracious condefcenfion, in ordering 
lo be laid before us the prclimi- 
Dary articles of peace concluded 
between your majerty on the one 
part, and their moft Chriftian and 
Catholic majcftles on the other ; 
and to alTure your majefty that we 
have confidered them with ourbeft 
attention. And, although to make 
peace and war be your majefty's 
juft and undoubted prerogative,' 
yet knowing how agreeable it muft 
be to your royal mind to be in- 
formed of the grateful fenfe your 
people entertain of the juftice and 
wifdom of your meafures, and of 
your unwearied attention to their 
welfare, your faithful commons are 

impatient to exprefs their approba- 
tion of the advantageous terms up- 
on which your majefty hath con- 
cluded preli mi nary articles of peace, 
and to lay before your majefty the 
hearty applaufe of a faithful, af- 
fectionate people. 

AVhlle we admire yoar majefty's 
prudence in availing yourfelfof the 
fuccfffes with which Divine Pro- 
vidence hath blpftbd your arms, 
whereby your m.ijefty hath procur- 
ed fuch folid, and, in all human 
probability, fuch permanent ad- 
vantages for this kingdom, wc 
are no lefs fenfibly affefted with 
that humane difpofition which in-, 
duced your majefty to put an end 
to a long, bloody, and expen- 
five, though glorious and fuccelT- 
ful war. 

Your faithful commons will take 
the eariieft opportunity to examine 
into the ftate of the public reve- 
nues, in order to eftablifh the beft 
oeconomy for the future, fo wilely 
recommended by your majefty, and 
fo neceiTary to maintain the king- 
dom of Great-Eritnin in that great 
and refpeflable firuation in which 
your majefty's fortitude andwiWor* 
have now placed it. 

We are convinced that pofterity, 
from their own experience, will 
hereafter agree wi;h us, in efteem- 
ing th t peace to be no lefs ho- 
nourable than profitable, by which 
there will be ceded to Great-Bri- 
tain fuch an addition of territory, 
attended with fo great an extenfion 
of our commerce. 

We therefore beg leave humbly 
to lay before your majefty the 
ftrongeft fentiments of oratitude, 
and to affure your majefty, that it 
fball be our ftudy to improve that 
confidence of the people in you, 
v/hich your majefty hath already fo 




very defervedly acquired from your 
conduft in the prefent moft impor- 
tant junflure. 

}J:s majejly's moft gracious anf'u:er. 

Gentlemen of the houfe of commons, 
T R'tiirn you m-; hearty thar.ks for 

this ?noJi loyal and aJf'eSiionate ad- 

Your at)prchatio7i of the meafures I 
haTje taken for reforii:g pcc.ce, -nd of 
the terms on nobich it is to he con- 
cluded, gi jes me the highef fatif- 
faSIioit. \ 

The affeSlicn and gratitude of my 
people are the >-:ofl rhofing return I 
can recei-oe for my en.i£an:ours to pro- 
mote their happ'-iejs. 

'The Definiti've Treaty of Frieidihip 
and Peace be-.vjeen his Britannic 
majefiy, the moji Chrijiian kng, 
and the king of Spain. Concluded 
at Paris, the lOth dry of Febru- 
ary . \ 763. To -j.hich the king of 
Portugal acceded the fume day. 

In the name of the moft Holy and nn- 
dinjided Trinity , Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghoft. So be it. 

t E it known to all thofe to whom 
it fhall, or may, in any man- 
ner, belong. 

It has pleafed the Moll High to 
dlffule the fpirit of union and con- 
cord among :he princes, whoTe di- 
vifions had fpread troubles in ihe 
four parts of the world, and to in- 
fpire them wim the inclination to 
caufe :he comforts of peace to fuc- 
ceed to the misfortunes of along and 
bloody v/ar, which, having arifen 
between England and France, dur- 
ing the reign of the moft ferene and 
moft potent prince, George the Se- 

cond, by the grace of God, king 
of Great Britain, of glorious me- 
mory, continued under the reign of 
the moft ferene and moft potent 
prince, George the Third, his fuc- 
ceflbr, " its progrefs, commu* 
nicated itfelf to vSpain and Portu- 
gal : conf?quently, the moft ferene 
and moft potent prince, George the 
Third, by the grace of God, king 
cf Grea": Britain, Frnace, and Ire- 
land, dake of Erunfwick and Lu- 
rerbourg, arch-treafurer and elec- 
tor of vhe Holy Roman Empire ; 
the molt ferene and molt potent 
Drince, Lewis the Fifteenth, by 
the grace of God, moll Chriftian 
king ; and the moft ferene and 
moft j otent prince, Charles the 
Third, oy the grace of God, king 
0/ Spain and of the Indies ; after 
having laid the foundation of peace 
in the preliminaries, figned at 
Fontainbleau the 3d cf Novem- 
ber laft ; and the |noft ferene and 
moft potent prin<fe, Don Jofeph 
the Firft, by the gr.ce of God, 
king of Portugal and the Algarves, 
after having acceded thereto ; de- 
termined to complete, without de- 
lay, this great and important work. 
For this purpofe, the high con- 
tradling parties have named and 
appointed their refpeclive ambaf- 
fadors extraordinary, and minifters 
plenipotentiary, viz. his facred ma- 
jefty, the king of Great Britain, 
the moft illuftrious and moft ex'cel- 
lent lord, John, duke and earl of 
Bedford, marquis of Taviftock, 
&c. his minirter of ftate, lieute- 
nant-general of his armies, keeper 
of his privy feal, knight of the 
moit noble order of the garter, 
and his ambaffador extraordinary 
and minift-r plenipotentiary to his 
mo;'^. Chriftian majefty ; his facred 
majefty the moft Chviftiau king, 




the moft illuflrioiis and mcd cxcel- 
Icntloul Caefar Gabriel deChoifcu!, 
duke of Praflin, peer of France, 
knight of his 'orders, lieu'tenant 
gener?d of hi<; armies, and of the 
province of Briliany, counfeHor in 
all his councils, and minifler and 
fecretary of (late, and of his com- 
mands and finances ; his facred ma- 
jefty the Catholic king, the mo.ft 
illuftrious and moft excellent lord, 
Don Jerome Grimaldi, marquis de 
Grimaldi, knight of themofl Chrif- 
tian king's orders, gentleman of 
his Catholic majelly's bedchamber 
in employment, and his ambaf- 
fador cxtj!icr;iinary to his mod 
Chriilian majefly ; his facred ma- 
jefty the moll Faithful king, the 
moil illullrious and mod excellent 
lord, Martin de Mello and Callro, 
knight profefled of the order of 
Chrill, of his moil Fr.ithfijl ma- 
jelly's council, and his ambaiTador 
and minifter plenipotentiary to his 
mofl Chriflian m?.jelly. 

Who, after having duly commu- 
nicated to each other their full 
powers, in good form, copies 
whereof are trsnfcribed at the end 
of the prefent treaty of peace, have 
agreed upon the articles, the tenor 
of which is -.i" follows: 

Art. I. There fliall be a Chrif- 
tiaRjUniverfal, and perpetual pe::ce, 
as well by fea as by l^d, and ^ fin- 
ccreandconftant friendihip fliall be 
re-eftabliilied between their Britan- 
nic, molt Chriilian, Catholic, and 
moll Faithful majcfties, and between 
their heirs and fucceflors, king- 
doms, dominions, provinces, coun- 
tries, fubjecls, and vaffals, of what 
quality orcondition fcever they be, 
without exception of places, or of 
pcrfons : fo that the high contrafl- 
irig parties fnall give the great- 
elt attention to maintain between 

thcmfelves and iheirfaid dominions 
and fubjpfls, this reciprocal friend - 
fliip and correfpondcnce, without 
permitting, on cither fide, any kind 
of hoflilities, by fea or by land, to 
be committed, from henceforth, for 
any caufe, or under any pretence 
whatfoever, and every thing (hall 
be carefully avoided, which might 
hereafter prcjuaice the union hap- 
pily re-ellabliflied, applying thcm- 
felves on the contrary, on every 
occafion, to procure for each other 
whatever may contribute to their 
mutual glory, interelh, and advan- 
tages, without giving any afliftanre 
or protedtion, diredly or indirect- 
ly, to thofe who would caufe any 
prejudice to either of the high con- 
tracting parties ; there fliall be a 
general oblivion of every thing chat 
may have been done or committed 
before or fince the commencement 
of the war which is JQll ended. 

II. The treaties of Weftphalia of 
1648; thofe of Madrid between 
the crowns of Great Britain and 
Spain of 1667, and 1670 ; the 
treaties of peace of Nimeguen of 
1678 and 1679; of Ryfwick of 
1697 ; thofe of peace and com- 
merce of Uirecht of 17 I 3 ; that of 
Baden of 1714 ; the treaty of the 
triple alliance of the Hague of 
17^17 ; that cf the quadruple al- 
liance of London of 171S; the 
treaty of peace of Vienna cf 173S ; 
the definitive treaty of Aix la Cha- 
pelle of 1748; and that of Ma- 
drid between the crowns of Great 
Britain and Spain, of 1750; as 
well as the treaties between the 
crowns of Spain and Portugal, of 
the 13th of February 1668 ; of the 
6th of Feb. 1715 ; and of the 12th 
of Feb. 1761 ; and that of the i ith 
of April 1713, between France and 
Portugal, with the guaranties of 




Great Britain, ferve as a bafis and 
f&unciation to the peace, and to the 
prefent treaty : and for this pur- 
pofe, they are all renewed and con- 
firmed in the bell form, as well as 
all the treaties in general, which 
fubfifted betv/ecn the high ccntraft- 
ing parties before the war, as if 
they were infcrted here word for 
word, fo that they are to be exaftly 
obferved, for the future, in their 
whole tenor, and religioudy exe- 
cuted on all fides, in all their pointf, 
which fliall not be derogated from in 
the prefent treaty, notwithlianding 
all that may have been ftipulated to 
the contrary by 2ny of the high 
contracting parties; and all the 
faid parties declare, that they will 
not fuffer any privilege, favour, or 
indulgence, to fubfill, contrary to 
the treaties above confirmed, except 
what fliall have been agreed and 
llipulated by the prefent treaty. 

III. AH the prifaners made, on 
all fides, as well by land as by fea, 
and the hoftages carried away dur- 
ing the war, and to this day, fhall 
be reiiored without ranfom, fix 
weeks at lateft, to be computed 
from the day of the exchange of the 
ratification of the prefent treaty, 
each crown refpetlively paying the 
advances which fhall have been 
made for the fubfiftence and main- 
tenance of their prifoners by the 
fovereign of the country where they 
fhall have been detained, accord- 
ing to the attefted receipts and efti- 
mates.andother authentic vouchers, 
which fhall be furnifhed on one 
iide and the other: and fecurilles 
fhall be reciprocally given for the 
payment of the debts which the 
prifoners fhall have con traced in 
the countries where they have been 
detained until their entire liberty. 
And all the fnips of war and mer- 

chant- vefTels which fhall have been 
takei^ fince the expiration of the 
terms agreed upon for the ceffation 
of hoftililies by ;;-, (r.i'l be like- 
wife reiiored bona fide, with ai rheir 
crews and cargoes ; and the execu- 
tion of this article ihall be proceed- 
ed upon immediately after the ex- 
change of the ratifications of this 

IV, His moil Chrillian majefty 
renounces all pretenfions which he 
has heretofore formed, or might 
form, to Nova Scotia, or Acadia, 
in all its parts, and guaranties 
the whole of it, and with all its 
dependencies, to the king of Great 
Britain : moreover, his moft Chrii^ 
tian majefty cedps and guaranties to 
his faid Britannic m.ajefty, in full 
right, Canada, with all its depen- 
dencies, as well as theiflandof Cape 
Breton, and all the other illands and 
coafls in the gulf and river of 
St. Lawrence, and, in general, 
every thing that depends on the 
faid countries, lands, iflands, and 
coafts,with the fovereign ty, proper- 
ty, pofTefiion, and all rights acquir- 
ed by treaty or otherwifc, which, 
the moft Chriflian king, and the 
crown of France, have had, till 
now, over the faid countries, iflands, 
lands, places, coafts, and their in- 
habitants; fo that the moft Chrif- 
tian king cedes and makes over 
the whole to the faid king, and to 
the crown of Great Britain, and 
that in the moll ample manner 
and form, without rellridion, and 
without any liberty to depart from 
the faid cefiion and guaranty, under 
any pretence, or to dillurb Great 
Britain in the pofTeffions above 
mentioned. His Britannic majeftv, 
on his fide, agrees to grant the li- 
berty of the Catholic religion to the 
inhabitants of Canada : he will 


236] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

confequently give the mod efFec- St. Lawrence. And as to what re- 

tual orders ^^lat his new Roman- lates to the fifhery on the coaft of 

Catholic fubjfds may profeis the the ifland of Cape Breton out of the 

worfhip of their religion, accord- faid guif, the fubjefls of the moft* 

ing to the rites of the Romifh Chriltian king fhall not be per- 

churchj as far as the laws of Great mittcd to exercife the faid hlhery, 

Britain permit. His Britannic ma- but at the diftance of fifteen leagues 

jefty further agrees that the French from the coafts of the ifland of 

inhabitants, or others, who had Cape Breton; and the fi flier y on 

been the fubjefls of the moft Chrif- the coafts of Nova Scotia, or Aca- 

tian king in Canada, may retire dia, and every where elfe out of the 

with all fafety and freed: ai where- faid gulf, fliall remain on the foot 

ever they fliall thing proper, and of former treaties, 
may fell their eftates, provided it be VI. The king of Great Britain 

to fubj'-tts of his Bricannic majefty, cedes the iflands of St. Pierre and 

and bring away their cffeds, as Miquclon, in full right, to his moft: 

well as their perfons, without being Chriftian majefty, to ferve as a 

reftraincdin their emigration, under fnelier to the French fifliermen ; 

any pretence whatfoever, except and his faid Chriftian majefty en- 

that of debts, or of criminal profe- gages not to fortify the faid iflands, 

cutions; the term limited for this to ereil no buildings upon them, 

emigration ftiall be fixed to the but merely for the convenience of 

fpace of eighteen months, to be the fiftiery, and to keep upon them 

computed from the day of the ex- a guard of fifty men only for the 

change of the ratifications of the police. 

prefent treaty. VII. In order to re-eftablifli peace 

V. The fubjefts of France-fliall on folid and durable foundations, 

have thelibertyof fifliinganddrving and to remove for ever all fubjedts 

on a part of the coafts of the ifland of difpute with regard to the limits 

of Newfoundland, fuch as is fpecifi- of the Britiih and French territories 

ed in the i3tharticleof the treaty of on the continent of America, that 

TJtrecht; which article is renewed for the future, the confines between 

andconfirmed by the prefent treaty, the dominions of his Britannic ma- 

(except what relates to the ifland jcfty, in that part of the world, 

of Cape Breton, as well as to the fliall be fixed irrevocably by a line 

other iflands, and coafts, in the drawn along the middle of the river 

nicuth and in the gulf of St. Law- Miftifippi, from its fource to the 

rence) : and his Britannic majefty river Iberville, and from thence, 

confents to Itave the fubjefls of the by a line drawn along the middle 

moft Chriftian king the liberty of of this river, and the lake Maure- 

fifliing in the gulf of St. Lawrence, pas and Pontchartrain, to the fea ; 

on condition that the fubjects of and for this purpofe the moft Chrif- 

France do not exercife the faid tian king cede?, in full right, and 

filhery, but at the diftance of three guaranties to his Britannic majefty, 

leagues from all the coafts belong- the river and port of the Mobile, 

ing to Great Britain, as well thofe and every thing which he poflefl"es, 

of the continent, as ihufe of the or ought to poitefs, on the left fide 
iflands fituated in tlie faid "ulf of the 



the river Miffifippi, except the town 
of New Orleans, and the ifland 
in which it is ficuated, which (hall 
remain to France ; provided that 
the river Miflifippi faall be equally 
free, as well to the iubjefts of Great 
Britain, as to thofe oi France, in 
its whole breadth or length, from 
its fource to the fea, and exprefsly 
that part which is between the faid 
ifland of New Orleans, and the 
right bank of that river, as well as 
the paffage both in and out of its 
mouch. It is further llipulated, that 
the veffels belonging to the fubjeils 
of either nation, fliall not be ilop- 
ped, vifited, or fubjeded to the 
payment of any duty whatfoever. 
The ilipulations, inferted in the 
IV'rh article, in favour of the inha- 
bitants of Canada, fnail alfo take 
place with regard to the inha- 
bic:ints of the countries ceded by 
this article. 

Vlir. The king of Great Britain 
fhall rellore to France the ifiands of 
Guadaloupe, of Marie Galante, of 
Defirade, of Martinico, and of 
Belleifle; and the fortreffes of thefe 
iflands (hall be reltored in the fame 
condition they v.ere in, when they 
Vv'ere conquered by the Britifn arms ; 
provided thathisBritannicMajeliy's 
fubiecls, who thall-have fettled in 
the faid iflands, or thofe Vv'ho fliall 
have any commercial affairs to fettle 
there, or in the other places rellored 
to France by the prefent treaty, Ihail 
have liberty to (ell their lands and 
their eftates, to fettle their aiFairs, 
to recover their debts, and to bring 
away their effefts, as well as their 
perfons, on board veiTels, which 
they fl:iall be permitted to fend to 
the faid iflands, and other places 
reltored as above, and which (hall 
ferve for this ufe only, without be- 
ing reitrained en acc.pi-n: of their 

religion, or under any other pre- 
tence whatfoever, except that o£ 
debts, or of criminal profecutions ; 
and for this purpofe, the term of 
eighteen months is allowed to his 
Britannic raajefly'^s fubjecis, to be 
computed from the day of the ex- 
change of the ratincations of the 
prefent treaty : but, as the liberty- 
granted to his Britannic niajeity's 
fubjedls, to bring away their per- 
fons, and their elfefts, in vefll^ls of 
their nation, maybe liable to abufes, 
if precautions were not taken to 
prevent them ; it has been exprefsly 
agreed, between his Britannic ma- 
jelly and his mofi; Chriftian majefty, 
that the number of Englifli vefTels, 
which (hall have leave to go to the 
faid iflands and places reftored to 
France, (hall be limited, as well as 
the number of tons of each one; 
that they fnal! go in ballaft; fliall 
fet fail at a fixed time; and fliall 
make one voyage only; all the ef- 
fefts belonging to the Englifn, be- 
ing to be embarked at the fame 
time. It has been further agreed, 
thac his moft Chri(^ian majefty (hall 
caufe the neceffary pa(rports to be 
given to the faid veffels ; that, for 
the greater fecurity, it (hall be al- 
lowed to place two French clerk?, 
or guards, in each of the faid vef- 
fels, which (hall be vifited in the 
landing places and ports of the 
faid iflands, and places reftored to 
France, and thac the merchandife 
which fliall be found therein (hall 
be confifcated. 

IX, The moft Chriftian king 
cedes and guaranties to his Britan- 
nic majeiiy, in full right, :he iflands 
of Grenada, and of the Grenadines, 
with the fame Ilipulations in favour 
of the inhabitants of this colony, 
inferted in the IVth article for thofe 
of Canada; and the partition of 


238] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

the iflandj, called neutral, is agreed 
and fixed, fo that thofe of St. Vin- 
cent, Dominica, and Tobago, fhall 
remain in full right to Great Bri- 
tain, and that of St. Lucia (hall be 
delivered to France, to enjoy the 
fame likewife in full right; and the 
high contratling parties guaranty 
the partition fo llipulated. 

X. His Britannic majeily fliall re- 
flore to France the ifland of Goree, 
in the condition it was in when 
conquered: and his mofl: ChrilHan 
(inajefly cedes in full right, and 
guaranties to the king of Great 
Britain, the river Senegal, with the 
Jbrts and faftories of St. Lewis, Po- 
dor, and Galam ; and with all the 
rights and dependencies of the faid 
river Senegal. 

XL In the Eaft Indies, Great 
Britain fhall reftore to France, in 
the condition they now are in, the 
different factories which that crown 
pofTelied, as well on the coaft of 
Coromandel and Orixa, as on that 
of Malabar, as alfo in Bengal, at 
the beginning of the year 1749. 
And his mofl: Chriftian majefty re- 
nounces all pretenfions to the acqui- 
fitions which he had made on the 
coafi of Coromandel and Orixa, 
fince the faid beginning of the year 
1749. ^^^ moll Chriftian majefty 
fhall reftore, on his fide, all that he 
nsay have conquered from Great 
Britain, in the Eaft Indies, during 
the prefent war ; and will exprefsly 
caufeNattalandTapanoully, in the 
ifland of Sumatra, to be reftored ; 
he engages further, not to ereft for- 
tifications, or to keep troops in any 
part of the dominions of the Subah 
of Bengal. And in order to pre- 
ferve future peace on the coaft of 
Coromandel and Orixa, the Englifhi 
.and' French Iliall acknowledge Ma- 
homet Ally Ivhan for the lawful 

Nabob of the Carnatic, and S.Ja* 
bat Jing for lawful Subah of theDe* 
can; and both parties fliall renounce 
all demands and pretenfions of fa- 
tisfaflion, with which they might 
charge each other, or their Inoian 
allies, for the depredations, or pil- 
lage, committed on the one fide or 
on the other, during the war. 

XII. The ifland of Minorca fhall 
be reftored to his Britannic majefty, 
as well as Fort St. Philip, in the 
fame condition they were in when 
conquered by the arms of the molt 
Chriftian king ; and with the artil- 
lery which was there, when the faid 
ifland and the faid fort were taken. 

XIII. The town and port of 
Dunkirk fliall be put into the ftate 
fixed by the laft treaty of Aix la 
Chapelle, and by former treaties. 
The cunette fliall be deftroyed im- 
mediately after the exchange of the 
ratificacions of the prefent treaty, as 
well as the forts and batteries which 
defend the entrance on the fide of 
the fea ; and provifion fhall be 
made, at the fame time, for the 
wholefomenefs of the air, and for 
the health of the inhabitants, by 
fome other means, to the fatisfaftion 
of the King of Great Britain. 

XIV". France fhall reftore all the 
countries belonging to the eledo- 
rr.te of Hanover, to the landgrave 
of HcfTc, to the duke of Brunfwick, 
and to the count of La Lippe Buc- 
keburgh, which are, or iTiall be oc- 
cupied by his moft Chriftian ma- 
jefty's arms : the fortrcfTes of threfe 
dift^erent countries fhall be reftored 
in the fame condition they were in, 
when conquered by the French 
arms : and the pieces of artillery, 
which fhall have been carried elfe- 
where, fhall be replaced by the 
fame number, of the fame bore, 
weight, and metal, 

XV. In 



XV". In cafe the ftipulations, con- 
tained in the Xlilth article of the 
preliminaries, fnould not be com- 
pleted at the time of the fignacure 
of theprefent treaty, as well with 
regard to the evacuations to be 
made by the armies of France of 
the fortreffes of Cleves, Wezel, 
Gueldres, end of all tiie countries 
belonging to the king of Prufiia, 
as with regard to the evacuations 
to be made by the Britilh and French 
armies of the countries which they 
occupy in Weftphalia, Lower Saxo- 
nv,on the Lower Rhine, the Upper 
Rhine, and in all the empire, and 
to the retreat of the troops into the 
dominions of their refpedive fove- 
reigns ; their Britannic and moil 
Chriftian majelHes promife to pro- 
^ceed, bona fide, with all the difpatch 
the cafe will permit of, to the faid 
evacuations, the entire completion 
whereof they ftipulate before the 
15 th of March next, or fooner if it 
can be done: and their Britannic 
and moft Chriilian majeflies further 
engage, and promiie to each other, 
not to furnifh any fuccours, of any 
kind, to their refpeflive allies, who 
fhall continue engaged in the war 
in Germany. 

XVL The d'-'cifion of the prizes 
made, in the time of peace, by the 
fubjeds of Great Britain, on the 
Spaniards, fhall be referred to the 
courts of juitice of the admiralty of 
Great Britain, conformable to the 
rules eftablifhed among all nations, 
fo that the validity of the faid 
prizes, between the Britifh and Spa- 
nilh nations, fhall be decided and 
judged, according to the law of na- 
tions, and according to the treaties, 
in the courts of juitice of the na- 
tion who fhall have made the cap. 

XVI. His Britannic majefty fhafl 

caufe to bedemolifhedall the forti- 
fications which his fubjeCts fhall 
have eredled in the bay of Hondu- 
ras, and other places of the terri- 
tory of Spain in that part of the 
world, four months after the ratifi- 
cation of the prefent treaty; and 
his Catholic majelty fhall not per- 
mit his Britannic majefty's fubjefts, 
or their wopl^men, to be diliurbed, 
or molelled, under any pretence 
whatfoever, in the faid places, in 
their occupation of cutting, load- 
ing, and carrying away logwood : 
and for this purpofe they may build 
without hindrance, and occupy 
wi thou t interruption, the houfes and 
magazines v/hich are necellary for 
them, for their families, and for 
their eifeds ; and his Catholic ma- 
jeily affures to them, by this article, 
the full enjoyment of thofe advan- 
tages, and powers, on the Spanifh 
coalls and territories, as aiiove fti- 
pulated, immediately after the rati- 
fications of the prefenl treaty, 

XVIII. His Catholic majefty de- 
lifis, as well for himfeJf, as for 
his fucccfTors, from all pretenfions 
which he may have formed, in fa- 
vour of the Guipufcoans, and other 
his fubjcfts, to the right of fifhing 
in the neighbourhood of the ifland 
of Newfoundland. 

XIX. The king of Great Britain 
fliall reflore to Spain all the terri- 
tory which he has conquered in the 
ifland of Cuba, with the fortrefs of 
the Havanna; and this fortrefs, as 
well as the other fortrefles of the 
faid ifland, fhall be reftored in the 
lame condition they were in when 
conquered by his Britannic majefty's 
arms ; provided that his Britannic 
majefty's fubjedls, who ftiall have 
fettled in the faid ifland, reftored to 
Spain by the prefent treaty, or thofe 
who fhall have any commercial af- 


fairs to fettle there, (hall have li- 
berty to fjjl th^ir lands, and their 
eftates, to fettle their affairsj to re- 
cover their deb's, and to bring 
away their efFeds, as well as their 
perfons, on b ard vefiels which they 
ihall be permitted to fer.d to the 
faid ifland reftored as above, and 
which fhall ferve for that ufe only, 
without btirg reftrained on account 
of their religion, or under any other 
pretence whatfoever, except that of 
debts, or of criminal profecutions ; 
and for this purpofe, the term of 
eighteen months is allowed to his 
Britannic mrjelty's fibjeds, to be 
computed from the day of the ex- 
change of the ratifications of the 
prefent treaty : but, as thejiberty 
granted to his Britannic majel?y's 
fubjeds, to bring away their per- 
fons, and their elfeds, in vefTels of 
their nation, may be liable to 
abufes, if precautions were not 
taken to prf'vent them ; it has been 
exprefslyagreed,b;.i.vveenhis Britan- 
nic majefty and his Catholic majefty, 
that the number of Englifli veflbls, 
which fhall have leave io go to the 
faid ifland reftored to Spain, fhall 
be limited, as well as the number of 
tons of each one; that they Oiall go 
in ballaft; fhall fet fail at a fixed 
time; and fhall make one voyage 
only ; all the effeds belonging to 
the Englifh, being to be embarked 
at the fame time. It has been fur- 
ther agreed, that his Catholic ma- 
jefly fhall caufe the neceffary paff- 
ports to be given to the faid veflels ; 
that, for the greater fecurity, it 
fhall be allowed to place two Spa- 
nifh clerks, or guards, in each of the 
faid veffels, which fhall be vifited in 
the landing places and ports of the 
faid ifland reflored to Spain, and 
that the merchandize, which fhall 
be found therein, ihall be coniif- 

XX. In confequence of the reft!- 
tution ftipulated in the preceding 
article, his Catholic majetty cedes 
and guaranties, in fall right, to his 
Britannic majefty, Florida, with fort 
St. Auguftin, and the bay of Penfa- 
cola, as well as all that^Spain pol- 
feffes on the continent of North 
America, to the caft, or to the 
fouth-eafl of the river MifTifippi ; 
and. in general, every thing that 
depends on the faid countries and 
lands, with the fovereignty, pro- 
perty, pnfiefTion, and all rights 
acquired by treaties or oiherwife, 
which the Catholic king, and the 
crown of Spain, have had, till now, 
over thefiid countries, lanos, places, 
and other inhabitants; fo that the 
Catholic king cedes and makesover 
the whole to the faid king, and to 
the crown of Great Britain, and 
that in the mofl ample manner and 
form. His Britannic ma'jefly agrees, 
on his fide, to grant to the inhabi- 
tants of the countries, above ceded, 
the liberty of the Catholic religion ; 
he will confequently give the mofl 
exprefs and the mofl effedual or- 
ders, that his new Roman-Catholic 
fubjefls may profefs th-e worfhip of 
their religion, according to the 
rites of the Romifh church, as far 
as the laws of Great Britain permit: 
his Britannic majefly further agrees, 
that the Spanifh inhabitants, or 
others, whohave beenfubjedsof the 
Catholic king in the faid countries, 
may retire, with all fafety and free- 
dom, wherever they think proper; 
and may fell their eflates, provided 
it be to his Britannic majefly's fub- 
jefts, and bring away their efFefts, 
as well as their perfans, without 
being reftralued in their emigra- 
tions, under any pretence whatfo- 
ever, except that of debts, or cri« 
minal profecutions; the term, li- 



tnlted for this emigration, being 
fixed to the fpace of eighteen 
mcnths, to be computed from the 
dav of the exchange of the ratifi- 
cacion of the prefent treaty. It is 
moreover liipulated, that his Catho- 
lic m^jc'iW fhall have power to caufe 
all the efFeds, that may belong to 
him, to be brought away, whether 
it be artillerv, or other things. 

XXI. The French and Spanifh 
troops lha!l evacuate all the territo- 
ries, lands, towns, places, and caf- 
tles, of his moft Faithful majeilv, 
in Europe, without any relerve, 
which (hall have been conquered by 
the armies of France and Spain, ar.d 
fhall reftore them in the fame con- 
dition they werein when conquered, 
with the fame artillery and ammu- 
nition \vliich were found there ; and 
with regard to 'he Portuguefe colo- 
nies in America, Africa, or in the 
Eaiilndies, if any change fh?.Ii have 
happened there, all things (hall be 
reltored on the fame footing they 
were in, and conformably to the 
preceding treaties, which fubfifted 
between the courts of France, Spain, 
and Portugal, before the prelent 

. XXII. All the papers, letters, 
documents, and archives, which 
were found in the countries, terri- 
tories, towns, and places, that are 
reftcred, and thofe belonging to the 
countries ceded, fhall be, refpec- 
t-ively and ^c;?a ^a'^, delivered, or 
furnifhed at the lame time, if pof- 
fible, that pofleffion is taken, or, at 
lateft, four months afcer the ex- 
change of the ratifications of the 
prefent treaty, in whatever places 
the faid papers or documents may 
be found. 

XXHI. All the countries and 
territories, which may have been 
conquered, in whatfoever part of 

Vox. V, 

the world, by the arms of their Bri- 
tannic and moft Faithful msjeliics, 
as well as hy thofe of their moll 
Chrillian and Catholic majellies, 
which are not included in the pre- 
fent treaty, either under the tiJe 
of ceflicns, or under the title of ref- 
titution?, ihall be reftored without 
difiiculty, and without requiring 
any compenfation. 

XXIV. As it is necefTary to affign 
a fix''d epoch for the reiHruticns, 
and the evacuations, to be made by 
each of the high contracting parties J 
it is agreed, that the Britifli and 
French troops fhall complete, be- 
fore the 15th of March next, all 
that iliall remain to be executed of 
the Xllth and Xlllth articles of the 
preliminaries, figned the 3d day 
of November lalt, with regard to 
the evacuation to be made in the 
empire, or elfev/hcre. The iHand 
of Belleiile dial] be evacur<ted 'fix 
weeks after the exchange of the ra- 
tifications of the prefent treaty, or 
fooner if it can be done. Guada- 
loupe, Defjrade, Maria Galante, 
Martinico, and St. Lucia, three 
months after the exchange of the 
ratiiications of the prefent treaty, 
or fooner if it can be done. Great 
Britain fhall likewife, at the end of 
three monihs after the exchange of 
the rati ncations of theprefen t trea ty, 
or fooner if it can be dene, enter 
into pOiTeflion of the river and port 
of the Mobile, and of ail that is to 
form the limits of the territory of 
Great Britain, on the fide of the 
river Miffifippi, as they are fpecified 
in the Vllth article. The ifland of 
Goree fliall be evacuated by Great 
Britain, three monihs after the ex- 
change of the ratifications of the 
prefent treaty : and the ifland of 
Minorca, by France, at the fame 
epoch, or fooner if it can be done : 
[R] and 

342] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

and according to the Vlth article nions and pofleflionsof his faid ma- 
France fliall likewife enterinto pof- jefty in Germany, are included and 
feffion of the iflands of St. Peter, gurantied by the prefent treaty of 
and of Miquelon, at the end of peace. 

three months after the exchange of XXVI. Their facred Britannic, 

the ratificationsofthe prefent treaty, moft Chriftian, Catholic, and moft 

The fadories in the Eaft Indies fhall Faithful majeilies, promife to ob- 

be reilored fix months after the ex- ferve, fincerely, and bo7ia fide, all 

change of the ratifications of the the articles contained and fettled in 

prefent treaty, or fooner if it can the prefent treaty ; and they will 

be done. The fortrefs of the Ha- not fuffer the fame to be infringed, 

vanna, with all that has been con- directly or indireftly, by their re- 

quered inthe ifland of Cuba, fliall fpeftive fubjeds ; and the faid high 

be reflored three months after the contrading parties, generally and 

-exchange of the ratifications of the reciprocally, guaranty to eachother 

prefent treaty, or fooner if it can all the ftipulations of the prefent 

be done : and, at the fame time, treaty. 

Great Britain fliall enter into pof- 
JefTion of the country ceded by 
Spain, according to the XXth ar- 
ticle. All the places and countries 
©f his molt Faithful majefty, in 

XXVn. The folemn ratification!, 
of the prefent treaty, expedited in 
good and due form, fliall be ex- 
changed in this city of Paris, be- 
tween the high contrading parties. 

lEurope, fhall be reftored imme- in the fpace of a month, or fooner 

iliately after the exchange of the if poflible, to be computed from 

ratifications of the prefent treaty ; the day of t4ie fignature of the pre- 

and the Portuguefe colonies, which fent treaty. 

may have been conquered, fliall be in witnefs whereof, we the un- 

reflored in the fpace of three derwritten, their ambafl*adorsextra- 

jnonths in the Weft Indies, and of ordinary and minifters plenipoten- 

.fix months in the Ball Indies, after tiary, have figned with our hands in 

the exchange of the ratifications of their name, and in virtue of our full 

the prefent treaty, or fooner if it powers, theprefentdefinitive treaty, 

can be done. All the fortrefl'es, and have caufed the feal of our 

■the reftitution whereof is ftipulated 
above, fliall be reftored, with the 
^artillery and anxuiunition, which 
were found there at the time of the 
conqucft. In confcquence whereof, 
the neceflary orders fliall be fent by 
..each of the high contrading par- 
'ties, with reciprocal paflports for 
,the Ihips that fliall carry them, im- 
mediately after the exchange of the 
ratifications of the prefent treaty. 

XXV. His Britannic majefty, as other ads, during the courfe of the 
e!edor of Brunfwick Lunenbourg, negotiation, or in the preamble of 
-fis well for himfelf, as for his heirs the prefciu treaty, not being gene- 
aad i'uccellbrs, and all the domi- rally ackowledged j it has been 


arms to be put thereto. 

Done at Paris the loth of Fe- 
bruary, 1763. 
(L. S) Bedford, C. P. S 
(L.S.)Choiseul,Duc dePraflin.. 
(L. S.) El Marq. de Grimaldi. 


I. QOME of the titles made ufe 
^ of by the contrading pow- 
ers, either in the full powers, and 



agreed, that no prejudice fhall ever 
refult therefrom to any of the faid 
contracting parties ; and that the 
titles, taken or omitted, on either 
fide, on occafion of the faid nego- 
tiation, and of the prefent treaty, 
fhall not be cited or quoted as a 

II. It has been agreed and deter- 
mined, that the French language, 
made ufe of in all the copies of the 
prefent treaty, fhall not become an 
example, which may be alledged 
or made a precedent of, or preju- 
dice, in any manner, any of the 
contrafting powers; and that they 
fhall conform themfelves, for the 
future, to what has been obferved, 
and ought to be obferved, with re- 
gard to, and on the part of, powers 
who are ufed, and have a right, to 
give and to receive copies of like 
treaties in another language than 
French ; the piefent treaty having 
flill the fame force and effeft, as if 
the aforefaid cullomhad been there- 
in obferved. 

III. Though the king of Portu- 
gal has not figned the prefent de- 
finitive treaty, their Britannic, mod 
Chriftian, and Catholic majeities, 
acknowledge, neverthelefs, that his 
molt Faithful majefty is formally 
included therein as a con trading 
party ; and as if he had exprefsly 
iignedthe faid treaty: confequeiuly 
their Britannic, molt Chriitian, 
and Catholic maje(ties, refpedively 
and conjointly, promife to his moft 
Faithful majefty, in the moft ex- 
prefs and moft binding manner, the 
execution of all and every the 
claafes contained in the faid treaty, 
on his aft of acceffion. 

The prefent feparate articles (hall 
have the fame force as if they were 
inferted in the treaty. 

In witnefs whereof, we the un- 
derv\ritt'?n ambafTud'TS extraordi- 
nary, and miniltcj-s plenipotentiary 
of iheir Britannic, mrft Chriftian, 
and Catholic majefties, havefigned 
the prefent feparate articles, and 
have caufed the feal of our arms to 
be put thereto. 

Done at Paris the loth of Febru- 
ary, 1763. 
(L. S.) Bedford, C. P. S. 
(L.S.)Chotseul,Duc dePraflin. 
(L. S.) El Marq. de Grimaldi. 

Declaration of his mojl Chrijilan 
majej}y''s phnipcttntiary, ivith re- 
gard to the debts due to the Cana- 

THE king of Great Britain 
having dehred that the pay- 
ment of the letters of exchange and 
bills which had been delivered to 
the Canadians for the neceffaries 
fumiihed to the French t:o >ps, 
fhould be fecured, his moft Cnrif- 
tian majefty, entirely difpofed to 
render to every one that juftice 
which is legally due to them, has 
declared, and does declare, that the 
faid bills, and letters ofexchanpe, 
ftiall be puiiftually paid, agreeably 
to a iiquiuation made in a conveni- 
ent time, according to the dlitance 
of the place , and to whst Ihall be 
poffible ; tailing care, however, that 
the bills and If'tters cf exchange, 
which the French fubjects may have 
at the time cf this declaration, be 
not confounded with the bills and 
letters of exchange, which are in 
the poffeflion of the new fubjefts of 
the king of Great Britain. 

In witnefs whereof, we the un- 
derwritten minifter of his moft 
Chriftian majefty, duly authorifed 
for this parpoie, have figned the 

[i?] 2 pr«. 

244] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

pieffnt declaration, and caufed the moft Cliriftian majefty, and cf 
feal of our arms to be put thereto, his Catholic majelly, having con- 
Done at Paris the loth of Fcbru- eluded and figned at Parib, the 
ary, 1763. loih of February of this year, a 
(L.S.) CHoisEUL.DucdePraflin. dehnitive treaty of peace, and {<-- 

parate articles, the tenor of which 

Dsclarationnf his Britannic majejfy^s is as follows : 

cmib-.JJ'iidor extraordinary and pie- (Fiat infertio.) 

nipotentiary, ivith regard to the li- And the laid ambafiadors and ple- 

mits of Bengal in the EnJ} Indies. nipotentiaries having in a friendly 

manner invited the ambaflador and 
E the under-written ambaf- minifter plenipotentiary of his moll 
fadorextraordinaryandple- Faithful majdty to accede thereto 
nipotentiary of the king of Great .]„ the name of his faid majefly ; 
Bruain, in order to prevent all the underwritten minilters pleni- 
fubjea of difputeon account of the potentiarv, vi^. on the part of the 
•limits of the dominions of the Su- moft fereiie and moft potent prince, 
bah of Bengal, as well as of the George ihe Third, by the grace cf 
coaft of Coromandel and "Orixa, God.kingofGreatBritain, France, 
..declare, in the name and by order and Ireland, duke of Brunfwic and 
of the faid Briiannic majedy, that Luncnbourg, arch - treafurer and 
, the faid dominions of me Sabah of eleclcr of the holy Roman empire, 
.Bengal (hall be repined not to ex- the" fnoft illullrious and moft ex- 
tend farther than Yanaon exclu- cellent lord, John, duke and esrl of 
.fively, and that Yanaon ftiall be Bedford, marquis of TaviP.ock, &:c. 
confidered as included in the north minifter of itate of the king cf 
part of the coaft of Corornandel or Great Britain, lieutenant-general of 
Orixa, -his forces, keeper of his privy feai, 
in witnefs v/hereof, &c. we the -knight of the moft noble order cf 
. underwritten miniiler plenipoten- tise Garter, and his ambaflador ex- 
tiary of his maj-ily the king of traordinary and plenipotentiary to 
Great Britain have figned the pre- his moft Chriftian majefty ; and on 
lent declaration, and have caufed the part of the'moft ferene and moft 
the feal of our arms to be put potencpri"n(ie, Don Jofeph theFirll, 
thereto. by the grace of God, king of Pdr- 
Doneat Paris the loth of Febru- tugal and of che Algarve?, the moil 
ary, 1763. iliuftrious and moft excellent lord, 
(L. S.) BtDFORu, C. P. S. Martin deMello and Caftro, knight 

profefled of the order of Chrift, cf 

AcceJJionofhis moft Faithful majejiy, his moft Faithful majefty's council, 

7 ./ - , nil J and his ambalfador and minifter 

In tt^e najne cf the molt holy and un- ,. . ,- n/--T- 

,. ■ J J rr- . • f^ ! o J plenipotentiary tohis molt Lhrutian 

di'vided Trinity, lather. Son, and *^ • S • • r u • i 11 

ui rw not-. maiefty ; in virtue or their full pow- 

lioly Cihcft. So be it. • ■ u l i. • . j 

-^ •' ers. Winch ihey have communicated 

BE it known to all thofe to whom to each other, and of which copies 

it ftiall or may belong: The ftiall be added at the end of the 

snibafladors and plenipotentiaries prefent act, have agreed upon what 

•f his §ritannic maj.-ily, of his icUovts ; viz. hii moft Faithful ma- 

S jelly 




jelly defiring moil lincerely to con- 
cur in the fpeedy re-eftablifhment 
of peace, accedes, in virtue of ihe 
prefent ad, to the faid definitive 
treaty and feparate articles, as they 
^re above tranfcribed, without any 
referve or exception, in the firm 
confidence that every thing that is 
promifed to his faid majtlty, will 
be bona f4e fulfilled, declaring at 
the fame time, and promifing to 
fulfil, with equal fidelity, all the 
articles, claufes, and conditions 
which concern him. On his fide, 
hio Britannic majeliy accepts the 
prefent accefiion of his moll Faith- 
lul majeily, and promifes likewife 
to fulfil, without any referve or ex- 
ception, all the articles, claufes, 
and conditions, contained in the 
faid definitive treaty, and feparate 
articles above inferted. The rati- 
fications of the prefent treaty (hall 
be exchanged in the fpace of one 
month, to be computed '"rom this 
day, or fooner if it can be done. 

\x\ witnefs whereof, we ambaf- 
fadorsand minifters plenipotentiary 
of hi>^ Britannic majeity, and of his 
inoft Faithful maj'^lty, have figned 
the prefent ail, and have caufed the 
■feal of our arms to be put thereto. 

Done at Paris the loth of Febru- 
ary, 1763. 
(L. S.) Bedford, C. P. S. 
(L. S.) De Mello & Castro. 

Declaration of bis moji Faithful 
fftaj^Jly's ambaffador and 7}iinij1er 
plenipotentiary, ivith regard to 
the alternating njuith Great Britain 
and France. 

WHEREAS on the conclufion 
of the negotiation of the de- 
finiuve treaty, figned at Paris the 
lolh day of February, a difficulty 
arofe as to the order of figning, 

which might have retarded the con- 
clufion of the faid treaty : We the 
underwritten ambalT.idor and mi- 
nilter plenipotentiary of his moil 
Faithful majeily, declare, that the 
alternative obferved, on the part of 
the king of Great Britain, and the 
moil Cnriltian king, with the moil 
Faithful king, in the acl of accef- 
fion of the court of Portugal, was 
granted by their Britannic and mofl 
ChriUian raajellies, folely Vv'ith a 
view to facilitate the conclufion of 
the definitive treaty, and by that 
means, the more fpeedily to confo- 
lidate fo important and lo faiutarya 
work; and that this complaifanceof 
their Britannic and moil Chriftian 
majefties fhall not be made any pre- 
cedent of for the future ; the court 
of Portugal fhall not alledge it as an 
example in their favour ; fhall de- 
rive tiierefrom no right, title, or 
•pretenfion, for any caufe, or under 
any pretence whatfcever. 

In witnefs whereof, we ambaf- 
fador and minifter plenipotentiary 
of his mofl Faithful majefty, duly 
authorifed for this purpofe, have 
figned the prefent declaration, and 
have caufed the feal of our arms to 
be put thereto. 

Done at Paris the loth of Fe- 
bruary, 1763. 
Martin deiVlELLo& Castro. 
(L. S.) 

The following preliminary arti- 
cles and declaration were omitted 
in the definitive treaty, as the ar- 
ticles were already complied with, 
and the peace then agreed upoa 
between the empiefs queen and :he 
king of Poland on the one hand, 
and the king of Prulfia on the 
other, rendered the declaration 

[^J 3 

XIII. Af- 

246] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

Xnr. After the ratification of 
thepreliminriries, France fhall eva- 
cuate, as foon as it can be done, the 
fortrefles of Cleves, Wefel, and 
Gucldres, and in general all the 
countries belonging to the king of 
PrufTia ; and, at ih ■ fame time, the 
Britifh and French armies (hall 
evacuate all the countries which 
they occupy in Weftphalia, Lower 
Saxony, on the Lower Rhine, the 
Upper Rhine, and in all ^ the em- 
pire ; an^ each {hall retire into the 
domini. ns of their refpetlive fove- 
reigns : and theirBritannicand moft 
Chriftian majefties further engage 
and prcmifc, not to furnifh any 
fuccour, of any kind, to their re- 
fpe^ive allies, who fhall continue 
enL'Jgedin the prefent war in Ger- 

XIV. The towns of Oftend and 
Nieuport fhall be evacuated by his 
moft Chriftian majefty's troops, im- 
mediately after the fignature of the 
^refent preliminaries. 

Declaration, figncd at For.tair.hhau, 
the ^ci of JSlcvanbcry 1762, by the 
Fretuh plenipotentiary, 

HI S mofl Chriftian majefty de- 
clares, that in agreeing to the 
Xlllth article of the preliminaries, 
figned this day, he does not mean 
to renounce the right of acquitting 
his debts to his allies; and that the 
remittances made on his part, in 
order to acquit the arrears that may 
he due r,n the fubfidies of preceding 
years, are not to be confiaered as 
an infraftion of the faid article. 

In witnefs vvh^reof^I, the under- 
written miniftcr plenipotentiary of 
his moft Chriftian majefty, have 
figned the prefent declaration, and 
have caufed the feai of my atms to 
fee put thereto. 

Done at Fontainbleau, the 3<1 
day of November, 1762. 
(L. S.) 

Theftipulations relative to Dun- 
kirk, and the Eaft Indies, flood as 
follows in the preliminaries : 

V. The town and port of Dun- 
kirk (hall be put into the ftate fixed 
by the late treaty of Aii" la Cha- 
pelle, and by former treaties : the 
cunette fhall remain as it now is, 
provided that theEnglifh engineers, 
named by his Britannic majefty, 
and received at Dunkirk by order 
of his moft Chriftian majefty , verify, 
that this cunette is only of ufe for 
the wholefomenefs of the air, and 
the health of the inhabitants. 

X. In the Eaft Indies, Great 
Britain fhall reftore to France the 
fcveral comptoirs which that crown 
had on the coaft of Coromandel, 
as well as on that of Malabar, 
and alfo in Bengal, at the com- 
mencement of hoftilities between 
the two companies in the year 
1749. '"^ ^^^ condition in which 
they now are, on condition that his 
moft Chriftian majefty renounces 
the acquifitions which he has made 
on the coaft of Coromandel, fince 
the faid commencement of hofti- 
lities between the two companies in 
the year 1749. 

And as to the limits of the Eng- 
lifh and French, and their Indian 
allies in thefe countries, they were 
not exaftly marked out as they now 
are in the declaration annexed to 
the definitive treaty. 

Thefe, with his moft Chriftian 
majefty's obliging himfelf in the 
definitive treaty, to difcharge the 
debts due by him to his Canadian 
fubjefts, form all the difference be- 
tween the faid treaty and the prc- 




By the KIN G. 

Grorge R. 

WHEREAS a definitive treaty 
of peace and friendfhip be- 
tween us, the moft Chriftian king, 
and the king of Spain, to which the 
kingof Portugal hath acceded, hath 
been concluded at Paris on the loth 
day of this inltant March; in con- 
formity thereunto, we have thought 
fit hereby to command, that the 
fame be publifhed throughout all 
our dominions : and we do declare 
to all our loving fubjefts our will 
and pleafure, that the faid treaty of 
peace and friend lliip be obferved 
inviolably, as well by Tea as land, 
and in all places whatfoever; ftricl- 
ly charging and commanding all 
our loving fubjefts to take notice 
thereof, and to conform themfclves 
"•hereunto accordinglv. 

Given at our court at St. James's 
the 2 ill day of March, 1763, 
in the third year of our reign. 
GOD fave the KING. 

^he definitive treaty of peace heinveen 
the emprefs queen and the king of 
Prufp.Ut is in fubjlance as fol- 


THERE fnall be henceforth 
an inviolable and perpetual 
peace, and fincere union, and per- 
fect friendihip, between the Apof- 
tolic emprefs queen on the one part, 
and the king of Prufiia on the 
other, their heirs and fuccefTors. 

II. There Ihall be on both iides 
an eternal oblivion, and a general 
amnelty of all hoftilities, lolTes, da- 
.Jnages, and vvTongs, committed du- 

ring the late trouble;, by either 
party, of what nature foever ; fo 
that there Ihall be no further men- 
tion made of them, nor any com- 
penfation demanded, under any 
pretence, or upon anyconfideration 
\vhatfoever. The refpecftive fub- 
jedls of each power fhall never be 
molefted upon that account, but 
fhall fully enjoy this amneity, and 
all itsconfequences, notwithlland- 
ing the avocatory letters which 
have been iffued and publifhed. All 
confifcations ihall be entirely taken 
off; and fuch goods as have been 
confifcated or fequeftered, fhall be 
reilored to the proprietors, who 
were in pOiTefTion of them before 
thefe laft troubles. 

III. Both parties renounce all 
claim on each other's dominions or 
territories (particularly theemprefs 
queen renounces all claim to thofe 
which were ceded to the king of 
Prufiia by the preliminary articles 
of Breflau and the treaty of Berlin), 
and alfo all indemnification for da- 
mages fuffered during the lafl war. 

IV. Ail hoftilities Ihall entirely 
ceafeon both fides, from the day of 
the fignature of the prefent treaty 
of peace. For this end the neceflliry 
orders fhall be immediately dif- 
patchcd to the armies and troops of 
the two high contracting parties, 
wherefoever they may be ; and in 
cafe, through ignorance of what 
has been ftipulated in this refpeft, 
any hoiiilities fhall have been com- 
mitted after the day of the figna- 
ture of the prefent treaty, they ihall 
not be deemed to afFeft this treaty 
in any manner ; and in this cafe, 
the men and efi'eds, which may 
have been taken and carried away, 
fhall be faithfully reftored. 

V. Her Apoflolic majefly, the 
emprefs queen of Hungary and Bo- 

[^] 4 hernia. 

248] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

hemia, fiiall withtlraw her troops 
fronj all the countries and Hates of 
Germany, which are not under her 
dominion, vvirhin the fpace of 21 
days after ihe exchange of the rati- 
fications of the preitnt treaty; and 
within the fame term fhe Ihall caule 
to be entirely evacuated, and re- 
flored to his majelty the king of 
Pruffia, the county of Glatz, and, 
in general, all the ftates, countries, 
towns, places, and forireffes, which 
his Pruffian majefly poHeffcd before 
the prefent war in bilefia, or elie- 
where, and which have bren occu- 
pied by the troups of her Apoftolic 
jrajedy the emprefs queen of Hun- 
gary .ir;d Bohemia, or by thofe of 
her friends and allies, during the 
courfe of the prefent w..r. The 
fortreffes of Glatz, Wejel, and 
Gueldres, fhall be rcftcred to his 
PrufTian majefly in the fame ftate, 
with regard to the foi iihcations, 
in which they were, and with the 
artillery that was found therein 
when thev were taken. His ma- 
jcfty the king of FrufTia (hall with- 
draw, witliin the fame Space of 21 
days after the exchange of the rati- 
fications of the prefent treaty, his 
troops from all the countries and 
ftates of Germany, which are not 
under his dominion; and he fliall 
evacuate and rellore, on his fide, all 
the ftates, countries, towns, places 
and fprtrefTes, of his majelly the 
king of Poland, eledor of Saxony, 
agreeable to the treaty of peace, 
which has been concluded this fame 
day between their majefties the 
kings of Pruffia and Poland ; fo that 
the reRitution and evacuation of 
the provinces, towns, and fortrelTes 
Tcfpeitivelyoccupied, fhai! be made 
at one and the ii.rne time. 

Vl. The contributions and deli- 
veries, of whai nature fuever they 

be, as well as all demands of re- 
cruits, pioneers, waggons, horfes, 
and in gener..'. the things furnifli- 
ed upon acroint of war, fhall ceafe 
from the any of the iignatJre of 
the prefeni irtatv, and every thing 
that fhail be exa(^ed, taken, or re- 
ceived, after this epoch, fhall be 
retlorea pundually and without de- 

Each party fhall renounce all ar- 
rears whatfoever of contributions 
and deliveries. The biih of ex- 
change, or other wrii:en promifes, 
which have been given on either 
fide, refpedling thtfe matters, (hall 
be declared void and oi none eff-'d, 
and fhalj be reftcred gratis to thofe 
who *gave them. Phe hortages 
alfo, which have been taken or 
given, wiih regard to the fame, 
fhall be releafed with u' ranfom: 
every thing above mentioned fhall 
take place immeuiate'y after the ex- 
change of the ratifications of the 
prefent treaty. 

VII. A\] prifopprs of war fliall 
be reciprocally and fiairhfully re- 
ftored, withou' ranfom, and with- 
out regard to vheir number, or mi- 
litary rank, on tneir paying how- 
ever previoi'fly ihe debts which they 
fhall have contracted during their 
capii^ iiy. Eacii partv fhall mutn- 
ally renounce what has beenfurnilh- 
ed or advanced to the ni for their af- 
fi fiance and maintenance; and the 
fame procteding, in all refpeds, 
fhall be obferved wiih regard to the 
fick and wojnded immediately after 
their recover). To this purpofe, 
each party fhall name generals or 
commifTioners, who fhall, immedi- 
ately after the exchange of the rati- 
fications, proceed, in the places that 
fhali be agreed upon, to the ex- 
change of all the prifoncrs of war. 
Every thingthat isflipulated in this 



article (hall equally tak-? place with 
reipeift to the .lates of the empire, 
ill confequence of the general llipu- 
lation contained in the XJXth ar- 
ticle. But as his majcily the king 
of Praffia and the ftates of the em- 
pire have themfelves fubfifted and 
miincained their refpedive prifon- 
ersofwar, and as, upon this ac- 
count, fome inaividuala may have 
made advances, the high contradt- 
ing parties do not mean to dero- 
gate, by the above ilipulation?, 
from the pretenfions of the faiJ in- 
dividuals in this refpect. 

VIII. The fubjecis of either par- 
ty forced to en'^^er into the fervice 
of the other, fhall be difcharged. 

IX. The emprefs queen fhall re- 
turn all the deeds, writings, and 
letters belonging to the places re- 
ftored to the king of pruffia. 

X. The inh?bitants of the county 
and city of Glatz fhall be at liberty 
to remove with their eftefts, in two 
years, without paying any duty. 

XL The king of Prufila ftall 
confirm the nomination made by 
the emprefs queen, during the war, 
to vacant benefices, and to places in 
the excife, in the duchies of Cleves 
and Gueldres. 

XII. The preliminaries of Bref. 
lau, July II, 1742, the treaty of 
Berlin, July z8, 1742, the reces of 
the limits of 1742, the treaty of 
Drefden, Dec. 28, 1745, where 
they are not derogated from by this 
treaty, are renewed and confirmed. 

XIII. The two parties purpofe 
to fettle a treaty of commerce as 
foon as poflible ; and in the mean 
time will favour the commerce be- 
tween their countries. 

XIV. The Roman Catholic re- 
ligion (hall be preferved in Silefia, 
asby the treaty of Drefden, ar.d all 
pther privileges of the fubjeds. 


XV. The two con trafting powers 
fhall renew article IX. and the fe- 
parate article of the treaty of Ber- 
lin, relative to the debts on Silefia. 

XVI. The two powers mutually 
guaranty the whole cf each other's 
dominions ; thofe belonging to the 
emprefs queen out of Germany ex- 

XVir. The king of Poland fhall 
be comprehended in this treaty oa 
the footing of his treaty of this day 
with the king of Prullia. 

X VIII. The king of Pruffia will 
renew his convention with the elec- 
tor Palatine in 1741, relative to 
Juliers and Bergue. 

XIX. The whole empire is com- 
prifed in the ftipulations of the lid, 
IVth, Vth, Vlth, and VTith arti- 
cles. And by virtue thereof, all the 
princes and flates ih^U fnlly enjoy 
the efft^fts of the faid iHpulations. 
And whatloever is therein ftipu- 
lated and agreed on between her 
majelty the emprefs queen of Hun- 
gary and Bohemia^ and his majefty 
the king of Pruflia, fnall take place 
equally and reciprocally betweea 
their faid majeliies and all the 
princes and ftates of the empire. 
The peace of Weltphalia, and all 
the other conftitutions of the em- 
pire, are likev^qfe confirmed by the 
pre.'ent treaty of peace. 

Papers relating to the conquej} of 
Martini CO. 

Articles of capitulation of the citadel 
of Fort Royal, in the if and of 
Martinico, the 4//^ of February , 


THE commanding officer of 
the citadel fhall march out at 
the head of the garrifon, compofed 


i5ol ANNUAL REGISTER, tybz. 

of troops detached from the marine, thoirfervants along with them.*-— 

<he royal grenadiers, cannonicrs. Granted. 

bombardiers, and Swif's ; the difFe- VII. That the militia and other 

rent detachments of the militia and inhabitants, that now make part of 

freebooters, and the other volun- the faid garrifon, may retire to their 

teers, with the honours of war, 
drums beating, lighted match, co- 
lours flying, two pieces of cannon, 
and three rounds of ammunition 
each. - - -The troops of his moft 
Chriltian majefty in garrifon fhall 
march out with drums beating, co- 
lours flying, two pieces of cannon, 
and two rounds of ammunition ; 
and Ihall be embarked and fent to 
France as foon as poflible, at the 
cxpence of his Britannic majefty. 
The militia, freebooters, and others 
"belonging to the ifland, fiiall lay 
down their arms, and be prifoners 
of war, until the fate of it is de- 

with their fervants like- 
•Anfwered in the firft ar- 

wife. — 

VIII. That the volunteers of St. 
Vincent, who came here to the 
fuccour of the place, (hall be fur- 
niflied with a boat and provifions, 
to carry them home again, with 
their fervants, arms, and baggage, 
as foon as poflible.— ——To remain 
prifoners of war. 

IX. That the inhabitants like- 
wife fhall be furnifhed with fhal- 
lops, or boats, to carry them to the 
different quarters of this ifland, 
— Refufed. 

X. That the fick and wounded 

II. The garrifon fliall be fent to fhall be removed to the hofpital of 
the port of Rochfort in France, by this city, to be there taken care of 

the moft ftiort and expeditious way, 
at the expence, and in the (hipj, of 

his Britannic majelty. Anfwered 

in the firft. 

III. The faid garrifon fliall be 
lodged and maintained in the town 
of Fort Royal, till their departure, 
at the expence of his Britannic ma- 
jefty. They fhall be maintained 

at the expence of his Britannic 
majefty, and fhall be embarked as 
in the firft article. 

IV. That it ftiall be lawful for 
the officers, Creoles, and others, to 
go into the ifland, and flay there 
as long as it fliall be nece ffary to 
fettle their affairs. —— A reafonable 
time will be allowed to the officers 
to fettle their affairs, they behav- 
ing according to the rules of war. 

V. That the ofticers and others, 
who have cfFetfts in the country, 
fhall keep them. Granted. 

VT. That the officers fliall take 

by our own furgeons, till they are 
perfeftly recovered ; and that the 
commifTary of his Britannic ma- 
jefty fliall take care tofurnifla them 
with fubfiftence,— i — They fliall be 
taken the fame care of as our own, 
and may be attended by their fur- 

XI. That the faid hofpital fliall 
take away with them their medi- 
cines, and all their utenflls and 
effefts in general. Granted. 

XII. That the chaplain of the 
garrifon fhall be permitted to ad- 
minifter fpiritual iuccours to the 
fick, as well as others of the troops, 
and publicly to bury the dead with- 
out moleftation. Granted. 

Xllf. That the faid fick fliall, 
after their recovery, follow the for- 
tune of their refpeflive corps, as 
well as thofe who fhall be adlually 
in the hofpitals without the town, 
*—— Granted, 

XIV. That 

State papers. 


XIV. That there fhall be a gene- 
ral inventory taken by commiffaries 
named by each party, of the artil- 
lery, ammunition, provifions, and 
all other effeds within the place. 


XV. That the Engllfh prifoners 
detained in this citadel iiiall be ex- 
changed for ours. Among others, 
M. de Capone, major of this cita- 
del and ifland, fhall be included in 
the exchange, to follow the fortune 
of the officers of the place. — — Re- 

XVI. That the effeds of the 
officers and men belonging to the 
royal grenadiers, which were left 
upon Morne Garnier, fhall be re- 

ftored to them. It cannot be 

complied with, as it will beimpof- 
fib'e to recover them. 

XVil. That the armed free ne- 
groes and mulattoes, that entered 
into the citadel as attendants on the 
companies of militia, Ihall go out 
likewife with the faid companies. 
——.They Ihall remain prifoners of 
war, until the fate, of the ifland is 

XVIII. That three days fhall be 
granted for the evacuation of the 
place, at the end of which time, 
the gate fhall be given up to the 
troops of his Britannic majefly, 
whilfl the garrifon fhall march, 

out. The gate of the fort fhall 

be given up to the troops of his 
Britannic majefty this evening at 
five o'clock, and the French garri- 
fon fhall march out at nine to-mor- 
row morning 

XIX. That before the capitu- 
lation is fettled, the commanding 
officer of the place fhall be permit- 
ted to communicate it to the gene- 
ral, .and in the mean tim.e there 
fhall be a fufpenfion uf arms, and 
that all the woiks fnall ceafe on 

both fides. After the capitula- 
tion is figned, and the gate of the 
fort pofleffed by the Britifh troops, 
the commandant Ihall be allowed to 
acquaint his general with it. 

Robert Monckton, 
DeLignery, G.B.Rodney. 

Capitulation demanded by the inhum 
bit ants of the ijland of Martinico, 
rcprcfntcd by Meff. D. JleJ/o, knt. 
ftignior Dc/ragny La Pierrey cap-- 
tain of horfe, and Feryre, captain 
of infantry of militia, fiirnijhed 
ivith full pon.vers from nine guar'- 
ters of this iJJand. 

To their excellencies Me/Trs. 

Monckton and Rodney, ge- 
nerals by land and fea of his 
Britannic majefly. 


THE inhabitants fhall quit 
their pofts with two field-pie- 
ce*, their arm s,colours flying, drums 
beating, matches lighted, and lliall 

have all the honours of war. 

The inhabitants fhall march out of 
all their garrifons and pofts (none 
excepted) with their arms and co- 
lours flying, upon condition that 
they afterwards lay them down ; 
and that all the forts, garrifons, 
polls, and batteries of cannon and 
mortars, with all arms,am munition, 
and implements of war, be delivered 
to proper perfons appointed to re- 
ceive them. 

II. The inhabitants of the iflands 
of St, Lucia, and St. Vincent, who 
are come to the affiftance of thi$ 
ifland, fhall have the liberty to re- 
tire with their arras and baggage, 
and fhall be furnifhed with aveffel 
to carry them to their own iflands, 
wilh their fervaats which they have 

252] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

brought with them, as alfo with their efFe«5ls moveable and immove- 

provifion neceflarv for their voyage, able, of what nature foever, and 

They muft remain prifoners of (ball bepreferved in their privileges, 

war, as thofe of St. Vincent, in rights, honours, and exemptions; 

the capitulation of Fort Royal. their free negroes and mulattoes 

III. The inhabitants fliall have Jl.all have the entire enjoyment of 

free exercife of their religion, the theirliberty. Granted in regard 

priefts, friars, and nuns,fhail be pre- to the religious orders: The inha- 

ierved in their cures and convents, bitants, being fubjedls of Great 

and it fhall be permitted to the fu- Britain, will enjoy their properties, 

periorsof the order, to fend for any and the fame privileges as in the 

6f them from France, delivering other his majeUy's Leeward iflands. 

theirlettertohi;,Britannicmajefty's VH. They faall not pay to his 

governors Granted majefty any other duties than thofe 

IV. They fhall be ftriftly neuter, which have been paid hitherto to 
and jhal! not be obliged to take his mod Chriftian majefty ; and the 
arms again it his rnofl Chriftian ma- capitation of negroes on the fame 
jefty, nor even againft any other footing it is paid at prefent, with- 

power. They becorne fubjefts out any other charges or imports ; 

of his Britannic majelty, and mull: andtheexpences ofjuftice, penfions 
take the oath of allegiance; but to curates, and other occafional ex- 
lb .11 not be obiiged^ to take arms pences, fhall be paid by the domain 
againft his molt Chriftian majefty, of his Britannic majefty, as they 
until a peace may determine the were by that of his moft Chriftian 
fate of the ifland. majefty. Anfwrred in the 6th 

V. They fliall preferve their civil article, in what regards the inha- 
government, the.r laws, cuftomr, bitants. 

and t>rdonnances ; juftice fhall be Vllf. and IX. The prifoners 

adminift^ered by the fanre officers taken, during the fiege, fhall be 

who are now it^^mp^loyrnent ; and reftored on both fides ; the free 

there fhall be a regulation made for mulattoes, as well as the negroes, 

the interior police between the go- whicli fhall hav been tiiken, fliall 

vernor of his Britannic majefty and be reftored as prifoners of war, and 

the inhabitants; and in cafe that fhall not be treated as ilaves. 

at the peace the ifl.ind fliould be Thciuhabiiantsand mulattoes, now 

ceded to the king of Great Britain, prifoners, will beccm? Brit'fh fub- 

it fhall beallo^ed to the inhabitants jefts, upon the fubmifTion of the 

to preferve their political govern- whole ifland^ and will enjoy the 

ment, and to accept that of Anti- benefit of it. The negroes which 

gua or St. Chriftopher's. They have been taken in arms are deemed 

become Britifh fubje£t: (as in the flaves. 

preceding article), but fhal! conti- X. Thefubjedsof GreatEritain, 

nue to be governed by their pre- who hav? taken refuge in the ifland 

fent law?, unci iiis m.jefty's plea- 
fure be known. 

VI. The inhabitants, as alf^ the 
reliaious orders of both fexes, fhall 

fir crimes, or condemned topunifh- 
metits, fhall have liberty of retir- 
ing. - Refufed. 

Xr. No others than the inha- 

be maintained in the property of bitants refident in this ifland, fhall, 




till the peace, poffefs any eftates, 
either by acquifition, agreement, 
or otherwife; but in cafe, at the 
peace, the country fhall be ceded to 
the king of Great Britain, then it 
fhall be permitted to the inhabitants 
who fhall not be willing to become 
his Cubj-'dls, to fell their eftate?, 
moveables and immoveables, to 
whom they pleafe, and retire where 
they Ihall think proper, in which 
cafe they (hall be allowed conveni- 
ent time. All fubjefts of Great 

Britain may poflefs any lands or 
houfes by purchafe. The remain- 
der of this article granted, provided 
they fell to Britifti fubjefts. 

XII. In cafe any exchanges fhall 
be thought of at the peace, their 
moll Chriftian and Britannic majef- 
ties are intreated to give the pre- 
ference to this ifland. This will 

depend upon his Eritannic majefty's 

XIII. The inhabitants fhall have 
liberty of retiring ; we fay, offend- 
ing their children to France for 
their education ; the wives of ofHcers 
and others, out of the ifland, fnall 
have liberty of retiring with their 
effects, and the number of fervants 
fuitable to their rank. -The li- 
berty of fending their children to 
France to be educated, depends 
upon the king's pleafure. The relt 

XIV. The government fhall pro- 
cure for the inhabitants the vent of 
their commodities, which fhall be 
looked upon as national commodi- 
ties, and of confequence fhall have 
entry in England. — Granted ; the 
ifland producing noihing but what 
may be imported into England. 

XV. The inhabitan:s fliall not 
be obliged to find quarters for the 
troops, or to do any works on the 
fortitication-s. The inhahjtams 
muft furnifh barracks or quarters 

for the king's troops in the feveral 
diftrifts of the ifland. 

XVI. The widows and others, 
abfent by ficknefs, who fhall not 
have figned the capitulation, ihail 

have a time fixed for doing it. 

Granted, on condition that they 
fign the capitulation in one month 
from this date. 

XVII. VefTels fhall be granted to 
the freebooters and others who have 
no effects in this country, and are 

willing to leave it, to retire.— 

Granted, to go to France, but no 
where elfe. 

XVIII. It fhall be permitted to 
give freedom to negro and mulatto 
flaves, as a recompence for their 
good fervices, according to cuflom. 

Granted to fervants. 

XIX. The inhabitants and mer- 
chants fhall enjoy all their privi- 
leges of commerce, as the fubjf-£ks 

of Great Britain.- Granr.^d ; 

fo that it does not affecl the privile- 
ges of particular companies eilab- 
lifhed in England, or the laws of 
the kingdom, which prohibit the 
carryin_g on trade in other than 
Britifh bottoms. 

XX. It fhall always be permitted 
to the inhabitants, to continue to 
make white and clayed fugar, as 
they have been ufed to. — Granted, 
they paying duty in proportion to 
their fuperior value to the commoa 
quality of the Mufcovado fugar. 

XXI. The fea-veffels, as well 
{"hip? as boats or fchooners, which 
are funk or afloat, and which have 
not been taken, fhall remain to 
their owners. — Refufed to all pri- 
vateers and fhips trading to dillant 
ports. Granted to fuch as areem- 
ploved in pa/ling to and from the 

■ ditrerent port? cf the ifland. 

XXII. The money which is 
-)nrt'» ftifide ufe of, fhall remain up- 
on rhe fame footing, without be- 

254] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

ing fiifceptible either of augmenta- 
tion or diminution.— —Granted. 
(D'Aleflb.) (Lapiere) 

(rferiere.) (Mauboix) 

(Dorientei fack for) 
(Doricnt Hubert, and) 
(Dorient Campagne.) 
Demanded. All archives and 
papers, which may be necelTary or 
relative to the government of the 
ifland, to be faithfully given up. 
Leave is granted to the gentlemen 
of the ifland to keep neceifary arms 
for -the defence of their plantations. 
Robert Monckton. 
G. B. Rodney. 
Settled, agreed, and clofed by 
us the deputies reprefentative and 
bearers of the powers from the 
major part of the quarters compof- 
ing this colony ; in the city of Fort 
Royal, Martinico, this feventh day 
of February, 1762. 
D'Aleflb. rferiere. Rob.Monckton. 
Lapiere. G, B. Rodney. 

(Dorienterfack) (Berland) 

Capitulation offered for the nvhole 
ijland of Martinico y oti the part of 
M. le Fafor Delatoucbe, the gO' 
vernor general, 

PReliminary article. A fufpen- 
fion of arms 111 all be agreed up- 
on for 15 days; at the expiration 
of which the following capitulation 
fhall take place, if no fuccour ar- 
rives. — Twenty-four hours will be 
allowed the general to accede to the 
terms offered, from the limeMeflJrs. 
de Bournan and Dehtouche fhall 
be fet on fhore at St. Peter's ; and, 
if accepted of, the troops of his Bri- 
tannic majefty lliall be immediately 
jjut in pofTefiion of fuch forts and 

polls as hi> Dritannic majefty's ge- 
neral fhall think fit. 

Art. \, All the forts and pods of 
the ifland Ihall be evacuated by the 
troops of his mod Chriltian majefty, 
whether regular or militia, or inde- 
pendent companies ot free-booters, 
or livery fervants ; they fhall march 
out with four field-pieces, their 
arms, two rounds per man, their 
enfigns or colours flying, drums 
beating, and all the honours of 
war ; after which the faid forts and 
polls fiiall be occupied by the troops 

of his Britannic majelly. The 

troops and irihabitants iTiall march 
out of all their garrifons and polls 
with their arms, drums beating, 
colours flying, and the troops to 
have four pieces of cannon, with 
two rounds each, and two rounds 
per man, upon condition that the 
inhabitants afterwards lay down 
their arms ; and that all the forts, 
garrifons, polls, and batteriesofcan- 
non, or mortars, with all arms, am- 
munition, and implements of war, 
fhall be delivered up to proper 
perfons appointed by us to receive 

Art. n. Tranfport vefTels fhall 
be provided at the expence of his 
Britannic majeity, fufficiently vic- 
tualled, to carry to the GranaJea 
the abovementioned regular troops, 
and cheirofhcers and commanders, 
with the four pieces of cannon, 
arms, baggage, and, in general, all 
the effecls of the faid officers and 

troops. Granted, to France 


Art. III. Mr. Rouille, governor 
ofMariinico, the king's lieutenants 
of the faid illand, the ofiicers of the 
flafF, engineers and fub-engineers, 
fhall return to France in the vefTels, 
and at the charge of his Britannic 

majefly. Granted. 




Art. IV. There fhall in like 
jnanner be provided, at the charges 
of his Britannic majefty, a ve/iel, 
and the neceilary vicluailing, to 
carry to the Granades M. le Vaflbr 
Delatouche, commandant-general 
for his moll Chriftian majefty of the 
FrenchLeewardiflands in America, 
his lady, and all perfons with him, 
engaged in the king's fervice, or 
belonging to his houfhold, and all 
their effedls.———— Granted, to 
France, the Granades being blocked 

Art. V. M. de Rochemore, in- 
ipedor of the fortifications and ar- 
tillery in this iiland, fliall, in like 
manner, be conveyed to the Gra- 
nades, in the fame ihips with the 
perfons in his retinue engaged in 
the fervice of the king, their do- 
meftics, and their eftefts. — Granted, 
lo France. 

Art. \ I. There fliall be made by 
two commifl'aries, who {hall be 
,named for that purpofe, one of each 
nation, an exacl inventory of all 
the eft'eds, which fliall be found to 
belong to his molt Chriilian majefty 
in the arfcnals, in the magazines, 
upon the batteries, and in general 
of all the arms, uteniils, and ammu- 
nitions of war, to be delivered up 
to tike commaiiJing officer of his 
Britannic majeily.—— Granted. 

Art. VII. Merchandizes, not be- 
ing arms, nor munitions of war, 
which may be found lodged in the 
faid magazines, or upon the faid 
batteries, ftiall not be made a part 
of the faid inventory, unlcfs it be 
in order to their being reHored to 
their true owners,— —All military 
ftores, and others, employed as 
fuch, become his Britannic ma- 

Art. VIII. All the prifoners made 
during the fiege, or at fea, before 

the fiege, of whatever nation and 
quality, fhall be reftored on either 
fide ; and thofe made in the citadel, 
if they be troops, fhall 'follow the" 
fortune of the other troops ; and, if 
inhabitants, they fnall follow the 
fortune of the other inhabitants.— 
The troops, according to the cartel ; 
the inhabitants willbereleafed upon 
the figning of this capitulation. 

Art. IX. The free negroes and 
mulattoes, made prifoners of W3r„ 
fhall be treated as fuch, and reftored 
like the other prifoners, in order to 
their continuing to enjoy their li- 
berty.— All negroes taken in 
arms are deemed flaves. The reft' 

Art. X. The Sieur Nadao Du- 
treil, de la Pntterie, and Cornette, 
prifoners of ftate, fhall be likewife 
condnfted, at the expence, and in 
the fhips, of his Britannic majefty, 
to the ifland of the Granades, to be 
delivered into the hands of M. le 

VafTor Delatouche. MefTieura 

dc la Potterie, and Cornette, (hall 
be delivered up when taken, but 
M. Nadau having had our promife 
(immediately upon his being made 
pnfoncr) to procure him a reafon- 
able time to fettle his affairs, he has 
three months from the date hereof 
for that purpofe. 

Art. XI. The ifland of Martinico 
fhall remain in the hands of his Bri- 
tannic majefty, till fuch time as its 
condition Jball have been determin- 
ed by treaty made between the two 
pov/ers, without the inhabitants be- 
ing compelled, in any cafe, to take 
up arms, either againft the king of 
France, or againft his allies, or even 

againft anv other power. -They 

become fubjciSts of his Britannic 
majel'y, and muft take the oath of 
allegiance ; but ftiall not be oblig- 
ed to take up arms againft his mofV 



Chriftian majefly, until a peace may 
dctermioe the fate of the ifland. 

Art. XII. All the inhabitants of 
Martinico, cither prcfent or abfcnt, 
even ihofe that are engaged in his 
moil Chrillian majefty's fervice, as 
well as ail religious houfcs, and 
communities, Ihall be maintained 
and preferved in the pofirfli )n and 
propriety of their real and perfonal 
eftates, of their negroes, fl'ipping, 
and generally of all th' jr Lffefts, 
whether the fald real and perfonal 
eftates, and effedls, be actually in 
Martinico, or in any ( iher ifland ; 
and the flaves, which have been 
taken from them, during the fiege, 

ihall be rellnrer^ to them. The 

inhabitants, as well as the religious 
orders, will enjoy their properties; 
and, as they become Briiifti fobje^^s, 
they will enjoy the fame privileges 
as in his maj' fty's other Leeward 
iflands. In regard to the flaves, 
anfwercd in the 9th article. 

Art. XJII. That boats or other 
veflels of Martinico, which are 
a«3ually out at fea, or in neutral 
ports, whether they are equipped 
for war or not, fliall be permitted 
to return into the ports and roads 
of this ifland, upon the declaration 
to be made by the owners thereof, 
of their intending to fend them im- 
mediate orders to return, and upon 
their giving perlbnal fecurity, that 
the faid veflels fnall make no at- 
tempt upon any Englilh lliip: in 
conhderaiion of which declaration, 
pafl'ports ftiall be granted tliem, 
that they may return in all fecurity. 
Refufed, as foreign to the ca- 
pitulation; but any applications, 
which may afterwards be made on 
this head, fliall be confidcred ac- 
cording to the rules of juflice, and 
of war. 

GISTER, 1762. 

Art. XIV. The inhabitants of 
Martinico, flialj freely and publicly 
exercite their religion ; the priielh, 
iriars, and nuns, ihall be maintain- 
ed in the public excrcife of their 
funiFkions, and in the enjoyment of 
their privileges, prerogatives, and 
exemj tions. Granted. 

An. XV. The fuperior, as well 
as inferior judges, Ihall lik^wife be 
maintained in their funftions, pri- 
vileges, and prerogatives ; they lliall 
continue to adminifler juftice to the 
in habitants of this ifl .nd, according 
to the laws, ordinances, cuflnmi, 
and ufe« which have been followed 
hitherto : no foreigner fhali be al- 
lowed to fit in the council as a judge. 
But if any place in the magiflracy 
becomes vacant, the fuperior coun- 
cil of Martinico fliall difpofe of it 
provifionaily only ; and the perfon, 
chofen by them, fliall perform tlie 
duties of It, till the one or the 
other of the two courts Ihall other- 
wife fettle it, after that thecondition 
of Martinico fliall have been fixed, 
by a treaty between them. — They 
become Britifli fubjecis, but fliall 
continue to be governed by their 
prefent laws, until his majefty's 
pleafure be known. 

. Art. XVI. M. le Baron d'Huart, 
commanding the troops and mili- 
tia of this ifland, as well as M. de 
Bouran, major-general, fliall be con- 
veyed to the Granadcs, in the fame 
veifel in which the royal grenadiers 
are to be embarked, together with 
their domelVics and efFefts, as well 
as ihofe of all the officers of the 
fame corps. The faid cfiicers fli;;Il 
have leave to coUedl together their 
effeds which are difperfed in di- 
vers parts of the ifland ; and the 
neceflury time for the recovery of 


S t A T E 

them, ihall be allowed them. Or- 
ders (hall be given to the inha- 
bitants, that are indebted to the 
officers of this corps, to pay them 
before their departure. The of- 
ficers (hall likewife be bound to dif- 
charge the debts they have con- 

trafted in the ifland. They 

fhall be <ent to France. The reil 

Art. XVII. All the land and fea 
officers, who find themfelves in 
the iiland, either on aflual duty, 
or with leave, fhall have a year's 
time to fettle all the afi^airs they 

may have there.— A proper time 

ivill be allowed to fuch as have ef- 
tates upon the ifland, with the ufual 
reftridions; and fuch as fhall have 
M, Delatouche, the governor ge- 
neral, his leave. 

Art. XVIII. The nobility fhall 
Continue to enjoy ill the privileges, 
and exemptions, which have always 
been granted them.*— Granted ; 
fo that it is not inconfiftent with the 
Britifh laws. 

Art. XIX. The flavcs that have 
Deen made free during the fiege, 
or to whom their freedom has been 
promifed, thall be reputed and de- 
clared free, and they fhall peace- 
ably enjoy their ftate of freedom. 

Art XX. The duties of the poll- 
tax, thofe of importation and ex- 
portation, and in general all the 
duties eftabliihed in this ifland, 
fhall continue to be paid, for the 
future, on the fame footing as here- 

toiore. Anfvvered in the i5th 


Art. XXr. As it is fuitable to the 
glory and intereft of every prince 
whatfoever to make it publicly 
known, that he honours with a 
fpecial proteaion,all that bears the 
charader of zeal, love, and loyalty 

Vol, y. 

PA P E ii s= 


for its king, it has been agreedi 
that the things furrifhed to '.he co- 
lony on occafion of the ficge, either 
before or during the fame, fach as 
provifions, utenfib, ammunition, 
arras, or money, (hall continue to 
be confidered as debts of the colo- 
ny, juft as they were, and ought to 
be, in its former ftate ; confeqi:ent- 
ly, that the amounts of thefe fup- 
plies fhall notceafe to be reputed as 
debts of the colony itfelf, and which 
it mull: fatisfy, into whatfoever 
hands it may pafs, through the for- 
tune of arms ; that confiderir^g the 
nature and quality of thefe deb^s, it 
is of his Britannic majefty's dignity 
to grant them all manner of protec- 
tion ; confequently, that they fhall 
be paid out of the firft funds that 
fhali arife, as well from the poll-tax, 
as from the duties of importation 
and exportation on merchandizes 
that are liable to them. To which 
purpofe, the il?.te of thefe debts 
fhali be fettled, and verified by M . 
Delareviere, intendant of the Ame. 
rican Leeward ifland =;.— Will be 
fettled by the generals on both 
fides, being foreign to the capita- 

Art. XXII. In virtue of the fame 
principle, and cdraidering rhe ne- 
ceffitv of fpeedily briuging provi- 
fions into thi-5 cclony, ithas ukewife 
been agreed on, th?t fuch merchants 
of the town cf St, Pi'^rre, as by or<< 
ders from the intendarit ?,1. Delare- 
viere, have entered into meaiures 
ana engagements, to brin^ over 
hither provifions from the ne-Jtral 
iflands, fhall be permitted to fulfil 
their e- gagements,, as well to lave 
til em from the a^iruge the^ would 
fuffer by it, as to prr cure to this 
ifland a more fpeedy fcpply : confe- 
quentlv two months fhall be grants 
ed them, from the day of figning 


258] ANNU/^L REGISTER, 1762. 

thefe prefents, to complete their un- 
dertakings. But to avoid all abufes 
in this refpedl, M. Delareviere (hall 
give a note of the na ure and quan- 
tity of provifions which he had or- 
dered to be procured from the neu- 
trals ; and as he had promifed and 

provifions, (hall afterwards be fur" 
nifhed, at the expence of his Bri- 
tannic majcfty, in order to convey 
to the Grenades the faid intendant, 
his wife, children, fecretaries, and 
fervants, with all their efFeds : the 
faid commifl'ary comptroller of the 

granted an exemption of all duties marine (hall go on board the fame 

onthisimportation, the faidexemp- 
tion (hall take place in the fame 
manner as it was promifed, and as 
it is aftually pradlii'ed ; being a 
profit in which the colony and the 
merchant have both their fnare. — 
All fupplies whatever, that were 
engaged to be thrown into this 
ifland by any neutral power, for the 
fupport of his mofl: Chrillian nia- 

Ihip, and (hall be conveyed to the 
fame ifland. Granted ; after- 
wards to be fent to France. 

Art. XXV. The perfons em- 
ployed in the adminittration of the 
domaine of the marine, the claf- 
fes and the finances of this ifland, 
who ftiall be willino- to return to 


France, (hall be tranfported thither, 
with their effedts, in the ve(rels, and 

no commerce for the future can be 
carried on but in Britifh bottoms. 
Art. XXIII. M. le Vaflbr Dela- 
touche fhall be allowed five of the 
inhabitants, whom he fliall caufe to 

jelly's troops, and colony, will be at the charge of his Britannic ma- 
deemed legal prize, if taken by his jefty. Granted. 

Britannic majelly's fnips ; and all Art. XXVI. The public records 
engagements Vv'ith neutral powers fliall be again forthwith depofited 
for fuch a fupply, made before the in their proper places, and the go- 
reduftion of the ifland, being void, vernor for his Britannic majefty 

fhall grant all proteflion in this re- 

fpedl. They mud be delivered 

to fuch perfons as the general (hall 
appoint to receive them. 

Art. XXVII. With regard to 
be put on board fuch of the veflels any papers of accounts, they fhall 
as are to tranfport his moll Chrif- be again put into the hands of the 
tian majefty's troops. His reafons proper accomptants, that they may 
for this demand, are, that it im- be enabled to proceed to the ren- 
ports all the powers not to grant any dering of their accounts, and to 
proteflion^to any one who breaks vouch them by fuch pieces as are 

through the allegiance and fidelity neceffary for their difcharge. 

a fubjed owes to his king.. Granted. 

Cannot be allowed, as we have al- Art. XXVIII. The inhabitants, 
ready granted them his Britanivic merchants, and other private per- 
majedy's protection, fons, relident or not, (hall have 

Art. XXIV. M. Delareviere, in- leave to go to St. Domingo or 

tendant, and M. Guignard, com- 
milTary comptroller of the marine, 
in this ifland, (hall be allowed time 
fufficient to fettle all the parts of 

Louifiana, with their negroes and 
efFeds, in cartel fhips, at their 

own expence. Granted. 

Art. XXIX. If any of the gre- 

their refpedive adminiftration, and nadier foldiers fliall have a mind to 
to do whatever is abfolutely necef- remain in the ifland, or to make 
{ary in that refpcil, A Ihip, with their cfcape, a protection and guard 



ihall be granted to prevent their 
deferting, and what remains of the 
faid grenadiers fhall be embarked 

compleat. Granted, except in 

particular cafes. 

Art. XXX. The merchant-fhips 
belonging to the French traders in 
Europe, which are at this lime in 
the harbours and roads of this 
ifland, fhall be preferved to their 
true proprietors, with the liberty of 
felling them, or of clearing them 

for France in ballall. ^Refufed 

to all privateers and fhips trading 
to dillant ports. Granted to fach 
as trade to and from the diiferent 
ports of this ifland. 

At Martinico, February I 3, 1 762. 
Le Vassor Delatouche, 

Done at Fort Royal, in the iJJand 
of Martinico, this ly.h day of 
February 1762. 


Articles of capitulation agreed upon 
bef'xueen Sir George Pocock, knight 
of the Bath, and the Earl cf Al- 
bemarle ; and the Marquis of Real 
Transports, commander in chief of 
the fquadron cf his Catholic ?na- 

jefiy, and Don Juan de Prado, 
governor of the Ha'-jannah, for the 

furrender cf the city, and all its 
dependeticies , i.vith all the Spanilh 

Jhips in the harbour. 

Preliminary Article. 

FORT la Punta, and the Land 
Gate, ftiall be delivered to his 
Britannic majeily's troops to-mor- 
row morning, the 13th of Auguft, 
at 2 o'clock; at which time it is 
expefted the following articles of 
capitulation fliall be figned and ra- 

Art. I. The garrifon, confiding 
of the infantry, artillery-men, and 
dragoons, thedifFerent miliriaof the 
towns in this ifland, fliall march 
out of the Land Gate the 20th inft. 
provided in that time no relief ar- 
rives fo as to raife the fiege, with 
all themilitary honours, armsflioul- 
dered, drums beating, colours fly- 
ing, fix field pieces with 12 rounds 
for each, and as many rounds to 
each foldier ; the regiments fliall 
take out with them the military 
chefls. And the governor fliall 
have fix covered waggons which 
are not to be examined upon any 

pretence whatfoever. The gar- 

rifon, confining of the regular 
troops, the dragoons difmounted, 
(leaving their horfes for his Britan- 
nic majefty's fervice) in confidera- 
tion of the gallant defence of the 
Moro fort and the Havannah, fliall 
march out of the Punta Gate with 
tvvopieces of cannon, and fix rounds 
for each gun, and the fame number 
for each foldier, drums beating, co- 
lours flying, and all the honours of 
war. The military cheft refufed. 
The governor will be allowed as 
many boats as are necefiTary to tranf- 
port his baggage and eiFefts on 
board the ftiips deftined for him. 
The military without the town, as 
well as thofe within, to deliver up 
their arms to the Britifli commif- 

IL That the garrifon fliall be al- 
lowed to take out of this city all 
their effeiils, and tranfport them- 
felves with it to another part of this 
ifland ; for which purpofe fliall ba 
allowed and permitted to come 
freely into the faid city, all the 
beafts of burthen, and carts. And 
this article is to extend to, and in- 

m 2 elude 

0.66] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

elude all other officers belonging to 
his majtfly employed in the admi- 
niilration of jullice, intcndant of 
marine, commiflary of war, and 
trcafurer-general, who are to have 
the choice of going out of the city. 

<~- Theofiicers of the above gar- 

rifon will be allowed to carry with 
them all their private eflefts and 
money, on board the Ihips which 
will be provided at the expence of 
his Britannic majefiy, to tranfport 
the garrifon to the neareil part of 
Old Spain. The intendant of ma- 
rine, cornmiflary of war, and thofe 
employed in the management of 
his Catholic m?.j?fty's revenues, as 
foon as they have delivered over 
their account?, fhall have liberty 
to leave the illand if they defire 

III. That the marines, and the 
fliips crews, in this harbour, who 
have ferved. on {bore, fhall obtain, 
on their going out, the fame ho- 
nours as the garrifon of the city ; 
and fhall proceed with thofe ho- 
nours on board the faid (hips, that 
they may, together with their com- 
mander in chief, Don Gulierres de 
Hivia, marquis del Real T'ran- 
fporte, fail in the faid fhips, as foon 
as the port is open, with all their 
effefts and money, in order to pro- 
ceed to forpe other port belongihg 
to the dominions of Spain ; in do- 
ing which they will oblige them- 
felves, that during their navigation 
to their defigned port, they Ihall 
not attacic any fquadron, or fingle 
fhip, belonging to his Britannic ma- 
jelly, or his allies, nor merchant 
vefTels belonging to his fubjecls ; 
and likewife they are not to be at- 
tacked by any fquadron, or fingle 
Jhip, belonging to his Britannic 
tnajefty, or any of his alliesc Like- 

wife liberty fhall be given to go ori 
board the faid fhips, the afore-men,- 
tioned troops, and fhips crews, with 
their officers, and others belonging 
to them, together with the eflefts 
and monies that are in the city, 
belonging to his Catholic ma- 
jefty, with the equipages, and ef« 
fefts in fpecie of gold or filver, 
belonging to the faid marquis, or 
others employed in the different ma- 
rine offices ; granting them likewife 
every thing that fhould be neceffary 
to proted them and their fhips, as 
well as in the fitting them out from 
his Catholic majelly's flores, and 
whatever more fliould be wanted, 
at the current prices of the country* 

—-i The marquis^ del Real Tran- 

fporte, with his officers, failors, 
and marines, as making part of 
the garrifon, fhall be treated in 
every refpcfl as the governor and 
regular troops. All fhips in the 
Havannahj and all money and ef- 
fe^s whatever belonging to his Ca- 
tholic majefty, fhall be delivered up 
to fuch perfons as fhall be appointed 
by fir George Pocock, and the earl 
of Albemarle. 

JV. That all the artillery, f!ofes, 
and ammunition and provifions be- 
longing to his Catholic majelly, 
(except fuch as are well known to 
belong to the fquadron) an exa«5l 
inventory fhall be made thereof, by 
the alfirtancc of four perfons, fub- 
jedls of the kirgof Spain, which the 
governor fhall appoint, and by four 
others, fubje£ls to his Britannic ma- 
jefty, who are to be eledted by hia 
excellency the earl of Albemarle, 
who fhall keep pofTcffion of all till 
both fovereigns come to anothei* 
determination.— All the artillery, 
and all kinds of arms, ammunition 
and naval lto?es, without referve. 



Aall be celivered up to fuch per- 
fons as /hall be appointed to receive 
them by fir George Pocock and the 
earl of Albermarle. 

V. That as by mere accident 
were redding in this city his ej:ce!- 
lency thecountdeSuperunaa, lieut. 
gen. of his Catholic majefly '5 forces, 
4nd late viceroy of Peru, and Don 
Diego Tavaresj major-general of 
liis majefty's forces, and »jte go- 
vernor of Carthag^na, both herein 
their return to Spain: thefe gentle- 
men and their families (hall be com- 
prehended in this capitulation, al- 
lowing them to pcfiefs their equi- 
pages, and other effects belonging to 
them ; and to grant them veflels to 
tranfport them to Spain. — —The 
count Superunda, lieut. gen. of his 
Catholic majefty's forces, and late 
viceroy of the kingdom of Peru, 
and Don Diego Tavares, knight of 
the order of St. James, major-ge- 
neral, and late governor of Cartha- 
gena, fhall be conveyed to Old 
Spain in the moft commodious P^ips 
that can be provided, fuitable to 
the rank, dignity, and charaderof 
thofe noble perfons, with all their 
effedls, money, and attendants, at 
fuch time as may be moll conveni- 
ent to themfelves. 

VI. That the Catholic Apofto- 
lie Roman religion fhall be main- 
tained and preferved in the fame 
manner and form as it has hitherto 
been in all the dominions belong- 
ing to hii Catholic majefty, with- 
out putting the leaft reftraint to 
any of their public worihips; and 
the different orders, univerfities, 
and colleges, fhall remain in the 
full enjoyment of all their rights^ 
in the fame manner as they have 
hitherto enjoyed. Granted. 

VII. That thebilhop of Cuba is 
to crjcy all the privileges and prs- 

rogatives that as fuch belong to 
him, with the nomination of cu- 
rates, and other ecclenaftical mi- 
njfters, with the annexed jurif- 
diftion over them, as he has bad hi- 
therto, with the freedom ta receive 
all the rents and revenues withia 
his biflioprick ; which privileges 
fnall extend likewife to all other 
ecclellallics in thofe fhares belong- 
ing to them. 'Granted, with a 
referve, that in the appointment of 
prieits, and other ecclefiaftical of- 
ficers, it fhall be with the approba- 
tion of the Britifh governor. 

VIII. That within the monaf- 
teries of religious men and women, 
fliall be obferved and kept the fame 
interior government as hitherto, 
without any novelty oj- variation, 

IX. That in the fame manner as 
the efFefts and monies in this city, 
belonging to his Catholic majefly, 
is to be fhiipped on bosrd Oi the 
fquadron in this harbour, to tranf- 
port the fame to Spain, all the to- 
bacco which likevyife belongs to his 
Catholic majefty. And it Ihall be 
permitted, even in time of war, to 
his Catholic majefty, to purchafe, 
tobacco on the faid ifland, in the 
diftri^'t fubjefl to the king of Great 
Britain, at theeftablilhed prices, and 
the free exportation of the fame to 
Spain in Spaniih or .foreign veflels ; 
and for which purpofe, and receiv- 
ing, and keeping, and curing the 
fame, fhall be kept and pofibfled. 
the warehoufes, with all other 
buildings, which are deftined for 
that purpofe j and likewife fnall be 
alloNved and maintained here, all 
fuch officers as fhould be ncceilary 
to manap;e the fame. iRefjfed. 

X. Tnat in confidetarjon that 
this port is fituated by nature for 
the relief of thofe who navigate in 

[S] 3 tho% 

262] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

thofe parts of Spinifli and Britifh 
America, that this port fhall be re- 
puted and allowed to be neutral to 
the fubjodsofhis Catholic majefty, 
who are to be admitted in and out 
freely, lo take in fuch refrefhments 
as they may be in need of, as well 
asrepairing their veflels, paying the 
current prices for every thing, and 
that they arc not to be infulted nor 
interrupted in their navigation by 
any v^'Hels belonging vo his Britan- 
nic majefty, or his fubjefts or allies, 
from the Capes Catoche, on the 
coaft of Campeche, and that of St. 
Antonio, to the weftward of this 
ifland j nor from the Tortuga bank 
to this port ; and from here till they 
get into the latitude of 33 degrees 
north, till both their majelties agree 
to the contrary. — - — Refufcd. 

XL That all the inhabitants, 
Europeans and Creoles, in this ci- 
ty, fliall be left in the free poflef- 
fion and management of all their 
offices andemployments which they 
have by purchafe, as well as of their 
ella'-es, and all other effefts what- 
ever, without being obliged to ac- 
count on any other terms than thofe 
on which they did to his Catholic 

majelty. Granted. And they 

ihall be allowed to continue in their 
offices of property as long as they 
conduft themfelves properly. 

XII. That the faid offices fhall 
preferve and keep the rights and 
privileges which they have hitherto 
enjoyed, and they fiiall be governed 
in hisBritannicmajcfty's name, un- 
der the fame laws and adminiitra- 
tion of jultice, and under fuch con- 
ditions as they have done hitherto 
in the dominion of Spain, in every 
particular, appointing their judges 
and officers "f jullice agreeable to 
their ufual cuftom. — Granted. 

XIII. That to any of the afore- 
faid inhabitants of this city who. 
fhould notchufe to Itay, 11 fhall be 
permitted them to take out their 
property and riches in fuch fpecie 
as fhould be moll convenient to 
them, and todifpofe of their eftates, 
or to leave them under the adminif- 
tration of others, and to tranfport 
themfelves with them, to fuch of 
his Catholic majelly's dominions 
as they fhould chuie, granting them 
four years to execute the fame, 
and vefiels to tranfport them, ei- 
ther upon purchafe, or on freight, 
with the necefTary paffports, and 
authority to bear arms againfl the 
Moors and Turks, upon this ex- 
prefs condition, that they fhall not 
ufe them againfl his Britannic ma. 
jelly's fubjeds, or his allies, who 
are not to infult them, nor abandon 
them ; and that this and the two 
foregoing articles, are to compre- 
hend and admit to be included all 
his Catholic majeHy's minillers and 
officers, as well civil as marine and 
military, who are married and efla- 
blifhedwith families and ellates in 
this city, in order that ihey may 
obtain the fame privileges as the 
other inhabitants. The inhabi- 
tants will be allowed to difpofe of 
and remove their efFeAs to any part 
of the king of Spain's dominions in 
vefTels at their own expence, for 
which they will have proper pafT- 
ports. It is underflood that fuch 
officers as have property in this 
ifl,.nd, fhall have the fame indul- 
gence allowed as the rell of the in- 

XIV. That to thefe people no 
ill confequence fhall rife on ac- 
count of having t;'ken up arms, ow- 
ing to their fidelity, and their be- 
ing enlifted in the militia, on ac- 
5 county 



count of the neceflity of war ; nei- 
ther (hall the Englifti troops be per- 
mitted to plunder ; but, on the con- 
trary, they (hall completely enjoy 
their rights and prerogatives as 
other fuDJeds of his Britannic ma- 
jefty, allowing them to return, with- 
out the leaft hindrance or impedi- 
ment, from the country in;o the 
city, with all their families, equi- 
pages, and effefls, as they went 
out of the city on account of this 
invafion, and who are to be com- 
prehended in the prefen: articles; 
and that neither of them fhall be 
incommoded with having troops 
quartered in their houfes, but that 
they (hall be lodged in particular 
quarters, as it has been pradifed 
during the Spani(h government. — 
Granted. Except that, in cafes of 
nece3ity, quartering the troopsmuft 
be left to the direction of the go- 
vernor. All the king's flaves are 
to be delivered up to the perfons 
appointed to receive them. 

XV. That the effefts detained 
in this city, belonging to the mer- 
chants at Cadiz, which hnve arrived 
here in the different regifter (hips, 
and in which are intorel^ed all the 
European nations, a fufficent pafT- 
port (hall be granted to the fuper- 
cargoes thereof, that theymay free- 
ly remit the fame with the regifter 
fhips, without running the rifque 
of being infulted in their paiTage. 
— Refufed. 

XVI. That thofe civil, or other 
officers, who have had charge of 
the management of the adminilha- 
tion and dillribution of the royal 
treafure, or any other affair of a 
peculiar nature from his Catholic 
inajefty, they are to be left with 
the free ufe of all thofe papers 
which concern the difcharge of their 

duty, with free liberty to carry them 
to Spain for that purpofe: and the 
fame (hall be underftood with the 
managers of the royal company ef^a- 

plifhed in this city. All public 

papers to be delivered to the fecre- 
taries of the admiral and general 
for infpeftion, wl. Teh v.-ill be return- 
ed to his Catholic majrfty's officers 

ifnotfoundneceffary for the govern- 
ment of the ifland. 

XVII. That the public records 
are ro remain in cuftody of thofe 
officer- who po(refs them, without 
perm ::ting any of the papers to be 
taken away, for fear of their being 
miflaid. Anfwered in the fore- 
going rirticle. 

_ XV II. That the officers and fol- 
diers, vho are fick in the hofpital, 
fhall be treated in the fame man- 
ner as the garrifon, and after their 
recovery they (hall be gran ted horfes 
or veiTels to tranfport themfelves 
where the rfft of the garrifon goes, 
with every thing necelTary for their 
fecurity and fubliftence during their 
voyage; and before which they fhall 
be provided with fuch provifions 
and medicines as (hall be demanded 
by the hofpital keepers and fur« 
geons thereof; and all others un- 
der them, who are included in this 
capitulation, are to Hay or go as 
they (hall prefer. — Granted. The 
governor leaving proper commi(ra- 
ries to furnjfh tnemwith provifions, 
furgeons, medicines, and nece(ra- 
ries, at the expence of his Catholic 
majefty, while they remain in the 

XIX. That all the prifoners made 
on both fides, fince the 6th of June, 
when the Eig!l(h fquadron appear- 
ed before this harbour, (hall be re- 
turned reciprocally, and without 
any ranfom, wjthin the term of two 

a64] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

inonth?, for thofe who were fent 
away from the city to other towns 
an this illand, which was done for 
want of proper places of fecurity 
here, or before, if they can arrive. 
T^'"^ article cannot be con- 
cluded upon, till theBritifhprifon- 
«rs are delivered up. 

XX. That as foon as the arti- 
cles of this capitulation are agreed 
vpon, and hoftages given on each 
fide for the performance thereof, 
the Land-gate ihall be delivered in- 
to the pofleffion of his Britannic ma- 
jefty's troop?, that they may poll a 
guard there ; and thegarrifon fliall 
have one themfelves, until theplace 
is evacuated, when the earl of Albe- 
marle will be pleafed to fend fome 
foldiers as a fafe»guard to the 
churches, convents, and treafuries, 
and all other places of confequence. 
w«The number of fafevguards re- 
quired for the fecurity of the 
churches, convents, and other 
places, (hall be granted. The reft 
of the article is'anfwered in the 
preliminary article. 

XXI. That it Ihal! be allowed to 
the governor and commander in 
chief of this fquadron, to difpatch 
a packet-boat with advice to his 
Catholic majefty, as well as to 
Other people who have a right to 
the fame advice, to which veflel 
there fhall be granted a fafe and 
fecure paflport for the voyage.— 
As the troops are to be fent to Old 
Spain, a packet is unneceifary. 

XXII. That the troops of the 
punta callle (hall have the fame ho- 
jiours as the garrifon of the town, 
and that they Ihall march out by 
one of the moll pradicable breaches, 
w— Granted. 

XXIII. That the capitulation is 
to be under ftood literally, and with- 
out any interpretation, or any pre- 

text whatever, of making rcprjfals 
on account of not having complied 
with the foregoing. 

Albemarle. G. Pocockc 

£. marq. del Real Trans porte, 

Juan de Prado,, 

Head-quarters near the Havannah, 

j(2th Augult, 1762. 

Papers relating to the reco'very of St . 
"John s in l^anvfoundland , from the 

Colonel Amhcrft''i fumfnons to the go- 
'Virnor of St. John''s fort. 

Camp before St. John's, 
SIR, " Sept. 16, 1762. 

Humanity djreds me to aCv 
quaint you of my firm inten- 

I know the miferable ftate your 
garrifon is left in, and am fully in- 
formed of your defign of blowing 
up the fort on quitting it ; but have 
a care : for I have taken meafures 
efFeftually to cut oft' your retreat ; 
and fo fure as a match is put to the 
train, every man of the garrifon^ 
fliall be put to the fword. 

I muft have immediate poiTeffioii 
of the fort, in the ftate it now is, 
or expeft the confequencjes, 

I give you half an hpur to think 
of it. I have the honour to be, fir, 
your moft obedient humble fervant, 
Wm. Amheh-STu 
To the officer command- 
ing at St. John's, 

Letter fro7n the count d* Hauffonvills 
to lieut. col. Amherjl ; dated at Si, 
Jok:i's, Se^t, j6, 1762. 

WITH regard to the conduft 
that I ihall hold, you may, 
fir, be mifinformed. I wait for your 
troops and your cannon j and no- 



thing (hall determine metofurren- 
der the fort, unlefs you ihall have 
totally deftroyed it, and that I fhall 
have no more powder to fire. I 
have the honour to be, fir, your 
moft humble and molt obedient 

Th: coKtii d'HaussonvJlle. 

Count d^HauJfop.'viile to lieut, csl, 
S I R, 

UNDER the uncertainty of the 
fuccours which I may receive 
either from France or its allies, and 
the fort being entire, and in a con- 
dition for a long defence, I am re- 
folved to defend myfelf to the laft 
extremity. The capitulation which 
they may think proper to grant me 
v/ill determine me to furrender the 
place to you, in order to prevent 
the eiFufion of blood of the men 
who defend it. 

Whatever refolutionyou come to, 
there is one left to me, which would 
hurt the intereils of the fovereign 
you ferve. I have the honour to be, 
fir, your mcil obedient humble fer- 
Vant, *Co7/«/ d'Haussonville. 

Fort St. John's, Sept. 18, 1762. 

Camp before St. John's, 
SIR, Sept. 18, 1762, 

I Have juft had the honour of 
your letter. His Britannic ma~ 
jelly's fleet and army, co-operating 
here, will not give any other terms 
to the garrifon of St. John's thati 
their furrendering prifonersof war. 
I don't thirft aftSr the blood of 
the garrifon ; but you muft deter- 
mine quickly, or expedl the confe. 
quences ; for this is my final de- 
termination. I am, fir, your moll 
obedient humble fervant, 

To count d'HauffonvilJe, 

Letter from toimt d* HavJfon-uilU t$ 
col. J?nherji, dated at Si. John's^ 
Sept. 18, 1762, 

I Have received, fir, your letter, 
which you did me the honouf 
to Write to me. 

I am as averfe as you to the ef* 
fufion of blood. I confent to fuf* 
render the fort in a good condition, 
as I have already acquainted you, 
if the demands, which I enclofe 
herewith, are granted to my troops* 
I have the honour to be, fir, youf 
moft humble and moll obedient fer». 

Le comie d'Haussonville, 

Articles o/^CapituLaTion, 

Demands of the garrifon of St. yohii^ 
a'/id, in general ^ of the troops thai 
a-e in it. 

The French troops fhaJlfiirfendef 
prifoners of war.— Agreed to* 

The officers and fubaltern officers 
fhall keep their arms, to prefer ve 
good order among their troops. — = 
Agreed to. 

Good fhips fhall be granted to 
carry the officers, grenadiers, and 
private men, either wounded, or 
not, to France, in the fpace of one 
month, on the coaft of Brittany.*-^ 
Agreed to. Lord Colvil will, of 
courf.% embark them as foon as he 
pofiibly can. 

The goods and eiFeflsof both the 
officers and foldiers fhall be ^tc- 
ferved.-*-His Britannic majeity's 
troops never pillage* 

The gate will be taken pofTefiioti 
of this afternoon, and the garrifon 
will h.y down their arms* 


This is to be figned by lord Col- 
ville, but will remain at prefent, as 
afterwards, in full force. 

Signed, Wm. Amherst. 

Le comte d'Haussokville. 
Camp before St. John's, 
Sept. 18, 1762. 

^he French trcops, that proved in 
Canada, bring dejirous of ereSiing 
a monument in honour of Montcalm 
their general t ivho fell in the a£lion 
at ^ebec, nmhen lue alfo loji the 
hrave Wolfe, a French colonel 
ivrote to the academy of Belles 
Lettres_/or an epitaph, to he placed 
ever Montcalm' s tonb , in a church 
in that city ; ivhich occajioned the 
fol',on.ving letter from M. de Bou- 
gainville, member of the academy, 
to Mr. Pitt. 


THE honours paid, under your 
miniftry, to Mr. Wolfe, afTure 
me, that you will not difapprove 
of the grateful endeavours of the 
French troops to perpetuate the 
memory of the Marquis de Mont- 
calm. The body of this general, 
who was honoured by the regret of 
your nation, is interred in Quebec. 
I have the honour to fend you an 
epitaph made for him by the aca- 
demy of infcriptions : I beg the fa- 
vour of you, fir, that you will be 
pleafed to examine it, and, if not 
improper, obtain leave for me to 
fend it to Quebec, engaved on mar- 
ble, and to be placed on themaiquis 
de Montcalm's tomb. Should fuch 
leave be granted, may I prefume, 
fir, that ynii will be fo good as to 
inform me of it, and, at the fame 
time, to fend me a pafTport, that 
the marble, with the epitaph en- 
gr u'f ! on V, may be r-.-ccived into 
an Eiiglilh fliip, and Mr. Murray, 

governor of Quebec, allow it to 
be placed in the Urfuline church. 
You will be pleafed, fir, to pardon 
me for this intrufion on your im- 
portant occupations ; but endea- 
vouring to immortalize illuftrious 
men and eminent patriots, is doing 
honour to yourfelf. 

I am with refpeft, &c. 
De Bougainville. 

Mr. Pitt's anfjjer. 
S I R, 

IT is a real fatisfaftion to me, to 
fend you the king's confent on 
a fubjcft fo afFefting, as the epitaph 
compofed bv the academy of in- 
fcriptions at Paris, for the marquis 
de Montcalm, and which, it is de- 
fired, may be fent to Quebec, en- 
graved on marble, to be placed on 
the tomb of that illuftrious foldier. 
It is perfeftly beautiful. And the 
defire of the French troops, which 
ferved in Canada, to pay fuch a 
tribute to the memory of their ge- 
neral, whom they faw expire at 
their head, in a manner worthy of 
them and himfelf, is truly noble 
and praife-worthy. 

I fhall take a pleafure, fir, in fa- 
cilitating, every way, fuch amiable 
intentions; and, on notice of the 
mcafures taken for fhipping this 
marble, \ will not fail immediately 
to tranfmit you the pafTport you de- 
fire, and fend dirertions to the go- 
vernor of Quebec for its reception. 

I withal beg of you, fir, to be 
perfuaded of my jull fenfibility of 
that fo obliging part of the letter 
with which you have honoured me 
relating to myfelf, and to believe 
that I embrace, as a happinefs, the 
opportunity of manifelling the ef- 
teem and particular regard with 
which I have the honour to be, &c. 
London, April lo, ^ p,__ 
1761. W.riTT. 



The EPITAPH was as follows : 

Utroque in orbe asternum vifturus, 
Ludovicus Jofephus de Montcalm Gozon', 

Marchic fandi Verani, Bare Gabriaci, 
Ordinis fandi Ludovici Commendator, 
Legatus Generalis Exercituum Gailicorum ; 
Egregius 8i Civis & Miles, 
Nullius rei appetens prsrerquam veras laudis, 
Ingenio felici, & Uteris cxculto ; 
Omnes Militisc gradus per continua decora emenfus. 
Omnium Belli Artium, temporum, diicriminum gnarus. 
In Italia, in Bohemia, in Germania 
Dux induftrius. 
Mandata libi ita Temper gerens ut majoribus par haberetur, ' 
Jam clarus periculis 
Ad tutandam Canadenfem Provinciam miffus, 
Parva militum manu Hoftium copias non feme] repullt, 
Propugnacula cepit viris armifque inftrudiffimo. 
Algoris, inedis, vigiliarum, laboris patiens, 
Suis unice profpiciens, immemor fui, 
Hoftis acer, Victor manfuetus. 
Fortunam virtiite, virium inopiam peritia & celeritate compenfavit ; ^ 
Imrainens Coloniae fatum & confilio & manu per quadriennium fultinuit. 
Tandem ingentem Exercitum Duce llrenuo & audaci, 
Clafiemque omni bellorum mole gravem, 
Multiplici prudencia diu ludilicatus, 
Vi pertradus ad dimicandum. 
In prima acie, in primo conflldu vulneratus, 
Religioni quam femper coluerat iunitens, 
Magno fuorum defiderio, nee fine hoilium mcerore, 

Extindus eft 

Die XIV. Sept. A. D. MDCCLIX. cetat XLVIII. 

Mortales opcimi ducis exuvias in excavata humo, 

Quam globus bellicus decidens diffilienfque defoderat, 

Galli lugentes depofuerunt, 

Et generofte hoilium fidei commendarunt. 


Here Heth, 
In either hemifphere to live for ever, 
Marquis of St. Veran, baron of Gabriac, 
Commendatory of the order of St. Lewis, 

Lieutenant-general of the French army; 

Not lefs an excellent citizen than foldier, 

V/ho knew au defire but that of true glorv : 



468] ANNUAL REGISTER, 1762. 

Happy in a natural genius, improved by literature^ 

Having gone throuo;h the feveral fteps of military honours 

With uninterrupted luftrc, 

Skill'd in all the arts of war. 

The junfture of times, and the crifis of dangers^ 

In Italy, in Bohemia, in Germany, 

An indffatigable general. 
He (o difcharged his important trufts. 
That he feemed always equal to ftill greater. 
At length, grov.'n bright with perils. 
Sent to fecure the province of Canada, 
With a handful of mea 
He more than once repulfed the enemy's forces. 
And made himfelf mailer of their forts 
Replete with troops and ammunition. 
Inured to cold, hunger, watchings, and labour:. 
Unmindful of himi'elf. 
He had no fenfation but for his foldiers ; 
An enemy with the fierceft impetuofity, 
A viclor with the tendereft humanity. 
Adverfe fortune he compenfated with valour. 
The want of Rrength with ikill and activity | 
And, with his counfel and fupport. 
For foar years protrafted the impending fate of the coloriy^ 
Having with various artifices 
Long baffled a great army. 
Headed by an expert and intrepid commanderi 
And a fleet furnifhed with all warlike ftores. 

Compelled at length to an engagement. 
He fell, in (he firft rank, in the firft onfet. 
With thofe hopes of religion which he had always cherifhedj 
To the inexpreffible lofs of his own army. 
And not without the regret of the enemy's, 
XIV. September, A.D. MDCCLIX. of his age XLVIIL 
His weepii^g countrymen 
Depofited the remains of their excellent general 
In a grave, 
, Which a fallen bomb in burlline had excavated for him. 
Recommending them to the generous faith of their enemiesc 

$ e H A< 

[ « ] 


'T' HE illujirious -per [on, fame par- 
ticulars of n.<:hofe life are the fib - 
jeS of the folloi-ving piece, nuas the fin 
of that famous duke of Orleans, nakofe 
charaSier is too n»ell knoijun to need 
any delineation , and too profligate to 
furnijh any example, The Jen ivas 
in every thing, but parts and genius ^ 
the -very revefe of that father ; and 
applied his great abilities cf mind and 
fortune as faitbf.lly to their proper 
purpofes, as the father had per-uerted 
his from that rational eidy for nuhich 
Pro-vidence has defgned fuch important 
gifts. It is hard to conceinje a more 
amiable picture than that of fo great 
a Prince, employed in the purfuit of 
knonuledge and the exercife of piety ; 
and devoting all his time, influence, 
and fortune, to the honour of his Ma- 
ker, and the good of his fellonu -crea- 
tures, revjarding tnerit and relieving 
indigence. With ^Mhatever peculia- 
rities his religion, country, or conjii- 
tuticn may have tinged his charader, 
they vjill not detraS from his example, 
nor diminifh his merit in the eyes of 
thofe, -juho in human beings confider 
only the great outline and general te- 
nor of their ailions, v:ho judge of re- 
ligion only b^ itsfincerity, and of vir- 
tue by its efficacy. 

The life of Louis, late Duke of Or- 

LOUIS d'Orleans duke of Or- 
leans, firft prince of the blood 
royal of France, and one of the moft 
pioas and moft learned princes that 
Vol. V. 

ever lived, was born at Verfailles, 
on the 4th of Auguft, 1703. He 
was fon of Philip duke of Orleans, 
alter wards Regent, and of Mary 
Frances, of Bourbcn.. He difcover- 
ed in his very childhood a reverence 
for religion, a (hining genius and 
enlarged underuanding. He was 
particularly fond of natural philo- 
fophy and natural hiitory ; but thofe 
who had the management of his 
education, were often obliged to re» 
ftrain and interrupt his ftudies, on 
account of the weaknefsof his con- 
ftitution, and the frequent indifpo- 
fitions to which he was fubjed. At 
the time his father became regent 
of France, he made his firft appear- 
ance at court. After the death of 
that prince, he married, in 1724, 
Augulla Maria, of Baden, a princefs 
eminent for her fine qualities, and 
truly worthy of him. This illuf- 
trious couple lived together in the 
tendered union, but it was foon un- 
happily interrupted by death : for 
the princefs died in the year 1726. 
She was lamented by all ranks of 

A death fo premature, joined with 
the refledtions whicft the duke of 
Orlean* had already made on that 
of the regent, made him fully fen- 
fible of the vanity of titles, pre-emi- 
nence, ::nd earthly enjoyments. He 
immediately propofed to himfelf a 
new plan of life, which he after- 
wards purfued, dividing his time 
between the duties peculiar to his 
rank, the exercifes of a cbrilHan, 
B and 


and the ftudy of religion and the 
fciences. About the year 1730, he 
took, in the abbey of St. Gene- 
vieve, an apartment, fmall, retired, 
and inconvenient. He was near 
the two churches of St. Genevieve 
and the Mount ; wherein he had 
galleries. This apartment was con- 
tiguous to the houfe of God, which 
alone was fufficient to make the 
duke prefer it to the fineft palace. 
He at firft retired to it only at the 
folemn feftivals; but refided in it 
more frequently after the year 1735; 
and when he Jeft the court in 1743* 
took up his conftant abode there, 
and went no more to his palace, ex- 
cept to attend the council, from 
which he feldom abfented himfelf. 

After his converfion (for fo he 
called his change of life w^hich 

communion, and often attending 
thofe who adminifiered it to the 
fick. He has been feen many times 
during the Ealler week, although 
troubled with the gout, going up 
to the fourth or fifth ftory, after 
the miniller of the parifh, who went 
to adminiJler the facrament to poor 
fick people. 

Filled with the fpirit of prayer, 
he was fometimes furprifed in the 
innermoft recefles of his apartment, 
proftrate on the ground, and groan- 
ing moft bitterly. But thefe devout 
exercifes never made the duke forget 
the duties of his ftation. He was af- 
fiduous feveral years at the king's 
councils, but his indilpofitions and 
other reafons made him determine 
entirely to quit the court. During 
his recels, however, he loft nothing 

began in 1726), he pradifed the of his tender attachment and pro. 
greateft aufterities. He flept on a " 
rough llraw bed, rofe at four 
o'clock every morning, fpent fe- 
veral hours in prayer, drank no- 
thing but water, faded rigoroufly, 
deprived himfelf almoft conftantly 
of fire, even in the moll inclement 
feafon; aufterities thefe, efpecially 
that of taking no wine, which he 
faid fometimes had coft him a great 
deal of pains. He poured water 
often into his cup under a pretence 
to cool it, but indeed through a 
principle of mortification. His ap- 
parel was plain and neat. His fur- 
niture and his table were not at all 
fplendid. He was in every thing 
a pattern of felf-denial and piety. 
He loved to mingle in our churches 
among the common people. He 
reverenced the external rites of re- 
ligion. He attended divine fervice 
regularly, fpent five or fix hours 
at church every Sunday, and holi- 
day ; and continued fo to do even 
la his laft ficknsfs^ receiving the 

found refpeft for the king. It is 
well known with what concern he 
heard ofhisficknefs at Metz. When 
the news was brought him, heftied 
tears, and haftened to Metz imme- 
diately. Perhaps it is to the con- 
ftancy and fervency of this prince, 
that France is indebted for the pre- 
fervation of her king. He was of- 
ten heard to fay: " The king is 
our mafter ; we are his fubjefts, 
and we owe him refpeft and obe- 
dience." The duke of Orleans, 
full of veneration for the piety of 
the queen, called it " a piety of the 
underttanding and of the heart." He 
expreffed the greateft joy at the birth 
of the Dauphin, and he fpoke with 
great complacency of the virtues of 
the prince, which he faid ** declar- 
ed beforehand the happinefs of our 
grand-children." He was conftant 
in his love to her royal highnefs 
the duchefs of Orleans his mother^ 
who died in 1749; and always 
(hewed the greateft paternal tender. 



nefs to his fon, the prefent duke of 
Orleans. He delighted to hear him 
fpoke of, and it was eafy to perceive 
the joy he felt when the converfa- 
tion turned on the eminent qualities 
of this prince, and on the prowefs he 
(hewed in the army. 

But what rauft render the memory 
of the dulce ever dear to France, 
was a moft extenfive charity, and 
an enlightened zeal for the public 
good, and the intereils of religion. 
The indigent of every age, fex, and 
condition, were certain to receive 
relief from him. He heard their 
complaints every day in one of the 
halls of the convent of St. Gene- 
vieve, he fympathiied with them, 
he alleviated their dillreffes ; when 
it was not in his power to difmifs 
them entirely fatisfied, one might 
fee that hii heart granted them 
what necefiity obliged him to refufe. 
It is hardly to be imagined what 
fums this pious prince expended 
in placing children for education 
in colleges and nunneries, in por- 
tioning young women, endowing 
runs, patting boys apprentices, or 
purchaung for them their freedoms, 
letting unfortunate tradefmen up in 
bufmels again, and preventing the 
ruin of ethers, maintaining otiicers 
in the fervice, or granting aiTitlance 
to their widows and cnildren, re- 
ftoring and fupporting noblemen's 
families, relieving the fick and pay- 
ing furgeons for their attendance on 
them. The wounds of fome he ex- 
amined himfelf, aid other poor men 
he fought himfelf in the chambers 
and garrets, attended by only one 

The overflowing of the Loire in 
^733 » having done confiderable da- 
mage to the country of Orleans, the 
duke faved, by the immediate re- 
lief he afiorded them, a number of 

families who were perifhlng; he fop- 
plied them with feed for their land ; 
in 1739 and 1740, hefet no boiad* 
to his beneficence. On being told 
that the aufterities he pradtiied would 
impair his health, he would an- 
fwer with a fmile, ** it is lb much 
faved for the poor, whom he term- 
ed the courtiers of the Lord ; and 
added, he would not ferve his body 
at the expence of his foul. 

His great mind embraced the 
needy of all countries. He relieved 
the poor Catholics of Berlin, and 
of alllSilefia, as well as thofe of the 
Indies in .-America. He fent miffi- 
onaries to the remoteft parts of the 
world. He founded charity- fchoolf, 
and communities of men and wo- 
men in feveral places, a college ac 
Verfailles, a profefforlhip of divi- 
nity in the Sorbonne, to explain the 
original text of the facred fcriptures ; 
he rebuilt colleges and feminaries. 
At Orleans he ellablifhed hofpitals 
for lying-in women. He employed 
many flcilful furgeons in the fer- 
vice of the poor. He made great 
improvements in phyfic, agriculture, 
arts, and manufadlures. He pur- 
chafed, and made public, a variety 
of ufeful remedies. His gardens 
were filled with medicinal plants of 
all forts^ brought from the moftdif- 
tant climates. 

Nor did his charitable offices ob- 
ftruct his progrefs in literature. He 
applied himfelf to the iludy of the 
writings of St. Thomas, of Eftius, 
of the molt excellent religious trea- 
tifes, of the fathers of the church, 
and the beftecclefiaftical writers, of 
the Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, and 
Greek tongues, to convince himfelf 
more and more of the fundamental 
principles of his faith ; the acono- 
my of religion had ftruck him to 
fuch a degree, that he was ever firm 
B 2 ia 


in the faith, and often faid, *' that 
the perufal ot impious treatifes ne- 
ver excited in hira the Iea(t doubt of 
the truth of the chrillian myfteries, 
and that the belief of thefe myfteries 
never dillurbcd his mind." He al- 
fo devoted forae of his time to the 
ftudy of hiftory, geography, botany, 
chemiftry, natural hiltory, philo- 
fophy, and painting:, all ufeful 
fciences ; the progrefs he made in 
literature is fcarce to be credited. 
In the fcven or eight laft years of 
his life, he could repeat without 
book the texts of fcripture, with the 
differences between the Hebrew, 
the Greek, and the Vulgate. He 
underftood the Greek as well as the 
Latin fathers. He could tranflate, 
with eafe, the dialogues of Plato 
and other profane authors. Some, 
who heretofore would never believe 
the duke had attained fo much 
knowledge, can now teftify the 
truth of what we have advanced. 
It muft be confidered, that he had 
a quick and piercing genius, and 
that during the fpace of twenty-five 
years h^ ftudied many hours every 
day, chofe the beft mailers in every 
kind of learning, and converfed with 
the learned of every country on fuch 
fubjeds as were moft familiar to 
-them. He honoured them all with 
his proteftion, encouraged them by 
his favours, and always preferred 
thofe whofe inquiries tended to the 
advancement of virtue and the pub- 
lic good. He gave the Abbe Fran- 
cis apenfion, which he has continued 
in the codicil of his will, explain- 
ing thus the motives for fo doing : 
** being willing," fays he, ** to en- 
courage the Abbe Francis, to whom 
the public are under great obliga- 
tions for a modern work upon the 
proofs of our religion : and being 
willing to enable him 10 continue 

his fo ufeful labours, J give and 
bequeath to the faid Abbe Francis 
an annuity of 1500 livres." Thofe 
who excelled in nothing but the 
belles lettres and in poetry, hadfel- 
doni accefs to this prince. An ene- 
my to praife, he feared they might 
again revive the tafte he had for 
French poetry ; for fometimcs he 
had made verles, and received no 
fmall praife for them. The Abbe 
1' Advocate (to whom we are princi- 
pally indebted for this account) tells 
us he has feen pieces of his compo- 
fition, v/hich tho' elegant and pret- 
ty, the duke afterwards threw into 
the fire. Senfibleof the importance 
of tim3, he took care to improve 
every minute. When artiits or learn- 
ed men waited on him, they were 
admitted into his prefence immedi- 
ately; and if he appointed them to 
attend a certain hour, and other 
bufinefs would cot permit him to 
fee them, he fefiC his fervant to let 
them know it, and fave them the 
trouble of waiting. 

Notwithllanding the immenfe 
fums vi'hich he difperfed at home 
and abroad, he difcharged the debts 
of his ancellors, retrieved the ex- 
haulled finances, and confiderably 
augmented the demefnes, of his 
houfe. Humble and modeft in pri- 
vate life, he was fplendid and mag- 
nificent in public. He went with 
the utmoft pomp into Aiface to mar- 
ry the queen by proxy. He be- 
haved with becoming dignity when 
colonel-general of the French in- 
fantry. Chearful and innocent in 
common converfation, he was ever 
ferious on fubjedls of importance. 
He never fpoke ill of any abfent 
perfon, nor would he fufFer others 
to do it in his prefence. Ever 
equitable, even at the expence of 
his own intereftj he thanked a pri- 


vate man, whom he had furnifhed 
with money to go to law againft 
himfelf, and who had gained his 
caufe, for having faved him from 
the guilt of injultice. 

The delight he found in piety 
and devotion he ufed thus to ex- 
prefs : "I know by experience 
that fublunary grandeur and fublu- 
nary pleafure are delufive and vain, 
and are always infinitely below the 
conceptions we form of them ; but, 
on the contrary, fuch happinefs and 
fuch complacency may be found in 
devotion and piety, as the fenfual 
mind has no idea of." His piety 
was real and folid. " Zeal, he 
would fay, muft be enlightened. 
Zeal and prudence ought ever to 
go hand in hand." 

The duke, being once folicited 
by a nobleman to difcard one of his 
officers from his fervice, becaufe he 
was difTolute in his conduft, and 
would fometimes inveigh againlt re- 
ligion, anfwered him with fpiric : 
" Learn, fir, that the king ought 
not to deprive the ftate of an ex- 
cellent officer, becaufe his morals 
are not fo good as could be wiihecl, 
and he has not fo great a veneration 
for religion as Oiie could defire. 
Immorality and vice fhould be dif- 
couraged as much as poffible, but 
his m:ijefty muft not, for things fo- 
reign to the fervice, deprive of- 
ficers of their employments." 

His intenfe application to ftudy, 
and his fevere abftinence, at laft 
occalioned a long and painful ill- 
nefs ; the news of which being 
fpread abroad, threw all France in- 
to confternation. The church of 
St. Genevieve was filled with people 
of all forts, who offered up ler- 
vent prayers for the reftoration of 
his health. The duke forefaw and 
waited for death with the greateft 

fortitude and compofure : he fpoke 
of it, as of the deraife of another 
perfon, to thofe about him : and in 
his lalt will he expatiates in the mull 
pathetic manner on his belief in 
the refurredlion. Notwithftanding 
his ill health, nobody could per- 
fuade him to fleep more than he was 
ufed to do ; when any one repre- 
fented that it was abfolutely ne- 
ceflary, and that he ftiould change 
his ftraw bed for a fofter one, he 
replied, " Phyficians have no con- 
cern for the foul, they only care for 
the body. When a man draws 
near his diffoluiion, his zeal fhould 
increafe. 'Tis in the arms of felf- 
denial, that a true chriftian is to 
die : I have always made it a part 
of my penitence to fit in an uneafy 
poilure : I am refolved to perfiil 
in it to my laft moments, for I 
have not yet pradifed mortification 
enough." In his will.he exprefles 
himfelf miich in the fame manner. 
In his laft moments, he was folely 
intent on God, nor did he ceafe to 
imploic his bleffing for the duke of 
Chartre?. " I have a fon, (faid 
he to the minifter who attended 
him) whom I am going to com- 
mend to the all-perfedl Being; I 
entreat God that his natuial virtues 
may become Chriftian graces ; that 
the qualities which gain him efteem, 
may be ferviceable to his falva- 
tion ; that his love for the king, 
snd his love for me, may be the 
bloffoms of that immortal charity, 
which the holy fpirits and bleffed 
angels enjoy." 

The duke was fteady to the plan 
he had prefcribed for upwards of 
twenty years. He was ever anxious 
for the propagation of religion, and 
for the public good. He died on 
the 4th of February, 1752, aged 
forty-eight years and fix months, 
B 3 beiov^ 


beloved by good people of all forts, 
lamented by the poor, the fick, the 

He left behind a great number 
of writings, the chief of which 
are, i. A tranflation and corriment 
on fome part of the Oiu Tellament. 
2. A literal verfion of the Pfalms, 
from the original Hebrew, with 
rotes and a paraphrafe. This work 
is the moft complete, which our 
pious and learned prince has left; 
in his lall illnefs he was employed 
in it, and finifhed it but a few 
days before his death: It is full 
of great erudition and lound criti- 
cifiii : it contains a number of very 
curious and ufeful remarks : In one 
place he proves clearly, that the 
Greek annotations on the Pfalms, 
which are found in the Catena 
of father Cordiers, and go under 
the name of Theodorus of Hera- 
clea, are of Theodorus of Mopfueft : 
a difcovery which this learned 
prince firft made, and which we 
muft attribute to his deep penetra- 
tion. 3. Several differtations a- 
gainft the Jews, toferve as a refu- 
tation of the famous Hebrew book, 
entitled Kifoueh Emouna ; i. e. The 
Buckler of Faith. The duke of 
Orleans, not fatisfied with Gouf- 
fet's refutation of this book, un- 
dertook to anfwer it himfeh, but 
did not live to complete the de- 
fign. His manufcript, though in- 
complete, is far fuperior to Gouf- 
fet's. He has examined and re- 
futed the objeftion of the Jews. 
4. A literal tranflation of the E- 
piftles of St. Paul from the Greek, 
with a paraphrafe, annotations, 
and ufeful remarks. 5. A trea- 
tife againft theatrical exhibitions. 

6. A folid refolution of the large 
French work, entitled the Hexaples. 

7. Several other treatifes and cu- 

rious differtations upon divers fub- 
jefts. His modelly would never 
fuffer him to publifh any of hii 
writings: he bequeathed them, with 
his library to the order of Do- 
minican Friars, and by his will, 
left that order full liberty to add, 
retrench, fupprefs, or even employ 
his writings, as materials in the 
compofition of fuch works as they 
might undertake upon the fame 
fubjefts. For the writings of St. 
Thomas he had a particular efteem, 
and this efteem he teflifies, even in 
his laft will. 

One might eafily fill a large vo- 
lume with a detail of his royal high- 
nefs's piety, his learning, his cha- 
rity, and benevolence. It muft be 
obferved, however, that what is re- 
lated in this account is not colleded 
from popular reports. The gen- 
tleman, from whom this is taken. 
was admitted often into his com- 
pany, from the time of his retire- 
ment to his death ; and had occular 
proof of many things here men- 

Memoirs of the hfet &c. of the late 
Dr Benjamin Hoadiej, lord hijhof 
of Wtnchejhr. 

/^ jT^HIS worthy and illuflrious pre- 
_£ late was bornintlieyear 1676. 
I fhall pafs over the earlier and more 
private part of his life, and wil- 
lingly haflen to that time when the 
powers of his underftanding began 
to unfold themfelves, and to fhine 
forth in the republic of letters. 

His firlt preferment in the church 
was the redlory of St. Peter le Poor, 
and the ledurefhipof St. Mildred's 
in the Poultry. In the year 1706 
he publifhed fome remarks on the 
late Billiop Atterbury's fermon at 



the funeral of Mr. Bennet, in which 
Dr. Atterbury had, in the opinion 
of Mr. Hoadley, laid down fome 
dangerous propofitions. Two years 
afcer, Mr. Hoadley again entered 
the lifts againft his formidable aata- 
gonift ; and in his exceptions againlt 
a ferraon publifhed by Dr. Atter- 
bury, intituled — " The Power of 
Charity to cover Sin"— he attacked 
the dodor with his ufual flrength of 
reafoning, and difpafTionate inquiry, 
cbnfuted his erroneous opinions with- 
out anger, and conquered him with- 
out triumph. This, indeed, is al- 
lowed by all to be his diilinguifh- 
ing charafteriftic,— that in all the 
controverfies which he held with 
his brethren, (and no one, furely 
held more), he ever prelerved an 
equanimity of temper — the meek 
and candid chrilHan never lolt in 
the difputer of this world— cool, 
calm, and compofed, he forgets the 
man, whilft he is animadverting on 
the writer, r^ver betrayed into any 
afperity of expreflion— any railing 
accufations, any perfonal refledions, 
and raiftjscoming flights, or thofe 
fallies of paffion, which, as they 
give no ftrength to a bad argument, 
never add any grace or advantage 
to a good one. Happy would it be 
for the caufe of religion and truth, 
if all who engage in controverfy 
would imitate this pattern, and 
guard againft virulence of expref- 
fion, which, as it cannot tend to 
elucidate, fo neither hath it any 
connection with, literary controver- 
fies— leaft of all in religious dif- 
putes, when the wrath of man can- 
not be fuppofed to work the righte- 
oufnefs of God. The reader, I 
hope, will pardon this fmall digref- 
fion, which I was naturally led into, 
and which is in itfelf an interefting 

In 1 709, a difpnte arofe between 
thefe two learned combatants, con- 
cerning the doctrine of non-refift- 
ance, occafioned by a performance 
ofMr. Hoadley, intitled — The Mea- 
/ures of Obedience ; forae pofuions in 
which Dr. Atterbury endeavoured 
to confute, in his elegant Latin fer- 
mon, preached that year before the 
London clergy. In this debate Mr. 
Hoadley fignalized himfelf in fo 
eminent a degree, that the honour- 
able houfe of com.mons gave him a 
particular mark of their regard, by 
reprefenting, in an addrefs to the 
queen, the fignal fervices he had 
done to the caufe of civil and reli- 
gious liberty. 

The principles, however, which 
he efpoufed, being repugnant to the 
general temper of thofe times, drew 
on him the virulence of a party ; 
yet it was at this period [1710] 
(when, as he himfelf expreffed it, 
fury feemed to be let loofe upon him), 
that the late Mrs. Howland pre- 
fented him to the redoryof Streat- 
ham, in Surry, which (as he ex- 
prefTes it in the Jail debt of grati- 
tude that he paid to her memory. 
May 1719) was a more diHinguifh- 
ing mark of her regard, in thatlhe 
prefented it to him unalked, — un- 
applied to, — without his either hav- 
ing feen her, or been feen by her ; 
To Ihew that, in her own expref- 
fion (fays he), fhe was neither a- 
Ihamed nor afraid to give nie that 
public mark of her regard, at that 
critical time. 

Soon after the acceflion of kino- 
George L Dr. Hoadley was confe- 
crated to the fee of Bangor ; and in 
1717, having broached fome opi- 
nions concerning the nature of 
Chrift's kingdom, ^c, he again be- 
came the objeft of popular clamour, 
and was in a more particular man- 
2 4- flex 


nor expofed to the rage of his bre- 
thren*. At this jundture he was 
^iftinguifhed by anotiu-r particular 
mark of the royal regards, by iieans 
of which the convocat on was iuc- 
ceffively prorogued, and it was not 
permiitsil to fit, nor do an) bufi- 
nefs, till thatrefentment was entirely 
fub Tided, 

In 1721, he was tranflated to 
Hereford, and from thence, in 1723, 
to Saiilbury. 

Perhaps this may be looked upon 
by fome, rather as an over-ftrained 
mark of diffidence and humility, as 
the bilhop might vtry well be fup- 
pofed to need no other teftimony 
than his own works, in order to go 
down to porterity, and to live in 
the voice and memory of men-~but 
thi"^ mark ot fingular condclcenfion 
muft be chiefly imputed to a zeal 
for ihofe tenets which the dcflor fo 
warmlv patronized. In i''34, bifhop 

When the pofthumou? work= of Hnadley was tranflated to Winchef- 

Dr. Samuel Clarke u-re publiflied 
in 1732, this prelate ^lefiy d fome 
account of the Ate, w/itingi, and 
charaAer of the authiv , and in the 
condufiun exprefles nimfeli thus : 
— '• Having thus paid this lafl duty 
to the memory of this excellent 
man, which I could not but elteem 
a debt to luch a benefador to the 
caufe of religion and learning unit- 
ed, and, as thcie works of his mud 
laft as long as any language remains 
to convey them to future times, per- 
haps I may flatter myiell, thai this 
faint and imperfeft account of hira 
may be tranlmitted down with them; 
and I hope, it will be thought a 
pardonable piece of ambition and 
felf-intereltednefs, if, fearful lell 
every thing elle fliould prove too 
weak to keep the remembrance of 
myfelf in being, I lay hold of his 
fame to prop and fuppcrt my own. 
I am fure, as I have little reafon to 
expe£l, that any thing of mine, 
without iuch an affillauce, can live, 
I fliall thiiik myielf greatly recom- 
penled, for the want of any other 
memorial, if my name may go down 
to polterity, thus clofely joined to 
his, and I myfelf be thought of, 
and (poke of, in ages to come, un- 

tcr, (on the demife of Dr. Willis), 
and pubiiflied his Plmn Account cf 
tht Sacrainent ; a periormance which 
ferved as a butt for his adverfaries 
to flioot at, againft which they 
pointed their arrows, and level- 
led their ardllery ; yet imparti- 
ality owns it to be clear, rational, 
and manly, wrote with great can- 
dour and judgment, and <uited to 
the capacity of every ferious and 
conliderate enquirer after truth. 
His fermons (publiflied in 1754 
and 1755) ^""^ efteemed inferior to 
few writings in the Englifti lan- 
guage, for plainnefs and perfpi- 
cuity, energy and flrength of rea- 
foning, and a free and mafterly 

Having now gone through the 
principal parts of his life and writ- 
ings, 1 come to fpeak of his private 
charafler ; and here there is one 
particular with regard to his lordfliip 
which is worthy of obiervation, and 
that is— he was not always happy 
in the objefts on whom he confer- 
red his favours ; I fliall mention 
three inftances to confirm this re- 
mark — Sagier — Pillonier— Four- 
nier. The firft, the bifliop himfelF 
toid me, proved highly unworthy of 

der the charafter of the friend of his regard. The iecond (whom he 
Dr. Clarke." honoured with particular marks of 

* Dr. Snape and Dr. Sherlock were the chief of thcni. 



regard) the biOiop owns (in his let- has been in this—And what is very 
ter to M. Chevalier, publiflied in remarkable, this place f has en- 
1758) did not aa agreeable to the 

obligations he had received. The 
lalt inftance is too recent to need 
any mention here. Thefe ferve only 
to fhew the natural philanthropy of 
his temper and difpofuion, prone to 
hofpitality ai.d munificence, — that 
charity which hopeth all things, and 

joyed the benefit ot their inftrudlion 
ior more than 70 years.— Here give 
me leave to ouferve a fimiiitude of 
circumftances between his fon and 
him. It p leafed God to prolong 
the Ion's days, even beyond thofc 
of his father, to preferve to him his 
great underftanding, and to give 

bel.eveth all things, which, being nim leiiure to review his incompa- 

a ftranger to guilt itfelf, is laid rable Dijcourfa, and to make them 

,„n ^^ .Ko tf.arh.rv nf othpr.. fit for the reception which the worid 

open to the t7eachery of others, ht tor the reception wnicn ine wurm 
The accuracy with which the bilhop has given them. He too has had 

his controverlies, and thole carried 
on with warmth and fpirit ; but 
without any injury to his temper. 

drew up an account of the behavi 
our of Fournier, (in that letter be- 
fore mentioned), is a ftrong proof, 
that, in fuch an advanced age, he 
ftill retained the exercife of his men- 
tal powers in full vigour, and that 
** the natural force of his intellec- 
tual faculties was not abated." 

I come now to the lalt period of 
his life: he died (April 17, 1761) 

or any interruption to his thoughts 
and mind. His father lived in 
more difficult times, had much to 
ftruggle with, and perhaps had more 
of labour in his compofition. The 
fon was more bright and brilliant, 
and carried a greater compais of 

fatisfied with a long life, equally full thought and genius aiong with him 

of days ♦ and honour, and with a The one wrote with great care and 

pleafing profpeft of the falvation circumfpeaion, as having many ad- 

whieh God had (hewed him. His verfaries to contend with ; the other 

writings in favour of civil and reli- vvith greater eafe and ireedom, as 

gious liberty, will render his me- '^^^^Z fupenor to all oppohtion.— 

mory dear to this nation, as long as Indeed, the fon had mucn the ad- 

the love of freedom is the charac- vantage of his father, in refpeft to 

teriftic of Britons ; and his name the time and other circumftances of 

will always be mentioned with ho- 
nour, by every friend to religion, 
learning, truth, and virtue. 

Some account of the late Dr. Thomas 
Sherlock, nuho died "June 18, 1 76 1 , 
aged%i^. ExtraSied from his fune- 
ral Jermon, preached hy Dr. Nz- 
colls, wiafier of the Temple. 

HE was the fon of a moft eminent 
father, who was no lefs diflin- 
guilhed in the lafl age, than the fon 

* ^at. 85. 

his life, not to fay, what I believe 
mull be owned by all, that his na- 
tural abilities and talents were much 
greater.— He was made mafler of 
the temple very young, upon the 
refignation of his father, and was 
obliged to apply hirafelf clofely to 
biifinefs, and take infinite pains to 
qualify himfelf for that honourable 
employment; which he eiFedually 
did in the courfeof a few years, and 
became one of the moft celebrated 
preachers of that time. 

In this ftation he continued many 

f The Temple. 



years, preaching conftantly, rightly 
dividing the word of God, and pro- 
moting the falvation of fouls. For 
his preaching was with power ; not 
only in the weight of his words and 
arguments, but in the force and en- 
crgy with which it was delivered. 
For though his voice was not melo- 
dious, but accompanied rather with 
a thicknefs of fpeech, yet were his 
words uttered with fo much pro- 
priety, and with fuch ftrength and 
vehemence, that he never failed to 
take poU'effionof his whole audience, 
and fccure their attention. This 
powerful delivery of words, fo 
weighty and important, as his al- 
ways were, made a ftrong impref- 
fion upon the minds of his hearers, 
and was not foon forgot. And I 
doubt not but many of you ftill re- 
member, the excellent inftruclion 
you have heard from him to your 
great comfort. 

About this time alfo it'was, that 
he publifhed his much admired dif- 
courfes upon the V/e and Intent of 
Prophecy, which did fo much fer- 
vice to the caufe of Chriftianity, 
then openly attacked by fome dar- 
ing unbelievers. 

Upon the acceffion of his late 
majeily to the throne, he was foon 
dillinguilhed ; and, with another 
truly eminent divine, [bilhopHare] 
advanced to the bench, where he 
fat with great luftre for many years ; 
in matters of difficulty and nice dif- 
cernment ferving his king and coun- 
try, and the church over which he 
prefided, with uncommon zeal and 
prudence. Indeed fuch was his dif- 
cretion and nice judgment, that all 
ranks of perfons were defirous of 
knowing his opinion in every cafe, 
and by his quick and folid judg- 
ment of things he was able to do 
great good to many individuals, and 

very fignal fervices to his coun- 

All this time, while he was thus 
taken up in the bufinefs of the Ra- 
tion to which he was advanced, he 
yet continued to preach to his con- 
gregation during term ; and in the 
vacation conllantly went down to 
vifit and to refido in his diocefe ; 
where he fpent his time in the mofl 
exemplary manner ; in a decent hof- 
pitality; in lepairing his churches 
and houfes, wherever he went ; in 
converfing with his clergy ; and in 
giving them and their people pro- 
per direftions, as the cir&umflances 
of things required. 

And thus did this great man lay 
himfelf cut for the public good ; 
always bufy, always employed, fo 
long as God gave him health and 
ftrength to go through thofe various 
and important offices of life, which 
were committed to his care. 

But now, though his mind and 
underflanding remained in full vi- 
gour, infirmities of body began to 
creep very fall upon him. And then 
it was that he declined, when of- 
fered him, the highell honours of 
this church, becaufe he wasfenfible, 
through the infirmities he felt, he 
fhould never be able to give that 
perfonal attendance, which that 
great office requires. And this alio 
induced him afterwards to accept 
the charge of this diocefe wherein 
we live, becaufe his bufinefs would 
be at home and about him, and 
would require no long journey, for 
which he found himfelf very unfit. 
And certain it is, that for the firll 
three or four years he applied him- 
felf clofely to bufinefs, and made 
one general vifitation of his diocefe 
in perfon : nay, he extended his 
care to parts abroad, and began his 
correfpondence there, which would 



have been very ufeful to the church, 
if his health had permitted him to 
carry it on : but about that time it 
pleafed God to viiit him with a very 
dangerous illnefs, from which in- 
deed he recovered, but with almoll 
the total lofs of the ufe of his limbs; 
and foon after his fpeech failing 
him, he was conftrained to give 
over the exercife of his fundion 
and office, and was even deprived 
of the advantages of a free conver- 

But though he was thus obliged 
to provide for the minirterial office, 
yet he ftill took care himfeif for the 
difpatch of bufinefs. For the mind 
was yet vigorous and Itrong in this 
weak body, and partook of none 
of its infirmities. He never parted 
with the adminiftration of things 
out of his own hands, but required 
an exadl ace )unt of every thing 
that was tranfaded ; and where the 
bufinefs was of importance and con- 
feqaence enough, he would didate 
letters, and give diredions about it 
himfeif. Under all his infirmities, 
his foul broke through like the fun 
from the cloud, and was vifible to 
every eye. There was a dignity in 
his afped and countenance to the 
very laft. His reafon fat enthroned 
with him, and no one could ap- 
proach hira without having his 
mind filled with that refped and 
feneration that was due to fo great 
a charader. 

His learning was very extenfive. 
God had given him a great and an 
underftanding mind, a quick com- 
prehenfion, and a folid judgment. 
Thefe advantages of nature he im- 
proved by much indu.Tiry and appli- 
cation ; and in the early part of his 
life he read and digelled well the 
ancient authors both Greek and 
Latin, the philofophers, poets, and 


orators ; from whence he acquired 
that corred and elegant liyle, which 
appears in ail his compofitions. His 
knowledge in divinity was obtained 
from the Iludy of the moft rational 
writers of the church, both ancient 
and modern ; and he was particu- 
larly fond of comparing icriptare 
with fcripture, and efpecially of il- 
luftrating the epiftles and writings 
of the apol'tles, which he thought 
wanted to be more ftudied, and of 
which we have fome fpecimens in 
his own difcourfes. His fkill in the 
civil and canon law was very con- 
fiderable ; to which he added fuch 
a knowledge of the common law of 
England, as few clergymen attain 
to. This it was that gave him 
that influence in all cafes where the 
church was concerned, as knowing 
precifely what it had to claim from 
its conftitutions and canons, and 
what from the common law of the 

His piety was conftant and ex- 
emplary, and breathed the true 
fpirit of the gofpel. His zeal was 
warm and fervent in explaining the 
great doctrines and duties of chrif- 
tianity, and in maintaining and 
eftablilhing it upon the moft folid 
and fure foundations. 

His munificence and charity was 
large and diiFufive, not confined to 
particulars, but extended in general 
to all that could make out any juft 
claim to it. 

The inllances of his public cha- 
rities, both in his life-time and at 
his death, are great, and like hin-^- 
felf. He hath given large fums of 
money to the corporation of clergy- 
men's fons, to feveral of the hofpi- 
tals, and to the fociety for propa- 
gating the golpel in foreign parts. 
And, at the inftance of the faid fo- 
ciety, he confented to print at his 



own charge an impreffioti of 2000 
fets oF his valuable Difcourfes, at 
a very confiderable expence. And 
they have been adually Cent to ail 
the iflands and colonies of America. 
And by the care of the governors 
and clergy, it is hoped by this time, 
that they are all properly diftributed 
among the people of their refpedtive 
colonies, to their great impiove- 
nient in the knowledge of rational 
and pradical chriftianity. And to 
mention one inllance more of his 
great charity and care for the edu- 
cation of youth, he hath given to 
Catherine-hall, in C.imbridge, the 
place of his education, his valuable 
library of books ; and, in his life- 
time, and at his death, donations 
for the founding a librarian's place, 
and a fcholarfliip, to the amount of 
feveral thouland pounds. 

Befides thefe and many other 
public inftances of his charity and 
munificence which might be men- 
tioned, the private flow of his boun- 
ty to many individuals was conftant 
and regular ; and upon all juilocca- 
fions he was ever ready to ftretch 
forth his hand towards the needy 
and afflidcd : of which no one can 
bear teftirtiony better than myfelf, 
whom he often employed as the 
diftributor of it. 

He was indeed a perfon of great 
candour and humanity, had a ten- 
der feeling ofdiftrefs, and was eali- 
ly touched with the misfortunes of 
others. No man was ever more 
happy in domeltic life, and no one 
could fhew greater genilenefs, good- 
rature, and affection to all around 
him. To hisfervants he was a kind 
and tender mafler ; he knew how 
to reward fidelity and diligence; 
efpccially in thofe who had been 
long in his fervice. They were 
careful over him, and he remem- 

bered their care by leaving a large 
fum among them who had been 
nearell about him during his iil- 

Some account of the late Henry Field- 
mg, E/q. 

HENRY Fielding was born at 
Sharpham Park in Somerfet- 
fhire, near Glallonbury, April 22, 
1 707. His father, Edmund Fielding, 
fervcd in the wars under the duke 
of Marlborough, and arrived to the 
rank of lieiitcnant- general at the 
latter end of George I. or the begin- 
ning of George II. His mother was 
the daughter of judge Gould, the 
grandfather of the prefent Sir Hen- 
ry Gould, one of the barons of the 
Exchequer. By thefe his parents he 
had four fiilers, Catharine, Urfula, 
Sarah, and Beautrice ; and one bro- 
ther, Edmund, who was an officer in 
the marine fervice. Sarah Field- 
ing, his third After, is well known 
to the literary world by many ele- 
gant performances. Our author's 
mother having paid her debt to na- 
ture, lieutenant-general Fielding 
married a fecond time, and the if- 
fue of that marriage were fix fons, 
George, James, Charles, John, Wil- 
liam, and Bafil, all dead, except- 
ing John, who is at prefent in the 
commiffion of the peace for Mid- 
dlefex, Surrey, Effex, and the li- 
berties of Weltminiler. Henry 
Fielding received the firftrudiments 
of his education at home, under 
the care of the Rev. Mr. Oliver, of 
whom he has given a very humorous 
and Itriking portrait in Jofeph An- 
drews, under the name of parfon 
Trulliber. From Mr. Oliver's care 
he was removed to Eton School, 
where he became acquainted with 




lord Lyttelton, Mr. Fox, Mr. Pitt, 
Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, the 
late Mr. Winnington, &c. When 
he left this gieac feminary, he was 
Jaid to be uncommonly verfed in 
the Greek and Latin claffics ; for 
both which he ever retained a 
ilrong admiration. From Eton he 
was lent to Leyden, and there he 
iludied the civilians for about two 
years. Remittances failing, at the 
age of twenty, or thereabout, he 
returned from Leyden to Lon- 
don, where, though under age, he 
found himfelf his own m after ; 
from that fource flowed all the in- 
conveniencies that attended him 
throughout the remainder of his 
life. The brilliancy oi- his wit, the 
vivacity of his humour, and his high 
relilh of focial enjoyment, foon 
brought him into requelt with th^ 
men of talle and literature, and 
with the voluptuous of all ranks. 
His finances were not anfwerable to 
the frequent draughts made upon 
him by the extravagance which na- 
turally followed. He was allowed, 
indeed, 200I. a year by his father, 
but, as he himfelf ufed to fay, any 
body might pay it that would. The 
faft was, general Fielding having 
married again foon after the death 
of ourautrior's mother, had fo large 
an increafe of family, and that too 
fo quick, that he could not fpare 
any confiderable difburiements for 
the maintenance of his eldeit fon. 
Of this truth Henry Fielding was 
lenfible, and he was therefore, in 
whatever difficulties he might be 
involved, .lever wanting in filial 
piety, which, his nearelt relations 
agree, was a fhining part of his cha- 
rafler. Difappointments, indeed, 
were obferved to provoke him into 
occafional peevilhnefs, and feverity 
of animadverfion : but his general 

temper was remarkably gay, and fo;f 
the moft part overflowing into wit, 
mirth, and good humour. As he 
difdained all littlenefs of fpirit, 
wherever he met with it in his 
dealings with the world, his indig- 
nation was apt to rife ; and as he was 
of a penetrating difccrnment, he 
could always develope feliiflinefs, 
miftruft, pride, avarice, interefted 
friendfliip, the ungenerous, and the 
unfeeling temper, however plaufi- 
bly difguifed ; and as he could read 
them to the bottom, fo he could 
likewife afl'ault them with the keen- 
eft ftrokes of fpirited and manly fa- 
tire. Difagreeable impreflions ne- 
ver continued long upon his mind ; 
his imagination was fond of feiz- 
ing every gay profpedt, and, in his 
vvorfl: adverfities, filled him with 
fanguine hopes of a better fitua- 
tion. To obtain this, he flattered 
himfelf that he ftiould find his re- 
fources in his wit and invention ; 
and accordingly he commenced 2 
writer for the flage in the year 
1727, being then about twenty 
years of age. 

His firft dramatic piece foon after 
adven-tured into the world, and was 
called Love in ft^oeral Majques. It 
immediately fucceeded the Pro-^ 
•voked Hiijband, a play, which, for 
the continued fpace of twenty-eighc 
nights, received as great and as juft 
applaufes as ever were beftowed on 
the Englifti ftage. Notwithflanding 
thefe obftacles, Fielding's play was 
favourably received. -His fecond 
play, the Temple Beau, appeared 
the year after. From the year 1727, 
to the end of 1736, almoft all his 
plays and farces were written, not 
above tv/o or three having appear- 
ed fince that time: fo that he pro- 
duced about eighteen theatrical 
performances, plays and farces in- 



eluded, before he was quite thirty 
years olci. Though in cfce plan of 
his pieces he is not always regular, 
yet he is often happy in his didion 
and flyle : and in every groupe 
that he has exhibited, there are lo 
be feen particular delineations that 
■will amply recompenfe the atten- 
tion beltovved upon them. The 
comedy of the Mi/er, which he has 
moftly taken from Moliere, has 
maintained its ground upon the 
ftage ever fmcc it was firft perform- 
ed, and has the value of a copy from 
a great painter by an eminent hand. 
If the comedy of Paf'^uin was re- 
Itored to the Itage, it would perhaps 
be a favourite entertainment with 
our audiences. Ir is faid, that the 
wit and humo\ir of our modern 
AriHophanes, Mr. Fielding, whofe 
quarry in forne of his pieces, par- 
ticularly the Hijlorical Regijier, was 
higher game than in prudence he 
fhoutd have chofen, were princi- 
pal inftruments that occafioned 
that law, which fubjefted all new 
pieces to the infpe(^ion of a li- 

In the comedy called Rape upon 
Rape, or the Coffee houje Politician, 
we have an admirable draught of 
a charatSer very common in this 
couniry, namely, a man who is 
foiitten with an infatiable thirft for 
news, and concerns himfelf more 
about the balance of power than 
of his books. The folly of thefe 
ftatelmen out of place is there exhi- 
bited with a mafterly ridicule : and 
indeed in all the plays of our au- 
thor, however in fome refpedls de- 
ficient, there are ftrokes of humour 
and half-length paintings, not ex- 
celled by fome of the ableft artifts. 
Kis farces were almoft all of them 
very fuccefsful, and many of them 
are Hill adled zstx'^ winter with ap- 

probation. They were generally the 
produdion of two or three morn- 
ings. It need not be obferved, in 
jultification of their being pre- 
ferved in the fame collection with 
his more important works, that 
farce is deemed by our beft critics 
an appendage of the theatre, as well 
as pieces of a higher nature. A 
learned and excellent critic (the 
Rev. Mr. Hurd) has given it a full 
confideratlon in his Differtation on 
the fevcral Provinces of the Drama. 
" The reprcfentations, fays he, of 
common nature may either be taken 
accurately, fo as to refleft z faithful 
and exad image of their original, 
which alone is that I would call 
Comedy ; or they may be forced 
and overcharged above' the fimple 
and jull proportions of nature; as 
when the excefies of a fenM are 
given ioT Jianding charafters, when 
not the men (in general) but the 
pafion, is defcribed ; or when, in the 
draught of the man, the leading 
feature is extended beyond mea- 
fure; and in. thefe cafes the repre- 
fentation holds of the province of 
farce." The ifOttery, the Intriguing 
Chambermaid, a^d the Virgin L'n- 
?»a/i'd, bcfides %e real entertain- 
ment they afforct) had en their firft 
appearance this additional merit, 
that they ferved to make early dif- 
coveries of that true comic genius 
which was then dawning forth in 
Mrs. Clive. 

So early as when he was at Ley- 
den, Mr. Fielding made fome ef- 
forts towards a comedy in the (ketch 
of Don ^ixote in England. When 
he left that place, and fettled in 
London, a variety of characters at- 
tracted his notice, and of courfc 
ferved to ftrengthen his favourite 
inclination ; the inconfiflencies that 
flow from vanity, from affectation, 




from hypocrify, from pretended 
friendfhip, and, in flicrt, all the dif- 
fonant qualities, which are ot'ten 
whimfically blended together by the 
folly of men, could not fail to ilrike 
a perfon who had fo fine a fenfe 
of ridicule: and accordingly we 
find that he never feems fo happy, 
as when he ic developing a charader 
made up of motley and repugnant 
properties. To fearch out and to 
defcribe objeds of this kind, feems 
to have been the favourite bent of 
his mind, and from his happy de- 
fcriptions of the manners, he may 
juftly be pronounced an admirable 
Comic Genius in the largeft accep- 
tation of the phrafe, implying hu- 
morous and pleafant imitation of 
men and manners, whether in the 
way of fabulous narration, or of 
dramatic compolition. In the for- 
mer fpecies of writing lay the ex- 
cellence of Mr. Fielding : in dra- 
matic imitation he muft be allowed 
to fall Ihort of the great mafters in 
that art. 

An ingenious writer (Mr. Hurd) 
has paffed a judgment upon Ben 
Jonfon, which, though Fielding 
did not attain the fame dramatic 
emiuence, may be juftly applied to 
him. " His tafte for ridicule was 
ftrong, but indelicate, which made 
him not over-curious in the choice 
of his topics. His_/?>'/f in picturing 
his charadters, though mafterly, was 
without that elegance of hand, 
which is required to corred and al- 
lay the force of fo bold a colouring. 
Thus the bias of his nature lead- 
ing him to Plautus rather than Te- 
rence, for his model, it is not to be 
wondered that his wit is too fre- 
quently cauftic, his raillery coarfe. 
and his humour exceffive." 

This want of refinement feems to 
have been principally owing to the 

woundings which every frefh dif- 
appointment gave Fielding, before 
he was yet well difciplined in the 
fchool of life : and perhaps too the 
afperity of his Mufe was not a little 
encouraged by the praftice oS two 
great wits, who had fallen into the 
fame vein before him ; I mean Wy- 
cherley and Congreve, who were 
not fond of copying the amiable 
part of human life. In his ftyle, 
Mr. Fielding derived an error from 
the fame fourcc : he fometimes for- 
got that humour and ridicule were 
the two principal ingredients of co- 
medy ; and, like Congreve, he fre- 
quently aimed at decorations of wit, 
which do not appear to make part 
of the ground, but feem rather to 
be embroidered upon it. 

There is another circumftance re- 
fpeding the drama, in which Field- 4 
ing's judgment feems to have failed 
him : the ftrength of his genius 
certainly lay in fabulous narration; 
and he did not fufficiently confider 
that feme incidents of a ftory, which 
when related may be worked up 
into a deal of pleafantry and hu- 
mour, are apt, when thrown into 
adion, to excite fenfations incom- 
patible with humour and ridicule. 

To thefe caufes of his failure in 
the province of the drama, may be 
added, that fovereign contempt he 
always entertained for the undcr- 
ftandings of the generality of man- 
kind. It was in vain to tell him, 
that a particular fcene was danger- 
ous on account of its coarfenefs, or 
becaufe it retarded the general bu- 
finefs with feeble efforts of wit ; 
he doubted the difcernment of his 
auditors, and fo thought himfelf fe- 
cured by their ftupidity, if not by 
his own humour and vivacity. A 
very remarkable inftance of this 
difpofition appeared, when the co- 


niedy of the Wedding-Day was put 
into rehearfal. An aftor, who was 
principally concerned in the piece, 
and, though young, was then, by 
the advantage of" happy requifites, 
an early favourite of the public, told 
Mr. Fielding he was apprehen- 
five that the audience would make 
free with him in a particular paf- 
fage ; adding, that a repulfe might 
fo flurry his fpirits as to difconcert 
him for the reft of the night, and 
therefore begged that it might be 
omitted. *' No d — mn 'em, re- 
plied the bard, if the fcene is not a 
good one, let them find that out." 
Accordingly the play was brought 
on without alteration, and, jull as 
had been forefeen, the difapproba- 
tion of the houfe was provoked at 
the paflagc before objected to ; and 
the performer, alarmed and uneafy 
at the hifles he had met with, re- 
tired into the green-room, where 
the author was folacing himfelf 
with a bottle of champaign. He 
had by this time drank pretty plen- 
tifully ; and cocking his eye at the 
aftor, while ftreams of tobacco 
trickled down from the corner of 
his mouth, *' What's the matter, 
Garrick?" fays he, " what are they 
biffing now?" " Why the fcene 
that I begged you to retrench ; I 
knew it would not do, and they 
have 'io frightened me, that 1 mall 
rot be abie to colledl myfelf again 
the whole night." *' O ! d — mn 
'em, replies the author, they ha-ve 
found it out, have they ?" 

If we add to the toregoing re- 
marks an obfervation of his own, 
namely, that he left off writing for 
the ftage, when he ought to have 
begun; and together with this confi- 
dcr his extreme hurry and difpatch, 
we {hall be able fully to account for 
his not bearing a more diftinguifhed 

place in the rank of dramatic wri- 
ters. It is apparent, that in the 
frame 4nd conftitudon of his genius 
there wai no defeft, buf fome fa- 
culty or other was fuffcred to lie 
dormant, and the reft of courfe 
were exerted with lefs efficacy : at 
one time we fee his wit fuperfeding 
all his other talents; at another his 
invention runs riot, and multiplies 
incidents and charaders in a man- 
ner repugnant to all the received 
laws of the drama. Generally his 
judgment was very little confulted. 
And indeed, how could it be other- 
wife ? When he had contrafted to 
bring on a play, or a farce, he 
would go home rather late from a 
tavern, and would, the next morn- 
ing, deliver a fcene to the players 
written upon the papers which had 
wrapped the tobacco in which he 
fo much delighted. 

Though it was the lot of Henry 
Fielding to write always with a 
view to profit, he derived but fmall 
aids towards his fubfiftence from 
the treafurer of the play-houfe. 
One of his farces he has printed as 
it was damned at the theatre-royal 
in Drury-lane ; and that he might 
be more generous to his enemies than 
they nvere ixiilling to be to him, he 
informs them, in the general pre- 
face to his miicelianies, that for 
the Wedding Day, though afted fix 
nights, his profits from the houfe 
did not exceed fifty pounds. A 
fate not much better attended him 
in his earlier produdlions ; but the 
feverity of the public, and the ma- 
lice of his enemies met with a noble 
alleviation from the patronage of 
the late duke of Richmond, John 
duke of Argyll, the late duke of 
Roxburgh, and many perfons of 
diftinguiihed rank and charadler ; 
among whom may be numbered the 




prefentloidLyttelton,whore friend- determined to exert his hef}. endea- 
Ihip to our author foftened ihe ri- vours to recover, what he had wan- 
gour of his misfortunes whiie he tonly thrown away, a decent corn- 
lived, and exerted itfelf towards petence ; and being then about 
his memory when he was no more, thirty years of age, he betook, him- 
by taking pains to clear up impu- leit ro the Hudy of the law. The 
tations of a particular kind, which friendfhips he met with from fome, 
had been thrown out againlt his vvho have fince rifen to be the firlt 
character. oriiaments of the law, will for ever 
Mr. Fielding had not been long a do honour to his memory. His ap- 
writer for the Itage, when he mar- plication, while he was a liudent 
ried tVIifs Craddock, a beauty from ..i the Temple, was remarkably 
Salifbury. About that time his intenfe : he has been frequently 
mother dying, a moderate eftate at known by his incimates, to retire 
Stower in Dorfetflilre devolved to late at night from a tavern to his 
him. To that place he retired with chambers, and there read, and 
his wife, on whom he doted, with make extrads from the moft ab- 
a reiolution to bid adieu to all the ftruTe authors, for feveral hours be- 
follies and intemperancesof a town- fore he went to bed. After the cuf- 
life. But unfortunately a kind of tomary time of probation at the 
family-pride heregained an afcend- Temple, he was called to the bar. 

ant over him, and he began imme- 
diately to vie in fplendor with the 
Tieighbouringcountry fquires. With 
an eftate not much above two hun- 

He attended with afTiduity both in 
term-time and on the wellern cir- 
cuit, as long as his health permit- 
ted ; but the gout foon rendered it 

dred pounds a year, and his wife's impolSble for him to be as conftant 

fortune, which did not exceed fif- at the bar as the laborioufnefs of 

teen hundred pounds, he encum- his profefiion required : he could 

hered himfelf with a large retinue only nowfoUovvthe lawby fnatches, 

of fervants all clad in coitly yellow at fuch intervals as were free from in- 

liveries. For their mailer's honour, difpoiit'on ; which could not but ba 

thefe people could not fo adiipiritingcircumrtance, a? he faw 

low as to be careful in their appa- himfelf at once difablcd from ever 

rel, but in a month or two were un- rifing to the eminence he afpired to. 

fit to be Teen ; the fquire's dignity However, under the feverities of 

required that they fhouid be new pain and want, he ftill purfued his 

equipped; and his chief pleafure refearches with an eagernefs of cu- 

conhiling in fociety and convivial riofity peculiar to him ; and the* 

mirth, hofpitality threw open his it is wittily remarked by Wycherlr, 

door^, and in lefs than three years, that Apollo and Littleton feldom 

entertainments, hounds, and horfes, meet in the fame brain, yet Mr. 

entirely devoured a little patrimony, Fielding i^allovved to have acquired 

which, had it been managed wiih a refpeftable (hareof jurifprudenc?, 

o^jconomy, might have fecured to and in lome particular branches he 

him a ftate of independence for the is faid to have ari/en to a great de- 

rellof his life. Senfible of the dif- gree of eminence, more efpecially 

agreeable fituation he had now re- in crown-law, as rr.ay be judged 

duced himfelf to, he immediately from his leaving two volumes in 

Vol. V. C folia 




folio upon that fuhjeft *. This 
work remains Hill unpublifhed in 
the hnnds of his brother, Sir John 
Fielding ; and by bim I am in- 
formed that it is deemed pert'eft in 
foine parts. It will ferve to give 
us an idea of the great force and vi- 
gour of his mind, if vvc confiuer 
him purfuing fo arduous a ftudy un- 
der thee. \'igencies of family diiirefs, 
with a wife and children, whom he 
tfnderly loved, looking up to him 
for fubfirtence, with a bo Jy lacerated 
by the acuted pains, and with a 
mind dillraded with a thoufand 
avocJitions, and obliged for imme- 
diate fupply to produce almoll ck- 
tempore a play, a farce, a pam- 
phlet, or a news-paper. A large 
nunjoerof fugitive political trads, 
which had theirvalue when the in- 
cidents were aiflually pafling on the 
great fcene of bufineis, came from 
his pen : the periodical paper, 
called I'he Champion ^ owed its 
chief fupport to his abilities ; and 
though his eflays in that coUeftion 
cannot now be afcertained, yet the 
jeputation arinng to him at the time 
of publication was not inconfider- 
able. It does not appear that he 
ever wrote much poetry : coriedt 
veifification probably required more 
pains and time than his exigencies 
would allow. In the preface to his 
M'Jcellnnies he tells us, that his 
poetical pieces were mollly writt;"ii 
when he was very young, and were 
productions of the hear: rather than 
of the head. He adds, that this 

branch of writing is what he very 
little pretended to, and was very 
little his purfuic. Accordingly, out 
of the new edition of his works, 
which was intended to confilt en- 
tirely of pieces more highly finifhed 
than his works of mere amufement 
generally are, his verfes are alldif- 

In the progrefs of Henry Field- 
ing's tall nts there feem to have been 
three remarkable periods ; one, 
when his geniuo broke forth at 
once, with an effulgence fuperior 
to all the rays of liqht it had before 
emitted, like the fun in his morn- 
ing glory ; the fecond, when it was 
difpiayed with coUedled force, and 
a fulnefiof perfeflion, like the fun 
in meridian majerty ; and the third, 
when the fame genius, grown more 
cool and temperate, flill continued 
to chcar and enliven, but Ihewed at 
the fame time that it was tending to 
its decline, like the fame fun, abat- 
ing from his ardour, but dill gild- 
ing the weltcrn hemifphere. 

To thefc three epochas of our 
author's genius, there is an exaiit 
correfpondency in the Jofeph An- 
dre^vSy Tofii ycnes, and Amelia. It 
will not be improper here to men- 
tion, that the reverend Mr. Young, 
a learned and much efteemed friend 
of Mr. Fielding's, fat for parfoa 
Adams. Mr. Young was remark- 
able for his intimate acquaintance 
with the Greek authors, and had 
as paffionate a veneration for .^f- 
chylus as Parfon Adams ; the over- 

* The c^cntlemen of llic weftern ciicuit h.Tve a tradition conceining Fieldinsf, 
which, thcii^h (bmcwlira inconfillent with the account that Mr. M. has given 
of him, yet is perfc^lly sgreeable to the idea generally entertained cf his hu- 
mour and clnra6\er. Havinix attmded the iuiire* two or tlir.e years without 
t!ie lealt piolptfCl of ftitcefs, he puhlilh d propofals for a new law-book : which 
being circulated lound Wm country, the youncr barriller was, at the enhiing af- 
fizes, loaded with briefs at every town on the circuit.<>-I>uX his practice thus 
luddcnly increased, ajmoll as fuddenlv declined. 




flowlngs of his benevolence were as 
flrong, and his fits of rever'e were 
as frequent, and occurred too upon 
the moll interelHng occafions. Of 
this lall obfervatioii, a fingular in- 
ftance is given by a gentleman who 
ferved, during the hilt war in Flan- 
ders, in the very fame regiment to 
which Mr. Young was chaplain. 
On a fine fummer's evening, he 
thought proper to indulge himfelf 
in his love of a folitary walic ; and 
accordingly he fallied forth from 
his tent : the beauties of the he- 
mifphere, and the landfcape round 
him, prefTed warmly on his imagi- 
nation ; his heart overflowed with 
benevolence to all God's creatures, 
and gratitude to the Supreme Dif- 
penfer of that emanation of giory 
which covered the face of things. 
It is very poiTible that a paHage in 
his dearly beloved ^fchyius occur- 
red to his memory on this occahon, 
and feduced his thoughts into a pro- 
found meditation. Whatever was 
the object of his rejections, certain 
it is.- that fomething did powerfully 
feize his imagination, fo as to pre- 
clude all attention to things that lay 
immediately before him : and, in 
that deep fit of abfence, iVIr. Young 
proceeded on his journey, til! he ar- 
rived very quietly and calmly in the 
enemy's camp, where he wa=;, with 
difiiculty. brought to a recolleiSion 
of himfelf by the repetition of ^: 
<vaiaP from the foldiers upon duty. 
The oiT.cer who coirmanded. find- 
ing that te had Itrayed thither in 
the undefigning fiinphcicy of his 
heart, and feeing an innate good- 
DcTs in his prifoner, which com- 
manded his refpeft, very politely 
gave him leave to purfue his con- 
templations home again. 

Soon after the publication of Jo- 
Jeph Andreius, Fielding's lafl; co- 

medy, the Wedding Day, wn=; exhi- 
bited on the ilage ; ard, as we have 
already obferved, it was attended 
with an indifferent (hare of fuccefs. 
The law fror.i this time had its hot 
and cold fits with him. The re- 
peated fhocksof illncfsdifabled hira 
from being as affdiio'js an attendant 
at the bar, as his own inclination, 
and patience of the moil laborious 
application, would otherwife have 
made him. Befides the demands 
for expence, which his valetudina- 
rian habit of body conftantly made 
upon him, he hadiikewife a family 
to maintain ; from bufinef? he de- 
rived I'ccle or no fuppiies, and his 
profpect- 'therefore grew e\ery day 
more gloomy and melancholy. To 
thefe difcouragiiig circumllances, if 
we add the infirmity of his wife, 
whom he loved tenderly, and ilis 
agonies he felt on her account, the 
meafure of his afflrdious w'll be 
well nigh full. To fee her caily 
languiiTiing and wearing aVis^ be- 
fore his eyes, was too much for a 
man of his ftrong fenfaMon'= ; the 
fortitude of mind with which he 
met all the other calamitie- of life, 
deferred him on this moil trying oc- 
cafion ; and her death, which hap- 
pened about this tiine, bro.-ght oa 
fuch a vehemence of grief, tnat his 
friends began to thinkhim in dan- 
ger of lofing his re.fon. When 
the firll emotion'-, of his /for.ow 
were abated, he began again to 
ftruggle with his fortui;e. He en- 
gaged in two periodical papers fuc- 
ceiiively ; the fint of theie was 
called The True Patriot, which was 
let on foot during tu*; late rebel- 
lion, and W3s conducive to the ex- 
citement of loyalty, and a love for 
the the breads of his 
countrymen. 1 he "Jacobite "Jour- 
nal was calculated to dil'credif the 
C 2 Ihat- 


fhatterecj remains of an unfuccefi- 
ful party, and, by a well-applied 
raillery and ridicule, to bring the 
fenriments of the difaffeded into 

By this time Fielding had attained 
the age of forty- three ; and being 
incelTantly purfued by reiterated at- 
tacks of the gout, he was wholly 
rendered incapable of purfuing the 
bufincfs of a barrifter any longer. 
He was obliged thertfcre to accept 
the office of an afling magiftrate in 
the commiflion of the peace for 
Middlefex, with a yearly penfion 
out of the public-fervice money. 
That he was not inattentive to the 
calls of his duty, is evident from 
the many trafts he publiihed re- 
lating to feveral of the penal laws, 
and to the vices and mal-pradices 
which thofe laws were intended to 
rellrain ; particularly a Charge to 
the grand jury, delivered at WeR- 
minlter on the 29th of June, 1749, 
and the Enqui'^y into the Cau/s of 
the Increafe of Robberies, atid a 
Frcpofal fr the Maintenance of the 

Amidil thefe fevere exercifes of 
his underltanding, and all the la- 
borious duties of his office, his in- 
vention could not lie liill ; but he 
found leifure to amufe himfelf, and 
afterwards the world, with the Hif- 
to'^y of Tom fones. hx\A no-v we 
are arrived at the fecond grand 
epoch of Mr. Fielding's genius, 
when all his faculties were in per- 
fect uiiifon, and confpired to pro> 
duce a complete'^work, eminen-t 
in all the grent eftentials o'\ com- 
pofiticn, in fable, charailer, fenti- 

ment, and elocution ; and as thcTe 
could not be all united in fo high 
an aHcniblage, without a rich in- 
vention, a fine imagination, an en- 
lightcnedgudgment, and a lively 
wit, we may fairly here decide his 
charafter, and pronounce him th« 
Englifh Cervantes. It may be add- 
ed, that in many parts of the Tom 
Jones we find he pofiVfled the fofter 
graces of charadler-painting, and of 
defcription : many fituations and 
fentiments are touched with a deli- 
cate hand, and throughout the 
work he feems to feel as much de- 
light in defcribing the amiable part 
of human nature, as in his early 
days he had in exaggerating the 
Orong and harfh features of turpi- 
tude and deformity. This circum- 
ftance breathes an air of philan- 
thropy through his work. 

Thus have we traced our author 
in his progrefs to the time when 
the vigour of his mind was in its 
full growth of perfedlion ; from 
this period it funk, but by How 
degrees, into a decline : Amelia, fucceeded Torn yones\n about 
four years, has indeed the marks of 
genius ; but of a genius beginning 
to fall into its decay. Amelia is the 
OdylTey, the moral and p.uhetic 
work, of Henry Fielding*. 

While he was planning and ex- 
ecuting this piece, it (hoiiid be re- 
membered, ihat he was diftradtcd 
by that multiplicity of avocations 
which lurround a public magirtrate, 
and tiis conftitution, now greatly 
impaijed and enfeebled, was labour- 
ing under the attacks of the gout, 
which were, of courfe, fevcrer ihaa 

* A;?:cUa, in the new edition of Mr. Fielding's works, is printed from a copy 
eorreded by the author's own hand. The exceptionable pairage?, which inad- 
verti^iii :y had thrown out, are here retrenched ; and v4ie work, upon the whole, 
will be fou:id nearsr peifeflion than it was in its original ftate. 



ever. However, the activity of his row tlie tender guardian of his or- 

mind was not to be fubdued. One phans. 

literary purfuit was no fooner over. Thus was clorcd a courfe of dif- 
than fredi game arofe. A period!- appointment, dittref;, vexat'on, in- 
cal paper, under the title of The £rmity, and lludy ; for with each 
Co'vent Garden 'Journal, by Sir of the!e his life was varioufiy che- 
Mexander Drai.vcanjir, Kni'^ht^ and quered, and, perhaps, in Itronger 
Cenfor General of Great Britain, proportions than has been the lot 
was immediately fet on foot. It of many. We have f;en how Mr. 
was publiihed twice in every .veelc. Fielding veryfoon Iquandered away 
o-'/z. on Tuefday and Saturday, a -d his I'mall patrimony, which, with 
conduced fo much to the entertain- ce;onomy, might have procureci 
ment of the public, that it was felt him independence: we have feea 
with a general regret that the au- how he ruined, in:o the bargain, a 
thor's health did not enable him to conllitution, which, in if: original 
perfift in the undertaking any long- texture, feeraed formed tolatt much, 
er. Soon after this work was longer. When lUnels and ;ndii.ence 
dropt, by the advice of phyficians w&xe once let in upon him, he no 
Mr. Fielding fet out for Lifbon: longer remained the mailer of his 
the lall gleams of his wit and hu- own adionb ; and that nice delicacy 
mour fparkled in the account he » of conduct, which alone conliiiutes 
left behind him of his P^oyage to and preferves a characlier, was cc- 
that place. In this his lalt fketch cafjonally obliged to gii-e way. 
he puts us in mind of a perfon, un- When he was not unJenne imme- 
der fentence of death, jelling on diate urgency of want, they who 
the fcaffbld : for his (Irength was were intimate with him are ready 
now quite exhaufted ; and in about to aver, that he had a fnind greatly 
two months after his arrival at Lif- fuperior to apy thing mean or lit- 
bon, he yieMed his laft breath, in tie ; when his finances were ex- 
the year 175.4, and in the forty- haulted, he was not the moll; ele- 
cighth year of his age. g'^^t in the choice of the m?an=: io 
He left behind him (for he mar- redrcfs himfelf, and he vvould in- 
ried a fecond time) a wife, and (I'jntly exhibit a farce or a puppet- 
four children, three of whi h are fhew in the Hay market ttit-a re, 
llili living, and are now training which was nvhully tnconji ent ivith 
up in a handfome courfe of educa- the profsjjion he bad embarkeu tn. 
tion under the care of their uncle. But his intimates can wunels how 
with the aid of a,very generou' do- much his pride luiFered.. when he 
nation, given annually by Ralph was forced into meufures of this 
Allen, Lfq; for that purpofe. Au Icind ; no man having a ju erfcnfe 
inllance of humanity, which the of propriety, or more horourable 
reader did not want to learn of him, ideas of the employment ot ai, au- 
whofe life is a conitant effufnn of thor and a fchoiar. 
munificence ; but for the lake of H^nry Fielding was in ftature 
the writer, whofe works have af- rather rifing a';ove (ix feet ; his 
fordedfuchexquifueentercciinmcnt, frame of body large, ,at.d rerr.a.k- 
he will bs gl .d to know that the ably robuit, till thf.-gou: hr.d brrke 
generous patron of the father is the vigour of his conllituaon. His 

C 3 *■ fiietid 

22 ANNUAL R E G 1 STE R, 1762. 

friend Hogarth, to whom he often 
promifed to fit, and for whom he 
ha-> .tit us in his writings many 
beauti.'ul memorjals of his af.'edion, 
had lorg laboured to try if he C( u!d 
bring out an) Jikenefi. of him from 
imager exifting in hi own fancy ; 
and ju!t a? he was defpair;ng of 
fuccefs, for want of feme, rule to 
go by in the diraenhons and out- 
lines of the face, fortLJne threw the 
grand deji-traturn in the way. A 
fady, with a pair of fciffars, had 
cut a profile, which gave the cif- 
tances and proportions of his face 
fufriciently to reftore the artill's loft 
ideas cf him. Glad of an oppor- 
tunity of paying thislail tribute to 
the memory of an author whom 
be admired, Mr. Hogaith caught 
at ihis ouline with pleafure, and 
worked with all the attachment of 
friendiliip till he finifhed an excel- 
lent drawing, which Hands at the 
head of the new edition of his 

Mr. Murphy gives the charafter 
of Fielding in the following terms : 
His pafr.ons, as the poet exprefTcs 
It, ^Kcre trembling ali--ve all o'er : 
whatever he deined, he dtfired ar- 
dently ; he was ali..e impatient of 
dif: ppyiniment or ill ulage, and 
the iame quicknefs of fcnfibility 
rendered him elate in profpcrity, 
and overfiowing with gratitude at 
every inlia.Tce of friendfhip or ee- 
rerciity : Iteacy in h.s private at- 
tachmentr, his afFedion was warm, 
fii.ccre, and vehement ; in his re- 
fentnierts he was manly, but tem- 
perate, feldcm breaking oat in his 
uriiings into gratifications of ill- 
hunu.'ur, or perfonal iatire. It is 
to the honour of thofe whom he 
loved, that he had too mu- h pene- 
tration to be deceived in their cha 
patters j and it is 10 the advancige 

of his enemies, that he was above 
pyfTionate attacks upon them. Open, 
unbounded, and focialin his temper, 
he knew no love of money ; but in- 
cl ning to excefs even in his very 
virtues, he pufhed his contempt of 
avarice into the oppofite extreme of 
imprudence and prodigal icy. When 
young in life he had a moderate 
eftate, he foon fuffered hofpitaiity 
to devrur it ; and when in the lat- 
ter end of his days he had an in- 
come of four or five hundred a year, 
he knew no ufe of money, but to 
keep his table open to thofe who 
had bfen his friends when young, 
arid had impaired their own for- 
tunes, i ho' difpofed to gallantry 
by hisflrong animal fpirits, and the 
vivacity of his palTion?, he was re- 
markable for tendernefs and con- 
flancy to his wife, and the ftrongeft 
affection for his children. Offick- 
nefs and poverty he was Angularly 
patient, and under the preffure of 
thofe evils he would quietly read 
Cicero de Confolatione ; but if either 
of them threatened his wife, he was 
impetuous for her relief: and thus 
often from his virtues arofe his im- 
perfedions. .A fenfe of honour he 
h d as lively and delicate a> moft 
men ; but fometimes his pafTrons 
were too turbulent for it, or ;ather 
his necellities were toopreflinL' : in 
ail cafes where delicacy was de- 
parted from, his friends knew how 
his own feelings reprimanded him. 
J he intereft of virtue and religion 
he never betrayed : the former is 
amiably inforced in his works ; and 
for the defence cf the latter, he 
had prcjec'ed a laborious Anjkx'er to 
the ^ojihumous Philofophy of Eo- 
Ungbroke ; and the preparation he 
had made for it, of long extracts 
and arguments from the fathers and 
the moit eminent writers of com ro- 



verP)', IS frill extant in the hands of 
his brother. Sir Johh Fielding. In 
fhort, cur author was unhappy, but 
not vicious in his nature ; in his un- 
derlianding lively, yet folid ; rich 
in invention, yet a lover of real 
fcience ; an obferver of mankind, 
yet a fcholar of enlarged reading; 
a fpirited enemy, yet an indefati- 
gable friend ; a fatirill of vice and 
evil manners, yet a lover of man- 
kind ; an uieful citizen, a polifhed 
and inflruftive wit ; and a magif- 
trate zealojs for the order and 
welfare of the community which he 

An AccDu-it cf the Life of Ariojlo. 

LOdovico Arioflo, the famous 
J Italian poet, and author of Or- 
lando Furicfo, uas born at the caf- 
tleof Reggie in Lomba;dy in 1474. 
His father, who v/as major-domo to 
duke Hercules, lived to the extent 
of his fortune, fo left but little at 
his death. Ariollo, from his child- 
hood, {hewed great marks of ge- 
nius, efpecialiy in poetry, and wrote 
a comedy in verfe on the (lory of 
Pyramus and Thifbe, which his bro- 
thers and fiflers played. Hisfacher 
being utterly unlearned, and rather 
regarding profit than his fon's in- 
clination, compelled him to flud/ 
the civil law ; in which, having 
plodded feme years to no purpofe, 
he quitted it for more p!ealing \\w- 
dies ; yet cfcen lamented, as Ovid 
and Petrarch did before him, and 
our Ovvn Milton fmce f, that his 
facherbaniihedhim from theiVlufes. 
On which occafion, one cannot help 
oblerving, how cruel and impoiiLJc 
it is in parents to force their chii- 

f See his Latin pcem, Ad Patrem. 

dren from thofe prevailing ftudies 
to which their genius leads them, 
and make them apply to others, 
which, as they hate, can never 4*e 
a credit or advantage to ihem. At 
the age of twentv-four .Ariofto loit 
his fat-her, and found himfelf per- 
p!e\'ed withfamily-aifairs. How- 
ever, in about fix years he wh?, for 
his good parts, taken into the far- 
vice of Don Hippolito, cardinal of 
Elle. At this time he had written 
nothing but a ie\,v fonnets ; but 
now he refolved to make a poem, 
and chofe Bayardo's Orlando Ina- 
morato for a ground-work. How- 
ever, he was prevented writing for 
a great many years, and was chcfen 
as a fit perfon to go on an embafiy 
to Pope Julio II. where he gave 
fuch fati.^faition, that he was fenc 
again, undex went many dangers and 
ditnculties, and at his return was 
highly favoured. Then, at his lei- 
fure, he again applied himfelf to 
h;s poem : but focn afrer he incur- 
red the cardinal's difpleafure, for 
refufing to accompany him into 
Hungary, by which he was fo dif- 
couraged, that he deferred writino- 
forfourteen years, even till the car- 
dinal's death. After thathe iioillied 
by degrees, in great perfection, 
that which he begun with great ex-- 
peilation. Duke Aftolfo otFered 
him great promotions if he vvouid. 
ferve him ; but pre.^erring liberty to 
grandeur, he refufed this and other 
great offers from princes and car- - 
dinals, particularly from Leo X. 
from ail whom he received not- 
withftanding great prefents. The 
duke of Ferrara delighted fo mucia 
in hia comedies, of which he wrote 
five, that he built a frage on pur- 
pofe to have them played in his 



^4 ANNUAL REG I ST E R, 1762. 

court, and enabled our poet to 
build him(elf a houfe in Ferrara, 
with a pleafant gar^'en, where he 
ul'ed to conipofe his poems, which 
were hii^r'v cfteemed by all the 
princes in Italy, who fent him many 
preTents ; but he faid, *' he would 
not fell his tibertv for the beft car- 
djnal's hat in Rome." In his diet 
hie was temperate, and focarelcP) of 
dainties, that he was fit to have 
lived in the world when they fed 
upon acorns. Whether he was ever 
marred, is uncertain. He kept 
company wich one Alexandr;, to 
whom, it was repotted, he was 
married privately, r.nd a lady Ge- 
jievera, whom he flyly mentions in 
the 2^th bonk of Olando, as pcets 
are apt to intermix v/ith their fic- 
tions fome realamoursof their own. 
Ke was urged to go amb^ifTador to 
pope Clement, but would by no 
means accept it. He translated the 
Menecmi of Plautus : and all his 
own corned ie> were fo elleemed, 
that onFrarcifv'Oof L.ilereheai ied 
the prologue himfelf in public. He 
began one of his comedies in his 
father's lifetime, when the follow- 
ing incident fhew? the remarkable 
talent he had f r poetry. His fa- 
ther one day rebuked him fharply, 
charging him with fomegreat fault, 
but all the while he returned him 
no anfwer. Soon after his brother 
began on the fame fubjefl ; but he 
ealily refuted him, ard, with ftrong 
arguments, juflified his own beha- 
viour. ** W^y then, faid liis bro- 
ther, did ynu not faiisfy my father ?" 
** In tru h, faid Lodovico, I was 
thinking of a part in my comedy, 
and methougiu mv father's fpeech 
to me was fo fuited to the part of 
an old man ciding his fon, that I 
forgot I was concerned in it mylelf, 
and eonlidered it only to mske ic 

part of my play." Which, by the 
way, is not near fo bad as the Itory 
of a famous painter, who having 
prevailed on a man to be tied 
nakfd to a crofs to reprefent a cru- 
c fied faviour, took occaiion to llab 
hira,the better to reprefent the ago- 
nies of death. It is alfo reported 
of .'\riofto, that coming by a pot- 
ter's (hop, he heard him fjnging a 
itave out of his Orlando, with fo 
bad a grace, that, out oS all pati- 
ence, he broke with his ftick fevc- 
ral of his pots : the potter, in a 
pitiful tone, aflting what he meant 
by wronging a poor man that had 
never injured him, " You rafcal, 
he replied, 1 have not dene thee 
half the wrong thou haft done me, 
for I have broken but two or three 
pots of thine, not worth fo m-iny 
halfpence; whereas thou haft bro- 
ken and mangled a ftanza of mine 
worth a mark of gold." 

Ariofto was tall, of a melancholy 
complexion, and foahforbed in ftudy 
and meditation, that he often for- 
got himfelf. His picture was drawn 
by Titian, in a maflerly manner. 
He was honoured with the laurel 
by the hands of the emperorCharles 
V. He was naturally affable, al- 
ways alTuming lefs than was his 
due, yet never putting up a known 
injury, even from his luperiors. He 
was fo fearful On the w.sier, that 
whenever he went out of a fliip, he 
v.ould fee others go before him: 
and, on land, he would alight from 
his horfe on the leaft apprehenfioa 
of danger. How inconfillent this 
with that fie.y imagination which 
could fo veil delcribe the courage, 
llrength, and marvellousiiurepiaity 
of an Orlando Furiofo, as well as of 
manv other renowned a id valiant 
knights, and valiant ladies tQO ! 
for certainly he was much fitter to 




handle the pen than the fword, and 
to write advantageoufly the achiev- 
anents of others, than afford matter 
of panegyric, at lealt, in the man- 
ner of thel'e heroes, whofe praifes 
he delighted to fing ; tho', in the 
opinion of many, the character of a 
good poet, and a good man, is, at 
Jeaft, equai to that of an honour- 
able warrior, and fuccefsful knight- 

He lived to the age of 59, and 
towards his latter end grew infirm, 
and by much phyfic injured his 
ftomach. He affirmed that he was 
willing to die; and the rather, be- 
caufe he heard that the greateft di- 
vines v.ere of opinion, that after 
this life we fhould me t and know 
our friends ; fa;, ing, to thofe that 
flood by, '* that many of his friends 
were departed whom he had a great 
defire to fee; and that every hour 
feemed to him a year, till he nTiighc 
viiit them." He died in Ferrara, in 
the year 153;? : and there was fcarce 
a man that could wri'e, but honour- 
ed him with an epitaph. 

L ife of Inig* Jones . E::traSled from 
ii'iY. H'alpole's Anecdotes 0/ Painters. 

Towards the end of James the 
fi It's reign, Genius was cal- 
led cut and appeared. The mag- 
riticent temper or taile of the duke 
of Buckingham, led him to coiledl 
pictures, and pointed out the ftudy 
of them to prince Charles. Kubens 
came over, Inigo Jones arole, and 
Architectare broke forth in all the 
luilre and purity of Rome and 

The greatell artift of this pro- 
feffion tnat has appeared in ihefe 
kingdom , and io great, that, in 
the reign of arts, we fcarce know 

the name of another architefl, wa» 
Jnigo Jonef, who, if a Table of 
Fame, like that in theTatler, were 
to be formed for men of real and 
indilputable genius in every coun- 
try, would fave England from the 
difgrace of not having her rcpre- 
fentative among the Arts. She 
adopted Holiein and Vandyck, fhe 
borrowed Rubens, (he produced 
Inigo Jones. Vitruvius drew up his 
grammar, Palladio (liewed him the 
practice, Rome difplayed a theatre 
worthy of his emulation, and king 
Charles v/as ready to encourage, 
employ, and reward his talents. 
This is the hii'tory of Inigo Jones, as 
a genius. 

He was born about 1572, the 
fon of a cloth worker; and, by the 
moft probable accounts, was bound 
apprentice to a joiner ; but, even ia 
that oblcure fituation, the bright- 
nefs of his capacity buril forth (b 
Urongly, that he was taken notice 
of by one of the great lords at 
court, who fent him to Italy to liudy 
landlcape painting, to which his 
inclination then .pointed. Ke was 
no fooner at Rome, than he found 
himfelf in his proper fphere : he 
felt that nature had not formed him 
to decorate cabinets, but defign pa- 
laces. He dropt the pencil, and 
conceived Whitehall, in the ftate 
of Venice he faw the works of Pal- 
ladio, and learned how beauti- 
ful lafte may be exerted on a lefs 
theatre than the capital of an em- 
pire. How his abilities diiiinguilh- 
ed themleives in a Ipot where they 
certainly had no opportunity to ait, 
we are not told, tnough it would 
no": be the leait curious part of his 
hifiory ; certain it is, that, on the 
Itrength of hi> reputation atVenice, 
Cnriitian IV. invited him to Den- 
mark, and appointed him hii archi- 


^(\; but 00 wbat buildingi he was that whoever ba^ treated of that mo- 
employed in that country, wc are numenr, ha"; beftowed on it ivhat- 
yet to learn. James I. found him ever clafs of anti-iuity he wa'; pe- 
at Copenhagen, and queen cu.'iarly fond of: and there is not 
took bim in the quality of her archi- aheapof Oones in tlicfc northern 
ted 10 Scotland. He fcrvcd prince couniric-, from which nothing can 
l^cnryr in the fatnc capacity, and the be proved, but has been made to 
place of furveyor-general of the depofe in favour of fome of thofc 
w/orks was granted to him in revcr- fantalHcal hypothefes. Where there 
fion. On the death of that prince, was fo much room for vifions, the 
wich whom at leaft ail his lamented I'hccnician<! could not avoid corn- 
qualities did not die, Jones travelled ing in for the i})are '-f the fouada- 
OKce more into Italy, and, aflincd tion ; and, for Mr. Toland's parr, 
by ripened of judgment, perfeiHcd he difcovered alitile Sione-henge in 
his tal.e. To the interval between Ireland, built bv the druidefj Geal- 

th.cfij voyages I ihould be inclined 
to allign thofe buildings of Inigo, 
which are lefs pure, an^I border tco 
ipuch upon thtt ballard liylc, which 
cne may call Ki ig James's Gothic. 

copa, (who dncs not l:now the dru- 
idcfs Gcalcopa ?) who lived at Ini- 
foen, in the ccuntv of Donegal. 

In the fame \ear Jones was ap- 
pointed one of the commifTioncrs 

Inigo's defigns of that period are for the repair of St. Paul's ; but 
?To: Gothic; but have a littlenefs of which was not commenced till the 
parts, and a weight of ornaments, year i6?3, when Laud, then biihop 
lyi^h which the revival of the Gre- of London, laid the iirft llone, and 
^iau talic was encumbered, and Inigo the fourth. In the reltoration 
which be {hook off in his giandcr of that cathedral he made two ca- 
dciigns. The jjrveyor's place fv.'!, pital fiults. He firft renewed the 
and he returned to England ; and, fiJes with very bad Gothic, and 
as if architcdure wa- not all he h;-d then added a Romiin portico, mag- 
learned at Rome, with an aircf nificent and beautiful indeed, bat 
Roman diuntereilecinefs, he gave up which hud no affinity with the an- 
the proiitj of his oflice, which he cient parts that remained, and made 
found cxtre;r.ely in debt ; and pre- his own Gothic appear ten times 
veiled uponthecomptrollerand pay- heavier. He committed the fame 
mailer to imitate his e.xamplc, till error at VVincheder, thrufting a 
the whole arrears were cleared. fcrecn in the Roman orCjrecian talli 
in it)20, he was employed in a into tlie middle of that cathedral, 
manner very unworthy of his ge- Jortes indeed was by no mean^ fuc- 
uius: king Jiimes fct him upon dif- cefsful when he attempted Gothic, 
covering, that is, guclling, wbowere The chapel of LincolnS-Inn has 
the founders of Stone-henge. His none of the charafterillics of that 
ideas were a'l romanized ; confe- architecture. The c'oyller beneath 
quently, his partiality to his favou- feems opprefled by the weight of 
rue people, which ought rather to the building above, 
have prevented him from ch rging The authors of the life of Jones 
them with that mafs of barbaious place the ereiliogoftheBanqueiing- 
clumrmefs, made him conclude it a houl'e in the reign of king Charles ; 
Roaiin teujplc. It is remarkable, but ic appears, Ircm the accounts of 




Nicholas Stone, that it was begun 
in 1619, and finilhed in two years 
— a fmall part of the pile defig ^ed 
for the palace of our kin^s; but To 
complete in itfelf, thac it Hands a 
model of ihe moil pure and beauti- 
ful taile. Several plates of the in- 
tended palace at Whitehall have 
been given ; but Mr. Walpole 
thinks, from no finiHied delign. 
The four great Iheets are evidently 
made up fiom general hints ; nor 
could fuch a fource of invention and 
tafte as the mind of Inigo, ever pro- 
duce fo much famenefs. The llrange 
kind of cherubims on the towers at 
the end are prepo'lerous ornaments, 
and, whether of inigo, or not, bear 
no relation to the relh The great 
towers in the front are too near, and 
evidently borrowed from what he 
had feen in Gothic, not in Rom:ai 
buildings. The circular court is a 
piifturelque thought ; but without 
meaning or u ility. The whoie fa- 
bric, however, was fo glorious an 
idea, that one forgets for a moment 
(fays Mr. Walpole) in the regret 
for it> not being executed, the con- 
firmation of our liberties, obtained 
by a melancholy fcene that paHed 
before the windows of that very 
Banquet! ng-houfe. 

In 1623 he was emploved at So- 
merfet-houie. where a chapel wa; to 
be fitted up for the Infama, the in- 
tended bride of the prince. The 
chapel is ftill in being. The front 
to the river part only of what was 
deligned, a^id the water-gaie, were 
erected afterwards on the deiigns 
of Inigo, as wab the gate at York 

i. )n the acceffion of Charles, Jones 
was continued in his poils under 
both king and queen. Hia fee, as 
furveyor, wris eight fhillings and 
four pence a day, with an allowance 

of461. a year for houfe-rent, be- 
fides a clerK and incidental expen- 
ces. What greater rewards he had, 
are not upon record, Lonfidering 
the havock made in ofnces and re- 
pofitories during the war, one is 
glad ot being able to recover the 
laialieii notices. 

During the profperoiis flate of 
the king'- affairs, the pleafures of 
the court were carried on with, 
much tafte and m ignificence. Poe- 
try, painting, muiic, and architec- 
ture were all called in to make them 
rational amufements. Mr. 'A'^alpole 
is of opinion, that the celebrated 
fe;livals of Loui; XIV. were copied 
from the fliews exhibited at Whice- 
ha!l, in his time the nioft polite 
court in Europe. Ben lonfon was 
the laureat ; Inigo Jones the in- 
ventor of the decorations ; Laniere 
and Ferabofco compofed the fym- 
phonies ; the king, the queen, and 
the young nobility, danced in the 
interludes. We have accounts of 
many of thofe entertainments, call- 
ed mafques ; they had been intro- 
duced by Anne of Denmark. 

Lord Burlington had a folio of 
the defigns for thel'e folemnities, by 
Inigo's own hand, confilling of ha- 
bits, mnfks, fcencs, Sec. The har- 
mony of thefe mafks vva.- a little in- 
terrupted by a war that broke out 
between the compofL-rs, Inigo and 
Ben ; in v/hich, whoever was the 
aggrelfor, the turbulent temper of 
Jonlbn took care to be mod in the 
wrong. Nothing exceeds the grolT- 
nefs of the language that he poured 
out, except the badnefb of the verfes 
that were the vehicle. There he 
fully exerted all the brutal abufe 
which his contemporarit , were will- 
ing to think wit, becau'e they were 
atraid of it; and '»hich only 
to Ihew the arrogance of the man, 




who prefumed to fatirize Jones and 
rival Shakefpear. 

- Another per Ton, who Teems to 
have borne much relentment to 
JonsSjVtas Philip earl of Pen) broke. 
In the Hurleian Library there is an 
edition of Stone-henge, which for- 
merly belonged to that earl, the 
margins of wnichwere full of abufe 
of Jones and others. Earl Philip's 
refentment was probably occafioned 
by fome difagreement while Jones 
was employed at Wilton: there he 
built that noble front in a grotto at 
the end of ihe water. Wilton is 
one of the principal objefls in the 
Hiftory of Arts and the Belles Let. 
tres : Sir Philip Sidney wrote his 
Arcadia there for his filler ; Van- 
dyck drew many of the race ; Hol- 
bein and Inigo Jones imagined the 
buildings; earl Thomas completed 
the colleftion of pidures, and af- 
fembled that throng of ilatues; and 
the laft earl Henry has (hewn, by a 
bridge deilgned by himfelf, that 
had Jones never lived, Wilton might 
yet have been a villa worthy of an- 
cient Rome. 

The works of Inigo Jones are 
not fcarce ; Surgeon's- hall is one of 
his beft works. One of the moll 
admired is the Arcade of Co\ent- 
garden, and the Church: " two 
ftruftures, fays Mr. Walpole, of 
which I want tafte to fee the beau- 
ties. In the Arcade there is nothing 
remarkable ; the pilalkrs are as 
arrant and homely ilripes as any 
plaifterer would make. The barn- 
roof over the portico of the church 
ilrikes my eyes with as little idea 
of dignity or beauty, as it could do 
if it covered nothing but a barn. It 
muft be owned, that the defetfl is 
not in the archited, but in the or- 
der.— Who ever faw a beautiful 
Tufcan building ? Would the Ro- 

mans have chofen that order for A 
temple f" 1 he expence of build- 
ing that church was 4500I. 

Ambrefliury in Wiltfhire was de- 
figned by Jones, but executed by 
his fcholar Webb. Jones was one of 
the firit that obferved the fame di- 
minution of pllafters as in pillars, 
Lindfay- houfe, in Lincoln's- Jnn 
Fields, which he built, owes its 
chief grace to this Angularity. In 
1618 a fpecial commiOion was ifTued 
to the lord chancellor, the earls of 
Worcefter, Pembroke, Arundel and 
others, to plant and reduce to uni- 
formity Lincoln's -Inn Fie ds, as it 
ihall be drawn by way of map, or 
ground-plot, by Inigo Jones, fur- 
veyor-general of the works. That 
fquare is laid down with a regard to 
fo trifling a fingulaiity, as to be of 
the exadl dimenficns of one of the 
pyramids : this would have beea 
admired in thofe ages, when the 
Keep at KeneKvorth Caflle was 
erei^ted in the form of an horfe-fet- 
ter, and the Efcunal in the fnape 
of St. Laurence's gridiron. 

Colefhill in Berkfhire, the feat of 
Sir iV]atthc\vP!eydcll, built in 1650, 
and Cobham-hall in Kent, Wvjre 
Jones's. He was employed to re- 
build Caftle Afliby, and finilhed one 
front ; but the civil war interrupt- 
ed his progri^fs there and at Stoke- 
. park in Northamptor.fhire. Shaftf- 
bury-houfe,now the London Lyi.ig- 
in hofpital, on the call fide of AI- 
derfgatc-llreet, is a beautiful front. 
The Grange, the feat of the lord 
chancellor Henley, in Hamp(hire,is 
entirely of this mailer. Jt is noi a 
large houfe, but by far one of the 
beil proofs of his tafte. The hall, 
which opens to a fmall veftibule 
with a cupola, and the llaircafe 
adjoining, are beautiful models of 
the purell and moil clai&c antiquity. 




The gate of Beaufort-garden, at 
Chelfea, defigned by Jones, \xas 
purchafed by Lord Builington, and 
tranfported to Chifwick, where, in 
a temple, are lome wooden feats 
with lions, and other animals, for 
arms, not of his mod delicate ima- 
gination, brought from Tart-hall. 
He drew a plan for a palace at 
Newmarket; but not that wretched 
hovel that itands there at prefent. 
One of the moft beautiful of his 
works is the Queen's houfe at 
Greenwich. The firfl; idea of the 
hofpital is faid to have been taken 
by his fcholar Webb, from his pa- 

Jnigo tailed early the misfortunes 
©fhis mailer. He was not only a 
favourite, but a Roman catholic: 
in 1646 he paid 545 1. for his delin- 
quency and fequeltration. Whether 
it was before or after this fine, it 
is uncertain, that he, and Stone the 
jnafon, buried their joint fiock of 
read^ money in Scotland-yard ; but 
an order being publilhed to encou- 
rage the informers of fuch con- 
cealments, and four perfons being 
privy to the fpot where the money 
was hid, it was taken i p, and re- 
buried in Lambeth marlh. 

Grief, misfortunes, and age, put 
an en-i to his lift in Someri'et-houle, 
July 21, 1651. 

Memoirs of M. d^Enfenada. 

AT the beginning of the laft 
vvar,v/hen the count de Gages 
was going to embark for Italy, he 
found hir.ife.f obliged to remain for 
a few days upon the fea-coaft, and 
having inquired* for a houfe, wheje 
he n/ight be tolerably accomodat- 
ed, he was direded to that of an of- 
Acer in the revenue, who, as his ex- 

cellency was informed by the mer- 
chants of Cadiz, was the greatell 
ceconomift in Spain. Thither he 
went, and was received with equal 
politenefs and refpeft. He had a 
very commodious apartment, in 
which every thing was elegantly 
neat, tho' there was nothing rich or 
expenfive. He was ferved with the 
utmoft puncluality, and the land- 
lord was fo very attentive, that h» 
often forefaw his wants, and provid- 
ed for them before they were men- 
tioned. The count de Gages, one 
of the honclieft, moll grateful, and 
befc-tempeied men in the world, 
was perfectly pleafed with his fitu- 
ation, and quite charmed with his 
landlord, who was ever ready to 
ferve him, though not troublefome- 
\y officious. 

The count had a great many pa- 
pers, memorials, inliructions, rela- 
tions, and other pieces of that na- 
ture, in the digefting of which he 
had great occafion for a fecretary, 
and fiis own was fick. The land- 
lord offered his affillance, and told 
his excellency, by way of apology, 
that he had obtained this little em- 
ployment by his fervice in the fecre- 
tary's office. The count very gladly 
accepted this offer, and was equally 
amazed at his dexterity and dili- 
gence, and was above all furprifed 
at a certain perfpicuity in method 
and propriety of liyle,whicfi he had 
fcarce obferved in any other man's 
writings. Li Ihort, he found him 
at once fo ufeful and fo agreeable, 
that he refolved not to part with 
him ; and therefore, without fay- 
ing a word, he recommended him to 
the minii'.er, as a perfon that might 
be extremely necefiary to him in 
Italv, as a commiiTary of provi- 
fions : defiring, that as he meant to 
take him aiong with him, his com- 




miflion and his infiruflions might 
be expe :itcd by his fecretary, who 
was now fo well recovered as to be 
in a condition to join his mafler. 
This requelt was accordingly com- 
plied with ; and from a Imali place 
in the cultoms,whichfcarce brought 
him five hundred pounds a year, he 
was graced with a title and an ap- 
pointment of five thoufand pieces 
of eight, with a power of dra^wing 
upon the trcafury for one hundred 
times that fum ; all which v.-as but 
an earnell of his future fortunes. 

The count de Gages being pof- 
fefled of the commiiiion, fent im- 
inediately for him to whom ,it be- 
longed, and after many exprefTions 
of his entire fatisfaftion, in refe- 
rence to his conduft and capacity, 
as well as in regard to the entertain- 
jnent he had received in his honfe, 
alked him if he was willing to go 
with him to Italy. He anfwered 
very fubmiffively to this, that he 
looked upon the honour done him 
by his excellency as fo great, that 
he was ready to follow him to the 
end of the earth, and that he de- 
fired only twenty- four hours time 
to fettle his accounts. Monfieur de 
Gages presented him with hiscom- 
mifiion, which Enfenada received 
with all the marksof relpeftful gra- 
titude, but without any fawning 
adulation; only telling his excel 
lency, that he was afraid he had 
conceived too good an opinion of 
him, that he would do his utmoft to 
deferve it, and that if he found this 
exceeded his powers, he would re- 
fign his commilTion, rather than dif- 
grace his benefactor. At the fame 
time he was appointed commifTary, 
a perfon v/as fent down to fuccied 
him in his former office, who was 
delirous of talcing the furniture, and 
whatever elfe bcloofred ro r\i. Hn- 

fenada, at a reafonable price. The 
new comniifl'ary gave- a fpecimen 
of his temper which furprifed the 
count de Gages ; for inllead of 
naming any fum, he told him that 
he left a clerk and a couple of fer- 
vants behind him, and that provid- 
ed he was kind to them, all that 
belonged to him was entirely at his 
fervice ; which his fucccfTor pro- 
miled, and took him at his word. 

His conduft in Italy did honour 
to the count de Gages' recommen- 
dation ; he was equally afiiduous 
and exaLt, indefatigable in bufinefs, 
attentive to the g-neral ofr.cers, 
difinterefled in refped to thofe of 
inferior rank, and extremely affable 
to all who had any concern with 
him. In the courfe of that war, as 
every body knows, the court de 
Gages met with incredible difncul- 
ties ; he was expe(fled to do with a 
very fma'.l army, what would have 
been a hard tafic to perform wi:li 
one much more numerous. He was 
obliged to bear with the caprice of 
his mailer Philip V. a monarch who, 
tho' he had an excellent heart, had 
alfo a temper very unequal. His 
minifiers liKewife were very far from 
living on good terms, or in any de- 
gree of confidence with each other; 
and it was the sntereil of the count 
to be well with them all, which he 
heartily erdeavoured, and fucceed- 
ed in it better than could be expeft- 
ed. But what created the greatell 
uneafinefs, was the flownefs of the 
fupplies ; and it was this circum- 
ftance that enabled M. Enlcnada to 
diitinguifh him fe If by continuing to 
find rtlources, which he did much 
longer than perhaps any other man 
could have done. 

i;ut as all things have a period, at 
length tliefe were quite worn out; 
lo iuat^munfjcur ds Oa^e*, hi? ge- 


reral officers, and his commiflary, 
found themfelves tairly at their wits 
end, with the untoward profpeft at 
no great diftance, of having an army 
without either pay or magazines. 
In this Uate of things, the count de 
Gages, and thofe whom heconfult- 
ed, unanimoufly refolved to fend 
M. Enfenada into Spain, in hopes 
he might folicit better in perfon, 
than even by the many excellent 
memorials which he had tranfmitted 
to the court on the melancholy fub- 
jeft of their dilireil'es. He chearfuliy 
accepted this commiflion, tho' at 
the fame time he obferved, that he 
had ttretched his perfonal credit to 
the very utmoil ; and that he was 
lefs afraid of falling into the hands 
of the enemy, than of being expofed 
to the refentment of his difappoint- 
ed creditors. They exprefied a very 
grateful fenfe of his condefcenfion, 
in accepting this commiflion ; and 
the rather, becaufe they knew he 
had ever lived within bounds, and 
had only borrovv'ed to preferve his 
friends from being pinched by ne- 
ceflity ; and therefore they loaded 
him with recommendations to all 
the perfons in power, with whom 
they had, or believed they had, any 
degree of intereft. 

With thefe credentials M. Enfe- 
nada made the beil hafte he could 
to Madrid, and entered upon his 
felicitations with all the fpirit and 
addrefs pofiible. He was exceeding- 
ly well received by the miniders, 
who made him ample acknowledg- 
ments for the many ft^rvices he h 'd 
rendered to the armv ; gave him 
abundant alTurances, little affiilance, 
and not a fing'e real, though they 
did not pretend toqueflion thetruch 
of his reprefentations. Inftead of 
fhunning, he fought out all his cre- 
ditOfSj and after affording them the 

5 J 

mod convincing proofs that he had 
not fquandered away their money, 
he told them plainly, chat they niuil 
exert their interelh with the great, 
in order to put it in his power to re- 
pay them. This w^s o^ more real 
fin'ice to him than all the nume- 
rous packets that he brought froai 
Italy, and procured him, by degrees, 
confiderable fums^ v.hich thcfe very 
pen'bas enabled the minilter toraifej 
for the real fource of all this dillrefs 
was the emptinefs of the royal cof- 
fers, an evil that a war very quick- 
ly brings en under a defpotic go- 
vernment, where the knowleclf^e 
that the Unte is under difiicuhies 
drives individuals into feeking eve- 
ry method of concealing their mo- 
ney, without offering them anyctjs 
motive to part with it. In the midS 
of thefe embarraiTments, Philip V. 
was gathered to his fathers, and 
was fucceeded by his fon Ferdinand 
the Sixth. A circumfcance thnc na- 
turally put a Hop to public bufmefij 
of every kind. 

This event, which would have 
difpirlted any other man than our 
commiirary,qu;ckened his thoughts, 
and added a new fpring of a^tlcr^. 
He entered ijnto an acquaintance 
with fome of the minor courtiers, ia 
order to learn from them the cha- 
rafter of the new monarch. Tfiis he 
found to be abfolutely impcfTable ; 
fince they all agreed that he was fo 
f:lent and referved, that the only 
thing they knew about him was his 
extreme affection for the queen. 
As to her majelty, they reprefented 
her as a pious, virtuous, and aftab'e 
princefs, very fond of fruit, ar.i 
who had a prodigious paffion fot 
jewels. M. Enfenada, refleftinga 
little upon this, took the proper 
meafures for having a great q'.ian- 
tity of the fineft peaches from the 



kingdom oF Valencia ea'-Iier than 
any body elfe, and prevailed upon a 
jew to procure him a melon made 
in gold let with the iineft ftones, 
with a large diamond at the top, 
and a fine emerald where the fcalk 
feemed to be broken off. This was 
placed on the lummit of a filver pil • 
lar in the midlt of a large falver 
filled with peaches, and being pre- 
fented to the queen by one of th6 
ladies of honour, procured M. En- 
fenada an introduclion at court, 
where his afiiduity and addrefs en- 
abled him to make a much quicker 
pr02;refs than could be imagined, to 
which his courteous behaviour and 
"boundlefs generolity did not a little 
contribute ; fo that in a fhort fpace 
of time he became a miniller. 

Thus far M, Enfcnada's abilities 
feemed to extend \vith his fortune ; 
and it was a confidence arifing from 
this that threw him from a height 
which had really made him giddy. 
There was at this time a miniiter 
at the head of the Spanilh councils, 
whofe high birth and great experi- 
ence would have excufed many de- 
feds, if fuperior talents and a pro- 
bity rarely feen in courts, had not 
furpafled che luftre derived from his 
quality and his employments. This 
very worthy, as well as able man, 
faw in its true light the conneiftion 
between the interefts of Spain and 
Great Britain, which ever governed 
his condud. IM. Enfenada, lifted 
up by fuccefs, and believing in the 
luidft of grandeur that he w is ftiil 
inconfiderable while there was yet 
any fubjed above him, Ilruck into 
the contrary road, as much at leall 
from neceflity, as choice : and 
hence arofe his intrigues with the 
courts of Vcrfailles and Naples, 
in which he found himieU baffled 
when he leail expeded it, ftrJpped 

of his employments, and fent Into 
exile, notwithitanding all the efi-brta 
of his powerful protedors. But 
not long afier the commencement 
of the prefent reign ht was again 
recalled to court, where, though 
he no longer figures as a minifter, 
he is yet known to have much cre- 
dit, and is with great probability 
at leall, if not juftice, fufpeded to 
have no fmall hand in the late 
fudden change of fyltera in that 

Memoirs of Count Zinzendorff. 

THERE is no court in Europe, 
or it may be in the world, 
more jealous of its grandeur, than 
that of Vienna; and of courle, the 
roini;lers in no court whatever afl'edl 
greater ilate, or are at more pains 
to imprefs a very high degree of 
reverence and refped upon all who 
have the honour to approach them. 
But it fometimes happens, that, 
even to candid ohfervrs, there are 
amazing littlenefles viiible in thefs 
otherwife great men ; and broad 
Itreaks of folly now and then ap- 
pear through all the grave wifdom 
and refined policy of thofe mighty 
Hatefmen. They give law to great 
kingdoms, they decide on the fate of 
potent nations, they prefcribe rules 
even to lateft poilerity, and in the 
midftofall this attention toothers, 
io it is! that they have greac and 
gIaringfoiblss,uncorreded inthem- 
felves; which naturally tarnifh that 
glory, and diminifh that erteem, in 
which they Ihould feem to have 
placed their felicity. 

Lewis count ZinzendoriF is cele- 
brated for his profound minifterial 
abilities, by all the memoir-writers 
of the prefent age, from the fo- 



Jemh marquis de Lamberti, down 
to the ingenious baron de Pollnitz. 
Thisilluftrious countvvasdefcended 
from a very noble family in Auilria, 
and his mother was a princefs of the 
houfe of Holltein. He had a good 
perfonjftrong natural parts, improv- 
ed by a regular education, and ftill 
xnuch more improved by long expe- 
rience in a variety of grent employ- 
ments, which he difcharged with a 
deferved reputation, and rofe gradu- 
ally to the elevated ftation of chan- 
cellor of the court, minifter for fo- 
leign affairs-, ar.d knight of the or- 
der of the Golden Fleece, in the 
reign of tne emperor Charks the 
Sixth. Hehaddiftinguifhed himfelf, 
in the conduct of many perplexed 
negotiations ; and it was to his con- 
fumniate fkill in politics we fland 
indebted for the famous Pragmatic 
Sandtion, that has already made fuch 
a noife in Europe, embarraffes it at 
prefent, and the confequence of 
which will probably reach, and 
may perhaps again embarrafs, ages 
that are ftill to come. 

Baron de Pollnitz, with his ufual 
care and circumfpeclion, remarks, 
** That he kept the nobleft and . 
molt elegant table at Vienna.** This, 
which to a common reader, it is 
likely, may appear no uncommon 
circumllance, might very probably 
liave pleafed that great minilter 
more than all the fine things he has 
faid of him befides. With all his 
fhining talents, and profound abi- 
lities, v/hich had rendered him ad- 
mired in fo many different courts, 
the count was lefs zealous of his 
reputation in the cabinet, than of 
his honour in difplaying the moft 
fplendid, and the moll: exquifite 
table, that perhaps was ever kept, 
in that or any other capital. 

His magnificence in this point 
Vot, V. 

would have been truly wonderful, 
if it had not been ecl'pfed by vari- 
ous exceller^cies of a luperior kind. 
His {kill was I'o great, that he was 
equally acquainted with Afiatic and 
Italian luxury. His olios exceeded 
thole of Spain i his paflry was much, 
more delicate than that of Naples ; 
hrs Perigord pyes were truly brought 
froT) thence ; his faufages were made 
at Bo!ogna ; his m icaroni by the 
Grand Duke's cook : and as for his 
wines, no country that produced a 
grape of any repute, bat a fan; pie 
of it, for the honour of its vine- 
yards, was to be found at his all- 
capacious fide-board. His kitchen 
was an epitome of the univerfe ; for 
there were cooks in it of all nations; 
and in the ac'jacent numerous and 
fpacious apartments were to be 
found rarities collected from all the 
quarters of the globe. He had, 
in order to collect thefe, his a- 
gents for provifions in every coun- 
try ; the carriages on which they 
were laden camequicKer and more 
regular than the polls, and thofe 
who v/ere very well informed be- 
lieved that the expence^ of his en- 
tertainments ran higher than that 
for fecret correfpondence, though, 
very polFibly they might be render- 
ed lubfervient and ufeful to each 

In his general converf^rion, the 
count was cautious and circum- 
fpe£l ; in his conferences with other 
minifters, referved though very po- 
lite : but at his table all this ftate- 
machinery was laid aHde, There, 
to difplay his fuperior learning, he 
difcourfed at large, and delivered 
the mofl carious as well as copious 
letftures on all his exotic and domef- 
tic delicacies. In thefe he (hewed 
a true fpirit of jaftice ; no man was 
ever lefs a plagiary. This pillau 
D he 



e had from prince Eugene, who 
had it from the bafhaw ot Buda; 
the egg-foup w^as made after the 
mode ot the marchioncfs de Prie ; 
the Roan ducks were flewed in the 
flyleofthe cardinal du Bois ; and 
the lampreys came ready drciTcd 
from a great minilter in England. 
His diflies furnifhed him with a 
kind of chronology ; hij water- 
fouchy was borrowed from marfhal 
d'Auverquerque's table, when he 
was firil in Holland ; the pheafaiit 
tourt was a difcovery he made in 
Spain, where he was fo lucky as to 
pick up a man, who, as a purveyor, 
had been in the fervice of that 
prince of bon-vivans the duke de 
Vendofme : but he always allowed, 
that the grand fchool of cookery 
was the congref- at Soifibns, where: 
the political conferencesindeed pro- 
ved ineffectual, but the entertain- 
ments of the feveral minillers were 
fplendid beyond defcription. Jn 
a word, with a true Apician elo- 
quence, he generoufly inltruCfted all 
the novices in good living; and, as 
Solomon difcourfcd of every herb, 
from the cedar of Lebanon to the 
hylfop on the wall; fo he began 
with a champignion no bigger than 
a Dutchman'; wailkoat-button,and 
ended with wild boar, the glory of 
the German forelis ! 

On his public days, there was 
an half hour, and fometimes near a 
whole one, when he was altogether 
inacceflible; and with refpeft to his 
employment in thofe feafon?, as is 
ever the cafe as to the privacies of 
prime minirtert, there was a great 
variety of deep as well as different 
fpeculations. An inquilitive f.)- 
jeigner, however, refolved to beat 
the bottom, coll what it would ; 
and by a gratification to one of his 
pages, which might have procured 

a greater fecrct, he was let into this. 
In order tc gratify his curiofity, he 
was placed in a clofet, between the 
room where the count was, and the 
chamber of audience, where he had 
the faiisfaiftion of beholding the fol- 
lowing plealant fcene. The count, 
fea'.ed in his elbow chair, gave the 
fignal of his being ready for the im- 
portant buhnef, when, preceded 
by a page, with a cloth on his arm, 
and a drinking-glafs, one of his 
principal domellics appeared, who 
prcfentcd a filvcr falver, with many 
little pieces of bread, elegantly dif- 
pofedji he was immediately follow- 
ed by the firft cook, who, on ano- 
ther falver, had a number of fmall 
vcflels filled with fo many different 
kinds of gravy. His excellency then 
tucking his napkin into his cravat, 
firlt wa(hed and gargled his mouth, 
and having wiped it, dipped a piece 
of bread into each kind of fauce, 
and having tailed with much deli- 
beration, rinfing his palate (toavoid 
confufion) after every piece, at 
length with inexpreffible fagacity 
decided as to the de ft i nation of them 
all. Thefe grand inllruments of 
luxury, with their attendants, then 
were dilmiffed, and the long-e\peft- 
ed miniiter having fully difcuffed 
this intereiling affair, found him- 
fe!f at liberty todifcharge next the 
duties of his political funftion. 

This is no malignant cenfure, but 
a gentleand genuine reprefentation 
of this great man'.s oftentation, in 
what he chofe to make his principal 
proftffion. If it was right, as pof- 
iibly many may think it, then, tho* 
faintly drawn, this is to be confider- 
cd as a panegyric: but if wrong, it 
is no libel, but barely an admoni- 
tory exhortation to thofe. who, in 
every high Itation, may be a little 
tinged with this folly ; and a Ihort 

C H A R A C T E R S. 


exercife, upon this propofnion, that 
the fcienceof eating, great ait may 
be, is after all no liberal Icience. 

Authentic coffverfat'ion hetiueen the 
king of PruJJla and the ingenious 
Mr. GeU'rt profej/hr in Belles Lct- 
tres at ; extra£icd from a 
a letter, dated, Leipfck, January 
27, 1761. 

THE i8thofOaober]aft,about 
three o'clock in the arter- 
noon, while profeiror Gellert was 
fitting in his nightgown at his defk, 
much out of order, he heard forr.e- 
body knock at his door. — " Pray, 
Sir, walk in." — *' Sir, your fervant, 
my name is Quintus Icilius, and I 
am extremely glad to have the p!ea- 
fure of forming an acquaintance 
with one fo famous in the republic 
of letters. 1 am not, however, come 
here in my own name only, but in 
that of his Prufiian majelly, who 
defires to fee you, and has com- 
manded me toccrxdutft you to him." 
After fome excufes founded on his 
ill health, M. Gellert accompanied 
major Quintus, who introduced him 
into the apartment of his ma}e(iy, 
where the following conveiiaciun 
was carried on by the king and the 
two literati. 

King. Are you profefTor Gellert ? 

Gellert. Yes, Sire. 

K. The Englifh envoy has men ■ 
tioned you ^o me as a perfon of 
eminent merit. From whence aie 
you ? 

G. From Hanichen, near Frey- 

K. What is the reafon that vve 
have no good German writers r 

Major ^iiitus. Your majelly has 
before your eyes an excellent Ger- 
man writer, whofe productions even 

the French have j udged worthy of a 
tranflation, and whom they call the 
La Fontaine of Germany. 

K. This, Mr. Gellert, is, no 
doubt, a ftrong proof of your merit. 
Pray, have you read La Fontaine? 

G. Yes, Sir, but without imitat- 
ing him. I have aimed at the meric 
of being original in mv way. 

K. Here you are in the right. 
But what is the reafon that we have 
no;: in Germany a greater nu nber 
of luch good authors as you ? 

G. Your majefty feems preju- 
diced agaii.ft the Germans. 

K. By no means ! 

G. Againll the German writers 
at leaft. 

K. That may be, and the truth 
is, I have not a very high opinion 
of them. Whence comes it that 
we find no good hillorians among 
them X 

G. We have. Sir, in Germany, 
feveral good hillorians ; among 
others Cramer, the continuator of 
Boflaet, and alio the learned Maf- 

K. A German continue the Uni- 
'uerfal Hijlory of Bojfuet ! how can 
that be 1 

G. He has not only continued 
it, but alfo performed this diiiiculc 
taflc with the greateft fuccefs One 
of the moft eminent profefTors in 
your majelty's dominions has de- 
clared this continuation equal in 
eloquence, and fuperior in point of 
exa:.nefs, to Bofluet's hiftory. 

K How does it come to paf:. that 
we have no good tranflation of Ta- 
citus in the German language i 

G. That author is extremely dif- 
ficult to tranflate, and the French 
tranflations chat have been given 
/of him, are entirely deititute of 

AT. This I acknowledge. 

D 2 G. There 


^6 ANN IT A I. R KG IS t En, 1762. 

G. There are fcveral caufes that 
have contributed liitherto to pre- 
vent the Germans from becoming 
eminent in the different kinds of 
writing. While the arts and fciences 
flourifhcd amoncr the Greeks, the 
Romans were folely occupied in the 
pernicious art of war. May we not 
look upon this as the military age 
of Germany ? May I not add to 
this, that they have not been ani- 
mated by fuch patrons of learning 
as Auguftus and Lewis XIV. 

K. And yet you have had two 
Auguftus's in Saxony. 

G. True, Sire, and we alfo have 
feen good beginnings in that coun- 

A'. How can you expeft that 
there ftiould be one Augultus in 
Germany, divided as it is ? 

G. That, Sire, is not my mean- 
ing, T only wi(h that eVery prince 
would encourage, in his own do- 
minions, men of true genius. 

JC. Were you never out of Sax- 
ony ? 

G, I was once at Berlin. 

A'. You ought to travel. 

G. Sire, I have no inclination to 
travelling, nor would my circuai- 
jlances enable me to travel, had I 
ever fo much inclination to it. 

AT. What kind of fieknefs arc 
you troubled with ? I fuppofe it is 
the malady of the learned. 

G. Be it fo : fince your majelly 
tloes me the honour to give it th^t 
name. I could not, without the 
greateft vanity, have given ic that 
appellation myfeif. 

A'. I have had this difeafe as well 
as you ; and I think I can cure you. 
You have only to ufe exercile, ride 
every day, and take once a week a 
rfoie of rhubarb. 

T^. This remedy, Sire, ir.ighl 

prove to me worfe than the difeafe. 
if the horfe 1 ufe has more health 
and fpirits than I myfclf have, I 
dare not ride him ; and if he has 
lefs, I certainly fhould not receive 
much benefit from the ufe of him. 

K. Why then don't you make 
ufe of a carriage ? 

G. I am not rich enough for 

K. Aye, there it is that the (hoe 
generally pinches the German li- 
terati. The times, indeed, arc but 
bad at prefent. 

G. Very bad, indeed. Sire. But if 
your majefty would be fo generoua 
as to give peace to Germany — 

A'. How can I do that.' Have 
you not heard that 1 have againll 
me three crowned heads ? 

G. My chief knowledge. Sire, 
lies in ancient hillory: 1 have ftu- 
died much lefs that of modern 

A". Which do you prefer as an 
epic poet. Homer or Virgil ? 

G. Homer certainly, as an oiigi- 
nal genius, merits the preference. 

A. Virgil, however, is a more 
polifhed writer. 

G. We live in an age too remota 
from that of Homer to form an ac- 
curate judgment of the language 
and manners of that early period. 
1 therefore depend upon the judg- 
ment of Quintilian, who gives Ho- 
mer the preference. 

A. We mult not, however, pay 
a Ilavifh deference to the judgment 
of the ancients. 

G. Neither do I follow it blind- 
ly. I only adopt it when antiquity 
throws fuch a mifl over an objcd as 
prevents my feeing it with my own 
eyes, and, confequcntly, hinders mc 
from judging for myfeif. 

K, You have compofed, I am 

C H A R A C T E Pv S. 


told, fables remarkable for their 
elegance and wit. Can you repeat 
me one ? 

G. I really don't know. Sire, if 
I can ; my memory is far from be- 
ing good. 

K. Do your beft ; I Ihall take 
a turn in the apartment, and give 

you time to recoIle£l one. • 

Well, have you fiicceeded ? 

G. Yes, Sire. *' A certain painter 
of Athens, who exercifed his zvz 
with a view to reputation rather 
than from the love cf gain, addrefTed 
himfelf to a connoiffeur for his opi- 
nion of one of his pictures, which 
reprefented the god Mars. The con- 
noifleur could not diffemble ; he 
found the piece defeftive ; he object- 
ed particularly the too great appear- 
ance of art that reigned through 
the whole. The painter defended 
his work with all the warmth of an 
inordinate felf-love; the cricic an- 
fwered his arguments, but without 
producing convidlon. In the mean 
cime arrives a coxcomb, who calls 
an eye upon the pidure, and with- 
out giving himfelf a moment's time 
to refledt, cries out in a rapture, 
Gods! what a mailer-piece ! Mars 
lives, breathes, terrifies in that ad- 
mirable production. Obferve thofe 
feet, thoCe nails ! What tafte, what 
an air of grandeur in the helmet, 
the {hie!d,and in the whole armour 
of the terrible deity! The painter 
blulhed, beheld the true connoif- 
feur with a look that fpoke con- 
fulion and conviction ; and faid to 
him, 1 am now perfuaded that your 
judgment is well founded. The 
coxcomb retired, and the picture 
was effaced." 

K. Now for the moral. 

G. It is this; " When the pro- 
duflions of an author do not fatif- 
fy a good judge, it is a llrong pre- 

fumption againil them ; but whea 
they are extolled by a blockhead, 
then it is high time to commit them 
to the flames." 

if. Excellent, Mr. Gellert! The 
piece is admirable ; and there is 
fomething elegant in the conilruc- 
tion of this fable. I can perceivs 
the force and beauty of this ccm- 
pofition. But when Gottfched 
read to me the tranHation of //Z':'- 
gcr.ia, I had before me the French 
original, and did not underftand a 
word of what he read. If J ftay 
here fome time, ycu mull; come and 
fee me often, and read me fome cf 
your fables. 

G. I don't know. Sire, if I .may 
venture to read, a= 1 have acquired 
by habit that Imging tone of voice 
which is common in our moun- 

K. Aye, like that of the Silefi- 
ans. You muu, however, read your 
fables yourfelf, otherwife they will 
lofe. — Return foon hither. 

When Mr. Gellert was gone, 
the king faid, " This is quite an- 
other man than Gottfched ;" and 
the day following, he faid at table, 
that " 01 all the learned Germans, 
Gellert was the moll rational and 

Zcme account of the late Richard 
iSofo, E/q, 

Richard Nafh, Efq; or, as he is 
commonly called, Beau Nafh, 
the fubjeci of this memoir, was bora 
in the to^vn of Swanfey,in Glamor- 
ganfhire, on the iStti of Oclooer, 
1674. ^^^ father's principal in- 
come arofe from a partnerfhip in a 
glafs-houfe ; his mother was nieca 
to colonel Poyer, who was killed 
by Oliver Cromwell for defending 





jPcmbroke caftle againft the rebels. 
Nafh himfelf was educated under 
Mr. Maddocks at Caerrnarthen 
fchool, and from thence fent to Je- 
fus college, in Oxford, to prepare 
him for the ftudy of the law. 

The firft method Mr. Na!h took 
to diflinguifh himfelf at college was 
not by application to itudy, biu by 
afiiduity in intrigue. In the neigh- 
bourhood of every univerfity there 
are girls, who with fome beauty, 
more coquetry, and liitlc fortune, 
lie upon the watch for every raw 
amorous youth. Our hero was 
quickly caught, and went thro' all 
the mazes and adventures of a col- 
lege intrigue, before he was 17; 
he offered marriage, the offer was 
accepted ; but the affair coming to 
the knowledge of his tutor, he was 
fent home, with proper inllruftions, 
to his father. 

Mr. Nafh having thus quitted 
college, bought him a pair of co- 
lours, and entered into the army, 
but ftill continuing his intrigues ; 
and finding that the profits of his 
commiffion would not enable him 
tofupport his expences, he exchang- 
ed the military life for the lludy of 
the law, and accordingly entered 
his name in the Temple books. 
Here he went to the very fummit 
of fecond-rate luxury. Though very 
poor he was very fine, he fpread 
the little gold he had in the molt 
ollentatious maimer, and tho' the 
gilding was but thin, he laid it on 
as far as would go. 

In thofe days it was cufiomary 
for the inns of CvTurt to entertain 
every monarch, on their acceffion to 
the throne, with a pageant. King 
William, the laft to whom this ho 
nour was exhibited, was then jufl 
come to the crown. Mr. Nalh was 
appointed to conduct the ceremony, 

which he difcharged fo much to the 
fatisfadlion of his majefiy, that he 
offered him knighthood. ** Pleafe 
your majelly (replied Nalh), if you 
intend to make me a knight, I 
wifh it mav be one of your poor 
knighcsof Windfor, and then I fhall 
have a fortune at leaft able to fup- 
port the title." We do not find, 
however, that the king took the 
hint, he had numbers to oblige, 
and never cared to give money with- 
out adequate fervices. 

But though Nafh acquired no 
riches by his late ofHce, he gained 
many friends. With thefe he con-' 
verfed with the greatelt familiarity, 
and his generofity and benevolence 
already began to (hew themfelvei 
amidR all his poverty. An inRance 
of this kind is told us about this 
time, which does him no fmall ho- 
nour. When he was to give in 
his accounts to the mafler of the 
temple, among other articles, he 
charged, " For making one man 
happy lol." Being quel'.ioned about 
the meaning of fo flrange an item, 
he frankly declared, that happen- 
ing to overhear a poor man tell his 
wife and a large family of children, 
that 10 1. would make him happy, 
he could not avoid trying the ex- 
periment, adding, that if they did 
not chufe to acquiefce in his charge, 
he was ready co refund the money. 
The mailer, llruck with fuch an 
uncommon inltance of good-nature, 
publicly thanked him, and defired 
that the fum might be doubled, as 
a proof of their fatisfadlion. This 
fa6l is recorded in the Spectator, 
though without a name. 

On the other hand we are told, 
that while the poor bleffcd his cha- 
rity and munificence, his creditors 
complained with great reafbn of his 
injuftice ; and amongft other flories 




related of him to this purpofe, h one 
which informs us of a friend's not 
being able to procure a jull debt of 
him, but by the employing another 
perfon to borrow a fum of Nafh to 
the amount. T he perfon obeyed, and 
readily obtained that from Nafh's 
generoficy, which the other had often 
implored in vain from his jaltice. 

Our hero being now thirty years 
old, without a fortune, or talencs to 
procure one, and bei ig entered be- 
iides into a life of gaiery, commen- 
ced gamefter. In this profe/Tion 
he experienced all the viciiruudes 
which attend that coarfe of life, be- 
ing fometimes in affluence, and at 
other times reduced to the lowed 
ebb of poverty. His profelfion na- 
turally drew him down to Bath, the 
waters of which began then to be 
jn repute CaptainWebller, hi= pre- 
deceffor in office, dying about the 
fame time, NaOi found means to 
fucceed him, and by the regulations 
he introduced both there and at 
Tunbridge.foon became the favou-- 
rite of all the rich and great who 
frequented thofe places of public 
pleafure. Thefe prefented him with 
boxes and many other valuable tef- 
timonies of their favour ; but the 
principal honour he received >n this 
refped was from the late prince of 
Wales and the prince of O ange, 
to the memory of each of whom 
he has raifed a column. A fuit in 
chancery, however, which he im- 
prudently commenced afterwards, 
againft the keepers of the gaming- 
tables there and at Tun bridge, con- 
tributed not a little to lefien his 
reputation, as it fhewed him to be 
intimately connected with a very 
infamous fet of people ; but IHII 
continuing his protedion to the 
innocent, and his friendfhip to all 
who iiood in need of it, he main- 

tained his poft as fupreme arbiter 
of all their pleafures, to the very 
day of his death. 

Some time before his deceafe, we 
are told, his temper became fo chang- 
ed, between age and poverty, that 
he grew very affronting, peevifh, 
and difguftful. This gave encou- 
ragement, as it is faid, to a gentle- 
man, who trod the ftage for many 
years with reputation, to endeavour 
to fupplant him in his place. But be 
this as it will, Nafh flill preferved 
his power, and the corporation of 
Bath, in gratitude for the great be- 
nefits derived from him to the city, 
allowed him a penfion of fix fcore 
guineas a year, which was paid him 
by ten guineas at a time, on the firll 
iVIonday in every month. This, 
with the fale of his fnufr-boxes, and 
other trinkets, enabled him to lead 
out a lingering life, which he was 
very defirous to have made longer, 
till the 3d of February, 1761, when 
he died, fincerely regretted by that 
city, to which he had been a great 
benefa6lor,aged eighty-feven years, 
three months, and fome days. 

His funeral was performed with 
all the pomp and folemnity the 
place could afford, and his epitaph 
was written both in Latin and Eng- 
Ii(h by fome of the firfi: geniufes of 
the age. Two of the belt of thefe 
are given us in the volume which 
contains his mereoirs. [See our lafl 

As to his abilities, we are told, 
that he was not without good fenfe, 
though he employed it on trifies ; 
and as he was always aiming at 
faying good things, he now and 
then had the fortune to fucceed. A 
fpecimen of his wit is given us in a 
reply to Dr. Cheyne, who, having 
prefcribed for him, and afking him 
the next day, if he had followed 
D 4 his 


his prcfcription, *' No (fays he) 
for if I had, I fhould have broke 
my neck, for I threw it out of the 
two paii-of Hairs window." Much 
better were the bon mots that were 
played offjigainft him. Telling a 
noble earl, one day, that he had 
loll five hundred pounds at cards, 
•• Is it not (urprifmg (faid he), that 
fortune (hould always ferve me fo?" 
** Not a: all (replied the earl), it 
c?.!inot be furprifjiig that youfliould 
loie your noney ; but all the world 
h furprifed whpre vou get money 
%o lofe." 

His converfation, like his life, 
was trifling, and il.rongly tinftured 
with vani.y braggade, and imper- 
tinence. Of this we have a <peci- 
men or two in Ibme of thofe llories 
which, the writer of his life tells 
us, he ufed to be continually re- 
peating towards the latter end of 
his life. But, with all his faults, it 
inuft be owned, that he was not 
without good qualities ; and the 
many inllances of his unbounded 
charity and benf#fclence, with the 
means that he contrived to put the 
pleaf res of the rich under fome re- 
gulation, ought to ferve as a veil to 
thofe follies of which his life was 
but too full. 

*f j/jort Charader of his Excellency 
Thcnas, Earl of IVharton, Lord 
Lieutenant cf Ireland, By Dr. 

Lciidor:, ^lug. 30, 1710. 

THE kingdom of Ireland be- 
ing governed by deputation 
from hence, its annals, fince the 
ibngli(h elbbuniment, are ufually 
digelted under the heads of the fe- 
v^ral governors: but the f-ffairs and 
evetits of that i^aud, forfo>"ne years 

part, have been either fo infignlfi^^ 
cant, or fo annexed to thofe of Eng-r 
land, that they have not furnifhed 
matter of any great importance to 
hiflory. The fliare of honour, which 
gentlemen from thence have had by 
their condudt and employments in 
the army, turnech all to the article 
of this kingdom; the reft, which 
relateth to politic , or the art of 
government, is irccnhderable to the 
lafl degree, however it mav be re- 
prefented at court by thoie who pre- 
iide there, and would value them- 
felves upon every ftep fhey make 
towards finifhing the flavery of that 
people as if it were gaining a 
mighty point to the advantage of 

Generally fpcaking, the times 
which afford moll plentif 1 matter 
for flory, are thofe in Which a man 
would leaft. chufe to live ; fuch as 
under the various events and revo- 
lutions of war, the intrigues of a 
ruined faction, or the violence of a 
prevailing one; and laftly, the ar- 
biirary, "unlawful ads of opprefTing 
governor;. In the war, Ireland 
hath no fhiare,but in fubordination 
to us ; the lame may be iaid of their 
factions, which, at prefent, are but 
imperfeft tranfcripts of ours. But 
the thud lubjeft forhillory, which 
is arbitrary power and oppreflion ; 
as it is that by which the people of 
Ireland have, for Ibmc time, beea 
dilHnguiflied from all her majeny's 
lubjedts, fo being now at its grcateft 
height, under his excellency Tho- 
mas earl of Wharton, a Ihort ac- 
count cf his government may be of 
fome ufe or entertainment to the 
prcfent age, although, i hope, it 
will be incredible to the next ; and 
becaufe this account may be judged 
r:uher an hirtory of his excellency 
thsn of hi J government, 1 muft hero 



declare, that T have not the leafc 
view to his perfon in any part of it. 
I have had the honourof much con- 
verfation with his lordlhip, and am 
thoroughly convinced how indiffe- 
rent he is to applaule, and how in- 
fenfible ofreproach ; which is not a 
humour put on to ferve a turn, or 
keep a countenance, nor arifing 
from the confcioufners of inno- 
cence, or any grandeur of mind, 
but the mere unaff^ded bent of his 

He is without the fenfe of fliame 
or glory, as fome men are without 
the fenfe of fmelling; and, there- 
fore, a good nametohim is no more 
than a precious ointment would 
be to thefe. Whoever, for the 
fake of others, were to defcribe the 
nature of a ferpent, a wolf, a cro- 
codile, or a fox, mcft be under- 
flood to do it, without any perfo- 
nal love or hatred for the animals 

In the fame manner his excellen- 
cy is one whom I neither pcrfonally 
love nor hate. I fee him at court, 
at his own h?ufe, and fometimes at 
mine, (for 1 have the honour of his 
vifits) ; and when thefe papers are 
public, it is odds but he will tell 
me, a; he once did upon a like occa- 
fion, that he is damnably mauled ; 
and then, with the eafiefl tranlition 
in the world, afk about the weather 
or time of the day : fo that I enter 
on the work with more chearful- 
nefs, becaufp I am fure neither to 
make him angry, nor any way 
hurt his reputation ; a pitch of 
happinefs and fecurityto which his 
excellency hath arrived, and which 
no philofopher before him could 

I intend to execute this perform- 
ance by firft giving a charafter of 
his excellency, and then relating 

fome fafts during his government, 
which will ferve to confirm it. 

J knowvery well, that men'scha- 
rafters are beft known from their 
actions; but thefe being confined 
to his adminiftration in Ireland, his 
charadler may, perhaps, take in 
fomething more, which the narrow- 
nef? of the time, or the fcene, hath 
not given him opportunity to exert. 

Thomas, earl of Wharton, lord 
lieutenant of Ireland, by the force of 
a wonderful conllitution, hath paf- 
fed fome years, his grand climafte- 
ric, without any vifible efFects of 
old age, either on his body or his 
mind ; and in fpite of a continual 
proftitution to thofe vices which 
ufually wear out both, his behavi- 
our is in all the forms of a young 
man at five-and-twenty. Whe- 
ther he walketh, or whiftleth, or 
fvveareth, ortalketh bawdy, or call- 
ech names, he acquitteth himfelf in 
each beyond a tern plar of three years 
Handing. With the fame grace, 
and in the fame ftile, he will rattle 
his coachman in the middle of the 
ftreet, where he is governor of the 
kingdom ; and all this is without 
confequence, becaufe it is in his 
character, and what every body ex- 
pefteth. He feemeth to be an ill 
diffembler, and an ill liar, although 
they are the two talents he moft 
pradlifeth, and moll valueth him- 
felfupon. The ends he hath gain- 
ed by lying appear to be mere 
owing to the frequency, than the 
art of them ; his lies being fome- 
times detected in an hour, often in 
a day, and always in a week. He 
tells them freely in mixed compa- 
nies, although he knows half of 
thofe that hear him to be his ene- 
mies, aiid is fure they will difcover 
them the moment they leave him. 
He fvveareth folemnl;' he loveth, 



and will ferve you ; and your back 
is no fooner turned, but he tells 
thofe about him you are a dog and 
a rafcal. He goeth conliaiuly to 
prayers in the forn) of his place, 
and will talk bawdy and blafphemy 
at the chapel-door. He is a pref- 
byterian in politics, and an atheift 
in religion ; but he chufeth at pre- 
fent to whore with a papilt. In his 
commerce with mankind his gene- 
ral rule is, to endeavour to impofe 
on their underftanding, for which 
he haih but one receipt, a corapo- 
lition of lies and oaths : and this he 
applieth indifferently to a freehold- 
er of forty fhillings, and a privy 
counfellor ; by which the eafy and 
the honeli are often either deceived 
or amufed, and either way he gain- 
eth his point. He will openly take 
your employment away to-day, be- 
caufe you are not of his party ; to- 
morrow he will meet or fend for 
you, as if nothing at all had pafTed, 
lay his hands with much friendfhip 
on your fhoulders, and, with the 
greateft eafe and familiarity, tell 
you that the faftion are driving at 
fomething in the houfe ; that you 
mull be fure to attend, and to fpeak 
to all your friends to be there, al- 
though he knoweth at the fame 
time, that you and your friends 
are againfl him in the very point 
he mentionech : and, however ab- 
furd, ridiculous,, and grofs this may 
appear, he hath often found it fuc- 
cefsful ; fome men having fuch an 
awkward baft fulnefs, they know not 
how to refufe on a fudden, and 
every man having iomething to hope 
or fear, which often hinders them 
from driving things to extremes 
with perfons of power, whatever 
provocations they may have receiv- 
ed. He hath funk his fortune by 
endeavouring to ruin one kingdom 

[England], and hath raifed it by 
going far into the ruin of another 
[Ireland ] With a good natural 
underftanding, a great fluency in 
fpeaking, and no ill tafte of wit, he 
is generally the worll companion in 
the world ; his thoughts being 
wholly taken up between vice and 
politics, fo that bawdy, profane- 
nef?, and bufinef*;, fill up his whole 
converfation. To gratify himfelf 
in the two firll:, he maketh ufe of 
fuitable favourites, whofe talents 
reach no higher than to entertain 
him with all the lewdnefs that paiT- 
eth in town. As for bufinefs, he is 
faid to be very dexterous at that part 
of it which turneth upon intrigue ; 
and he feemeth to have transferred 
thofe talents of his youth, for in- 
triguing with women, into public 
affairs. For as fome vain young 
fellows, to make a gallantry appear 
of confequence, Ilillchufe to ven- 
ture their necks by climbing up a 
wall or window at midnight to a 
common wench, where they might 
as freely have gone in at the door, 
and at noon-day ; io his excellency, 
either to keep himfelf in pradice, 
or advance the fame of his politics 
afFefts the moft obfcure, trouble- 
fome, and winding paths, even in 
the moft common affairs, thofe 
which would be brought about as 
well in the ordinary terms, or would 
follow of courfe, whether he inter- 
vened or not. 

He bears the gallantries of his 
lady with the inditference of a ftoic, 
and thinks them well recompenfed 
by a return of children to fuppor: 
his family, without the fatigues of 
being a father. He has three pre- 
dominant paflions, which you will 
feldom lind united in the fame man, 
as arifing from diireren: difpofitions 
of miiid, and naturally thwarting 



each other ; thefe are, love of along as it were out of a rock ; 
power, love of money, and love of his founding a military difcipline 
pleafure : they ride him fometimes in thefe nations, fuch as is not to 
by turns, and fometimes all toge- be found in any example of prece- 
ther. Since he went into Ireland, ding times; and whereby the noble 
he feemeth molt difpofed to the fe- fcldiers of thefe nations may, with- 
cond, and hath met with great fuc- out flattery, be commended for pi- 
cefs, having gained by his govern- ety, moderation, and obedience, as 
ment, of under two years, five and a pattern to be imitated, but hard- 
forty thoufand pounds, by the mo!l ly to be equalled by fucceeding ge- 
favourable computation, half in the neratioi)s : his wildcm and piety 
regular way, and half in the pru- in things divine; his prudence ia 
dential. management of civil affairs, and 

He was never yet known to refufe condudl in military, and admirable 

or keep a promife. But here I de- fucceffes in all, made him a prince 

fire to diftinguilTi between a pro- indeed among the people of God ; 

mife and a bargain ; for he will be by whofe prayers being lifted up to 

fure to keep the latter when he has the fuprerae dignity, he became 

the fairell oifer. more highly feared in their hearts, 

becaufe in all his adlings, it was 

evident that the main deiign was to 

An account of the death of Oliver make his own interell one and the 

CromiMelL and the fuccejpon of his fame with theirs, that it might be 

Sen Richard to the frotetiorjhip ; fubfervient to the great intereft of 

as firjl fublifoed by authority, Jefus Chriit. 

And in the promoting of thi-^, 

" Whitehall^ Sept. 3, 1658. his fpirits knew no bounds ; his af- 

HIS moil ferene and renown- fedion could not be confined a: 
ed highnefs Oliver, lord pro- home, but broke forth Into foreign 
teaor, being, after a ficknefs of parts, where he was univerfally ad- 
about fourteen days (which appear- mired by good men, as an extra- 
ed an ague in the beginning) re- ordinary perfon raifed up of God ; 
duced to a very low condition of and by them owned as the protedor 
body, began early this morning to and patron of the evang-flica! pro- 
draw near the gates of death ; and feiTion. This being faid, and the 
it pleafed God, about three o'clock world irfelf witnefs of it, we can 
in the afternoon, to put a period to only add, that God gave him bleff- 
his life. ings proportionable to all thefe vir- 

We would willingly exprefs, on tues, and made him a blefiing to 

this fad occafion, the deep forrow us; by his wifdom and valour, to 

which hath poffeffed the minds of fecure our peace and liberty, and 

his moft noble fon and fuccefTor, to revive the ancient renown and 

and other de.irell relations, had we reputation of our native country, 

language fufficient : butallthatwe After all this, it is remarkable 

can ufe will fall (hort of the merits how it pleafed the Lord, on this 

of that molt excelJen: prince. day, to take him to reft, it having 

Hisfirft undertakings forthe pub- formerly been a day of labour to 

lie intereft, his working thing, all him j for which both himfelf and 



the day (September 3) will be nioft 
renowned to poflerity ; it having 
been to him a day of tiiumphs and 
thankfgiving, for the memorable 
Tiftoiies of Dunbar and Vv'orcef- 
ter * : a day which, after fo n.any 
flrange revolutions of Providence, 
high contradiclions, and wicked 
confpiracies of unreafonable men, 
he lived once again to fee ; and then 
to die with great affurances and fe- 
renity of mind, peaceably in his 

Thus, it hath proved to him to be 
a day of triumph, indeed ; there 
being much of Providence in it, 
that, afcer fo glorious crowns of 
vidory, placed on his head by God, 
on this day, having negledled an 
earthly crown, he fhould now go to 
receive the crown ofeverlailing life. 

Being gone, to the unfpeakable 
grief of ail good men, the privy 
council immediately afiembled ; 
and being fatisfied that the lord 
proteclor was dead, and upon fure 
and certain knowledge that his late 
highnefs did, in his life- time, ac- 
cording to their humble petition 
and advice, declare and appoint 
the moil ncble and illullrioue lord, 
the lord Richard, eldell fonofhis 
iaid highnefs, to i'ucceed him in 
the government as lord protedtor, 
:t was fo relolved at the council ; 
which being made known to the 
ofiicers of the army, it wa.s pleafant 
to behold with how much content 
snd lacisfaction they received the 
notice of it, and unanimoully con- 
curred therewith ; being refolved, 
to their utmoic, to maintain the 

fuccefTion according to law : which 
worthy refolution of theirs, as it 
fpeaks them men of honour, pru- 
dence, and fidelity, mindful of the 
merits of their late great leader and 
common father, and of the grand 
intereft and eftablifhment after all 
our fiiakings ; fo it is but anfwer- 
able to the worth and noblenefs of 
his fon, who, in all refpefts, appears 
the lively image of hi: father, the 
true inheritor of all his chriftian vir- 
tues ; a perfon, who, by his piety, 
humanity, and other noble inclina- 
tions, hath obliged the hearts of all, 
atDd thereby filled this people with 
the hopes of much felicity, thro* 
God's bleifing upon his govern- 

Then follows an account of the 
privy council's waiting on Richard, 
hi^ Ihort fpeech to them, and the 
manner of his proclamation : all 
which, being in every refpect the 
fame as at the accefuon of every 
king, is not worth tranfcribing, as 
there would be nothing new in it, 
more efpecially at this jandlure, 
when we had a recent example. 

This panegyric on Oliver and his 
fon is clofed with the following 
prayer : •' May all the days of his 
highnefs's life be crowned with the 
blefiings of the mod high God, and 
tnehighell afFeftions of his people," 

Such was the language made ufe 
of by the friends and partizans of 
Oliver Cromwell, whofe real cha- 
ratfler, after fuch extravagant ap- 
plaufes on one fide, and detraftions 
on the oiher, has been never better 
or more truly prefented, than by 

* On the ^(1 of September, 1650, Cromwell totally defeated the Scots at Dun- 
har, under fh.c oomtnanrl of Leflcy ; and on the annivtiriry of this battle, in 
the fiiccecling Vfar, was fought the great '^aitle of VVorceftcr, when Cliarles II, 
•was toiai'v detotedby Cion^well, and witli gicat difhcuhy efcaped from the 
;f eM of battle, "•.x'er t'le Jnnnmcrable haid/hips '.vhich every one is ac-painted 
wAb, and a: iail faicly arrived in Nori»aniIy. 




(he great earl of Clarendon, who 
■ilyles him, a great -aiicked man. 

Remarkable Speech of Richard CTsin- 
luell to his Parliament. 

AS thisfpeech is curious in itfelf, 
and not to be met with in any 
of the common or general hiilories 
of England, we imagine the perufal 
of it will not be difagreeable. The 
Ityleis perfeiftly puritanical ; but, as 
Kichard was never accufed of hy- 
pocrify, had no ih.are in the crimes 
of his fa:her, and ever led an inno- 
cent life, the language appears not 
in fo ridiculous a light, as when 
proceeding from the mouth of a 
man, the whole tenor of whofe ac- 
tions contradicled and belled his 
v/ords. The terms in which he 
{peaks of his father, though it is 
needlefs to mention they are in the 
higheft degree falfe and flattering, 
are no other than could be expeded 
from him on fuch an occalion, at 
fach a junciure, and to fuch an au- 
dience. The oration was as fol- 
lows : 

•' My Lords, and Gentlemen, 

*' I believe there are fcarce any 
of you here, who expected, fome 
months fince, to have feen this 
great aflerabiy, at this time, in this 
place, in peace ; coniidering the 
great and unexpecledchange, which 
it hath pleafed the all-dirpofing 
hand of God to malce in the raidll 
of us : I can affure you, that if 
things had been according to our 
own fears, and the hopes of our 
enemies, it had not been thus with 
us : and, therefore, it will become 
both you and me, in the firil place, 
(as to reverence and adore the great 
God, poireiTgr of heaven and earth. 

in whcfe hands our breath is, and 
whofe are all our ways, becaufe of 
his judgments), fo to ackowledge 
him in his goodnefs to thefe lands, 
in that he hath not added forrow to 
forrow, and made the period of 
his late hicjhnefs'a life, and that of 
the nation's peace, to have been in 
one day. 

Peace was one of the blefliogs of 
my father's government ; a mercy 
after fo long a civil war, and in the 
mid ft of fo great division which, 
that war bred, i^ not ufually afforded 
by God unto a people in fo great a 

The Caiife of God and thefe na- 
tions, which the late protector was 
engaged in, met in all the parts of 
it, as you well know, with many 
enemies and great oppofition ; the 
archers, privily and openly, forely 
grieved him, and fliot at him; yeC 
his bow abode him in llrength, and 
the arms of his hands were made 
ftrong by the hands of the mighty 
God of Jacob. 

As to hlmfelf; he died full of 
days, fpent in fore and great travel ; 
yet his eyes were not waxei dim, 
neither was his naiural llrength aba- 
ted ; as it was faid of Mofes, he was 
ferviceable even to the laft. 

As to thefe nations, he left them 
in great honour abroad, and iivfull 
peace at home : all England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland, dwelling {\x{z\y, 
every man under his vine, and un- 
der his fig-tree, from Dan even to 

He is gone to reft, and we are 
entered into his labours ; and if 
the Lord hath ftill a bleffing for 
thefe lands, (as I trull he hath) 
as our peace hath been length- 
ened out to this day, fo fhall we 
go on to reap the fruit, and ga- 
ther the harveft, of what bis late 
, high- 



highncfs hath fown and laid the 
foundation *. 

For my own part, being by the 
Providence of God, and the difpo- 
fition of the law, my father's fuc- 
cefTor, and bearing that place in the 
goverr.m.ent that 1 do, 1 thought it 
lor the public good, to call a par- 
liament of the three nations, now 
united and conjoined together in 
one commonwealth, under one go- 

It is agreeable, not only to my 
trull, but to my principles, to go- 
vern thefe nations by the advice of 
my two houfes of parliament : I 
find it inferred in the humble peti- 
tion and advice (which is the cor- 
ner-ftone of this building, and that 
which I fhall adhere to), " That 
parliaments are the great council of 
the chief magiftrate, in whofe advice 
both he and thefe nations may be 
both fafe and happy." I can afTure 
you, I have that efteem of them ; 
and, as I have made it the hrll adl 
of my government to call you to- 
gether, {o I fhall further let you 
fee the value 1 have of you, by the 

anfwers I fhall return to the advice 
tha: fhall be given me by you, for 
the good of thefe nations. 

You are conae up from your feve- 
ral countries, as the heads of your 
tribes and with hearts (I perfuade 
myfelf ) to confult together for their 
good : 1 can fay, I meet you with 
the fame defires, having nothing 
in mydefign, but the maintenance 
of the peace, laws, and liberties, 
both civil and chriftian, of thefe na- 
tions : which I fhall always make 
the meafure and rule of my govern- 
ment, and be ready to fpend my life 

We have fummcmed you up at 
this time, to let you know the Itate 
of our affairs, and to have your ad- 
vice in them : and I believe a par- 
liament was never fummoned upon 
a more important occaficn. 

It is true, as I told you, we are, 
through the goodnefs of God, ac 
this time at peace ; but it is not 
thus with us becaufe we have no 
enemies : no, there are Enough 
both within us and without us, who 
would foon put an end to our 

* This puts one in mind of an anecdote related by M. de Voltaire. After 
Richar(l had quilted the protectoriliip, he made a voyage to France, where being 
one day at Montpelicr, the prince of Conti, brother of the great Condc, dil- 
courimg with hiin, witliout knowing v%ho he was, obfeived, ** That Oliver 
Cromwell was a great man, but that his fon Richard was a poor wretch, r.ot 
to know how to enjoy the fruits of his father's crimes." This Richard, how- 
ever, M. Voltaire remarks, lived contented, whereas his father had never 
kr»own what happlnefs was. The genius of Richard was wholly different from 
that of Oliver ; he was polfeiTed of all the meek virtues which make the good 
citizen, and had none of that brutal intrepidity, which facrifices every thing to 
its own interefts. Ke might have preferved the inheritance which his father had 
acquired l)y his labours, if he would have confented to have put to death three or 
fcur of the principal officers of the army, who oppofed his elevation ; but he 
chofe rather to lay down the government, than to reign by aflatiination, and lived 
retired, andalmolt unknown, till the age of ninety, in a connti-y of which he had 
once been the fovereign ; having, in his own perfon, exhibited a Itriking proof, 
that the fate of a kingdom freqnei^tly depends upon the chara6ler of one man. 
TrarjlatioT! of f'oltaire's Works, hj Dr. Srr.oUet, ar.^i others, vol. iv. pag. 14.6. 




peace, were It in their power, or 
Ihould it at any time come into 
their power. 

It wil! be becoming your wifdom 
to conlider of the fecuring of our 
peace againit thofe, wh >, we all 
know, are, and ever will be, our im- 
placable enemies ; what the means 
of doing this are, I ihall refer un- 
to you. 

This I can alTure yon, that the 
armies of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, are true and faithful to the 
peace and good intereft of thefe na- 
tions ; and it will be found fo : and 
that they are a confiitent body, and 
ufeful for any good ends; and if 
they are not the very beft army 
in the world, you would have heard 
of many inconveniencies, by reafon 
of the great arrearofpay, which 
is now due unto them, whereby 
fome of them are reduced to great 
necemties : but you ihiill have a 
particular account of their arrears ; 
and I doubt not but confidsratioa 
will be had tnereupon, in fome 
fpeedyand effectual way. And this 
being matter of money, I recom- 
mend it particularly to thehoufeof 

You have, yoa know, a war with 
Spain, carried on by the advice of 
parliament ; he is an old enemy, 
and a potent one, and therefore ic 
will be neceffary, both for the ho- 
nour and fafety of rhefe nations^ 
that war be vigorouOy prcfecuttd. 

Furthermore, the confiitution of 
affairs in all cu.'- neighbour coun- 
tries, and round about us (as well 
friends as enemies), is very conlide- 
rable ; and calls upon us to be upon 
our guard, both at land and Tea ; 
and to be in a pofture able to main- 
tain and conferve our ftate and 

Great and powerful fleets are 
preparing to b? fet forth into thofe 
leas, and confiderable armies of fe- 
veral nations and kings are now dif- 
puting for the maftery of the Sound, 
with the adjacent iflands and coun- 
tries ; among which is the emperor 
of Germany, and other popifh 
llates I need not tell you of what 
coofequence thefe things are to this 

We have already interpofed in 
thefe affairs, in fuch a manner as 
we foand it neceffary for the inte- 
rell of England ; and matters are 
yet in fuch a condition in thofe 
p::r:s, that the Itate may, with the 
affi:lance of God, provide that 
their differences may not prejudice 

The other things that are to be 
f^id [ (iiall refer to the lord keeper 
i^iennes ; and clofe up what I have 
to fay, with only adding two or 
three particulars to what 1 have al- 
ready faid. 

And, (iril:, I recommend to your 
care, the people of God in thefe na- 
tions, with their concernments : the 
more they are divided among them- 
feives, the greater prudence (hould 
be ufed to cement them. 

Secondly, the good and necef- 
fary work of reformation, bo:h in 
manners, and in the adminiltration 
of juftice, that profanenefs may be 
difcountenanced and fuppreffed, 
and that righteoafnefs and jultice 
may be executed in the land. 

Thirdly, I recommend co you 
the Proteitant caufe abroad, which 
feems, at this time, to be in fome 
danger, having great and power- 
ful enemies, and very few friends ; 
and I hope, and believe, that the 
0/</ Englijh zeal to that caufe is ftill 
amongll us-. 



Laftly, My Lords, and you gen- 
tlemen of the houie of commons. 
That you will, in all your debate;, 
maintain and conferve love and 
unity among yourfeives ; that there- 
in you may be the pattern of the 
nation, who have fent you up in 
peace, and with their prayers, that 
the fpirit of wiidom and peace may 
be among you ; and this fliall alfo 
be my prayer for you. And to 
this let us add all our utmoft en- 
deavours for the making this an 
happy parliament.'* 

[Whoever penned this fpeech, it 
was allowed to be a very handfome 
and fenfible one by all, and far ex- 
ceeded that which followed of the 
lord keeper Fiennes.] 

Ji Jijort 'vieiu of the character and 
ivr2i!::gs of M. de Voltaire ; taken 
from a French pamphlet publijhed 
at Utrecht, under the title cf Cri- 
tical Refeclicns upon the Article 
GENEVA, in the Encyclopedie ; in 
fame letters from an Englifh gentle - 
man, on his travels, to a noble lord, 

THE article in qnedion, which 
was compofed by Monf. d' 
Alembert, tho' it may be in many 
jefpedi extremely honourable to the 
city of Geneva, is yet highly in- 
jurious to the whole body of its 
clergy, a clergy whofe fentitnents, 
morals, and talie, do honour to their 
profeflion. In this article their mo- 
deration is reprefented as indiffer- 
ence, and their rational manner of 
treating the fublime myftcrics and 
doflrinesof Chrillianity as Socinia- 
nifm, nay, as a kind of Deifm, and 
tiiuc by whom? by M. d'Alembert, 

whofe attachment to Chriftjanity il 
more than doubtful, notwithiiand- 
ing fome mean profefiions he has 
lately made, to appeaf-^ a bigotted 
and perfecucing church, in the lalt 
edition of hi. P hilofophical and Lite- 
rary Mifcellany. 'i he tiuth of the 
matter is, tiicje is at prefent a club 
of pretended fages, who by way of 
eminence call themfelvei philofo- 
phers, feein to have formed a fort of 
confederacy againil the caufe of